2nd GROUP Dewi Pertiwi Febrian Sururi Nadia AmiriahNur Fitri Ayu Nita Setiawan Yuni Nuravivah
Learning Styles• DefinitionLearning styles are various approaches or ways of learning.Teacher involve educating methods, particular to an individual, that are presumed to allow that individual to learn best.
Kind of Learning StylesThere are three kind of learningstyles :1.Visual2.Auditory3.kinesthetic
1. VisualVisual Learners learn through seeing, Visual learners learn best bylooking at graphics, watching ademonstration, or reading. For them,it’s easy to look at charts and graphs,but they may have difficulty focusingwhile listening to an explanation.
The characteristics of Visual Style Reader/observer Scans everything; wants to see things, enjoys visual stimulation Enjoys maps, pictures, diagrams, and color Needs to see the teacher’s body language/facial expression to fully understand Not pleased with lectures Daydreams; a word, sound or smell causes recall and mental wandering Usually takes detailed notes May think in pictures and learn best from visual displays
2 AuditoryAuditory Learners learn through listening andtalking things through,Auditory learners would rather listen to thingsbeing explained than read about them. Recitinginformation out loud and having music in thebackground may be a common study method. Othernoises may become a distraction resulting in a needfor a relatively quiet place.
The characteristics of Auditory Style Interpret underlying meaning of speech through listening to tone of voice, pitch, speed and other nuances Prefers directions given orally Seldom takes notes or writes things down Prefers lectures to reading assignment Often repeats what has just been said;
3. KinestheticKinesthetic Learners learn through moving,doing and touching.Kinesthetic learners process informationbest through a “hands-on” experience.Actually doing an activity can be theeasiest way for them to learn. Sitting stillwhile studying may be difficult,but writing things down makesit easier to understand.
Characteristics of a Kinesthetic Learner:• Needs to touch, handle, manipulate materials and objects, especially• while studying or listening• Counts on fingers and talks with hands• Good at drawing designs• Often doodles while listening, thus processing information• Good at sports, mechanics, using appliances and tools• Often adventurous• May find it hard to sit still for long periods• May become distracted by their need for activity and exploration
J. PiagetPiaget (1967 cited in McCloskeey, 2002), suggested thatchildren developed through specific stages, they are:1. Sensori-Motor Stage (from 0 – 2 years) in which children seemed to learn through physical interaction with the world around them.2. Pre-operational stage (from 2 - 7 years) when children need concrete situations to process ideas.3. Concrete Operational Stage (from 7 - 11 years) in which children begin to conceptualize and do some abstract problem solving, though they still learn best by doing.4. Formal Operational Stage (from 1-15) in which children are able to use abstract thinking.
L. VygotskyVygotsky developed a concept calledthe zone of proximal development(ZPD), which is what the child cannearly do, but cannot do alone.Mediation gradually moves this ZPDoutward as the learner is able todo more and more independently.
J. Bruner A major theme in the theoretical framework of Bruner is that learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon their current/past knowledge.
J. Bruner• The lear ner select s and t r ansf or ms inf or mat ion, const r uct s hypot heses, and makes decisions, r elying on a cognit ive st r uct ur e t o do so. Cognit ive st r uct ur e (i.e., schema, ment al models) pr ovides meaning and or ganizat ion t o exper iences and allows t he individual t o "go beyond t he inf or mat ion given".