(adapted from Oshima and Hogue (1998). Writing Academic English)
1. Group 2 Dewi Pertiwi Febrian SururiJuniawati Asjiroh
2. Paragraph has three major structural parts:(1) Topic sentence,(2) Supporting sentences, and(3) Concluding sentence.
3. Supporting sentences develop the topic sentence.That is, they explain the topic sentence by givingreasons, examples, facts, statistics, and quotations. Inorder to choose details to support the topic sentence,rephrase it as a question. The answers will be yoursupporting sentences.
4. How to supportOne of the biggest problems in student writing is thatstudents often fail to prove their points. They failbecause they do not support their points with concretedetails.
5. A paragraph should contain concrete support forthe topic sentence. There are several kinds of concretesupporting details that you can use to support or proveyour topic sentence.
6. Kinds of support:Some of the more common types of support are:1) Examples,2) Statistics, and3) Quotations, Paraphrases, Summaries.
7. Support type 1:Examples, extended examples Examples or extended examples (anecdotes or shortstories) are perhaps the easiest kind of supportingdetails to use. You can often take examples from yourown knowledge or personal experiences and moreover,such examples often make your writing enjoyable toread.
8. Support type 2: StatisticsIn business, engineering and thesciences, statistics are often usedfor support. Here is a graph and aparagraph that uses the statisticsin this graph for its supportingsentences.You will see that the topic sentencehas been supported with statisticalinformation – all gained from onegraph. Note how the source isgiven. This is an intextreference.
9. Support type 3:Quotations, Paraphrases and Summaries Quotations Direct quotations should be used sparingly (no more than 5% of the word count of your essay). They should only be used when they are much clearer and more effective than you could write, or when they have used ordinary words in a special technical sense. You must copy exactly word for word, including errors, different spellings and emphasis marks (eg. bold type, italics).
10. As opposed to quotations, which should be usedsparingly, paraphrases and summaries will be used frequently inyour academic writing to support your ideas. Paraphrases A paraphrase is a writing skill in which you “rephrase” (rewrite) information from an outside source in your own words without changing its meaning.
11.  Summaries A summary, by contrast, is much shorter than the original. A summary includes only the main ideas of someone else’s writing restated in your own words.
12. References Alice Oshima and Ann Hogue.1998.Writing Academic English.NY:Longman. Victoria University of Wellington © Student Learning Support Service www.vuw.ac.nz/st_services/slss