Polyculture and Integrated Tilapia Farming Systems - Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
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Polyculture and Integrated Tilapia Farming Systems - Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

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Polyculture and Integrated Tilapia Farming Systems - Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Polyculture and Integrated Tilapia Farming Systems - Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

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  • 1. POLYCULTURE AND INTEGRATED TILAPIA FARMING SYSTEMSKevin Fitzsimmons, Cesar Hernandez, Jason Licamele, Rafael Martinez University of Arizona Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia November 4, 2009
  • 2. Global food crisis Rapidly increasing population Diversion of foods to bio-fuels Increased costs for water, fertilizer, fuel Multiple demands for farmland (urban sprawl, industrial and mining, solar and wind generation, wildlife conservation, watershed protection, global warming, etc.) Need for second generation biofuels
  • 3. Need new model for food production Green Revolution – huge increase in food production, but heavy reliance on irrigation, fuel and fertilizer Blue Revolution – almost 50% of seafood is farm raised, but many environmental impacts (effluents causing eutrophication, algae blooms, cage and raft conflicts with other users in oceans, bays and lakes)
  • 4. Historical perspective Traditional farming around the world integrated livestock and crops East and South Asian farmers have long tradition of integrating agriculture and aquaculture Asian sustainable farming systems support huge populations Fish – vegetable – rice (complex carbohydrate) diet is recommended by most nutrition experts
  • 5. Historical perspective Modern agriculture cannot follow Asian model of small-farm integrated systems (gardening) We need an industrial version merging aqua- and agri- cultures Taking the best of the Green and Blue Revolutions
  • 6. Green Revolutions weaknesses are Blue Revolutions needs and vice-versa1. Fertilizer demand 1. Aquaculture effluent rich in N and P2. Increase in irrigation 2. Fish grow well in irrigation water3. Chemical fertilizers 3. Fish wastes are slow pollute groundwater release, organic4. Industrial crops with by- 4. Fish feeds need products alternatives for fish meal and oil
  • 7. Tropical Inland Integrated System Tilapia oil palm, rice, sugar cane
  • 8. Tilapia and citrus in Hainan, China
  • 9. Arid Integrated SystemsTilapia Grapes, wheat, olives, barley, sorghum, cotton, melons, peppers Safford, AZ Marana, AZ
  • 10. Desert Springs Tilapia, Hyder AZ
  • 11. Gila Farms, AZ
  • 12. Tilapia/koi/catfish tocotton/barley irrigation
  • 13. Road Well 101 W.W. 102 F.E. + S.F. 103 F.E. Barley (Cotton) 104 W.W + S.F. (Larger Pond) 201 F.E. + S.F. - not to scale 202 W.W. + S.F.Road 203 F.E. Barley (Cotton) 204 W.W. siphon IRRIGATION 301 W.W. + S.F. 302 F.E. >>>>>>>>>>>>>>> PIPES 303 W.W. Barley (Cotton) Tilapia 304 F.E. + S.F. PUMP 401 F.E. Fish Pond 402 W.W. Floating Cages 403 W.W. + S.F. Barley (Cotton) small pond (not to scale) 404 F.E. + S.F. 160 ft 15 ft Road
  • 14. Data report – Tilapia effluents irrigating cotton Water pH reduced from 8.3 to 8.0 Added 19.7 kg/ha total N during one crop. Total N applied with water (kg/ha) 25 20 15 Well 10 Pond 5 0 t ay r ne ly il us be pr Ju M Ju ug m A e A pt Se
  • 15. Results - Integration of aquaculture and agriculture Contributed 2.6 kg/ha P to crop.Total P applied with water (kg/ha) 3 2.5 2 Well 1.5 Pond 1 0.5 0 t ay r ne ly il us be pr Ju M Ju ug m A e A pt Se
  • 16. Tilapia and barley study
  • 17. Arid Integrated Systems Tilapia cages to cotton Tilapia to hydroponics Ak Chin, AZ University of Arizona
  • 18. AquaponicsTilapia and lettuce
  • 19. RESULTS Effluent nutrient values 0.07 mg/L NH3, 0.321 mg/L NO2, 21.2 mg/L NO3, 0.17 mg/L total P Fertilizer value about 43 kg/ha N and 0.34 kg/ha P
  • 20. Olives with aquacultureOlives with well water effluent
  • 21. Height (m) 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 Mar-02 Apr-02 May-02 Jun-02 Jul-02 Aug-02 Sep-02 Oct-02 Nov-02Effluent Dec-02 Jan-03 Feb-03 Mar-03Fertilizer Apr-03 May-03 Jun-03 Olive Tree Height Over Time Jul-03Well Water Aug-03 Sep-03 Oct-03 Nov-03 Dec-03 Jan-04 Feb-04 Data report -Olives irrigated with effluent
  • 22. Use of Tilapia/shrimp sludge as a soil amendment for tomatoes Chad King Environmental Research Lab University of Arizona
  • 23. Research Design Collected and dried fresh sludge from a tilapia/shrimp farm in western Arizona, USA Treatments of 5, 10 and 20% sludge application by volume, 402, 805 and 1,610 g/plant Mechanically mixed shrimp sludge and potting soil mix (concrete sand, mulch, vermiculite) Randomly transplanted and arranged 28 ‘Roma’ tomato starts in a greenhouse, one plant per pot Each plant received 4 L of water daily, over four applications by drip irrigation Response measured in mass of tomatoes produced
  • 24. Tilapia / shrimp sludge characteristicsSample Total Total Total NO3-N Olsen Soluble EC N PO4-P K P K % dry % dry % dry µg/g µg/g µg/g dS/m matter matter matter 1 0.13 0.10 0.23 1497.4 22.60 27.3 2 0.48 0.21 0.20 4.36 73.50 53.6 8.5 Total N, PO4-P and K show total plant macronutrients NO3-N, Olsen P and soluble K show plant available nutrients EC provides a measurement of soil salinity
  • 25. Tomato Production Treatment Tomato Mass SEM (g/plant) 0% (Control) 39.2a 11.54 5% 65.1a 11.14 402 g/plant 10% 141.1b 20.73 805 g/plant 20% 113.6b 19.9 1,620 g/plantDifferent superscripts indicate a significant difference, p<0.05
  • 26. Results Applications of 10% and 20% increased plant production Land application will benefit crop production while providing a disposal mechanism Soil salinity must be monitored Sludge is highly variable, depending on pond management
  • 27. Coastal Integrated Systems Shrimp / tilapia Halophytes and seaweeds
  • 28. Shrimp/tilapia and edible seaweeds
  • 29. Data report - Daily growth rates ofGracilaria with effluent over 4 weeks 10 9% growth per day 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 In effluent Transferred Chemical Not fertilzed channel to ocean fertilizer
  • 30. Tilapia-shrimp-halophytes Eritrea Salicornia Mangroves Mangroves Salicornia Shrimp and tilapia ponds
  • 31. Shrimp and Salicornia (halophyte)
  • 32. Tilapia – shrimp – seaweed polyculture in Indonesia
  • 33. Gracilaria ShrimpTilapia
  • 34. Polyculture tilapia/shrimp/algae aquaculture Algae represent the largest aquaculture crop on global basis Algae are a major component of diet in Asia and Pacific cuisine Algae are a growing sector for niche markets in the US
  • 35. Demonstration ponds stocked with Gracilaria KAB. ACEH PIDIE (5.073) Ha Aceh Besar KAB. BIREUN(6.710) HaKAB. ACEH BESAR(3.450) Ha
  • 36. Initial stocks from Ohama corporate farm (1000 kg) brought to Sumatra Material loaded from farm Fresh material Gracilaria distributed into ponds
  • 37.  Workshops and training Field visits to farmers
  • 38. Brackish water tilapia – seaweedsFish cage effluents(feed and feces)fertilize seaweed
  • 39.  Fresh Gracilaria from the tilapia/shrimp pond
  • 40. Conclusions Our planet has limited water resources and we should embrace multiple use and generate at least two crops from each drop Integrated aquaculture – agriculture is sustainable and profitable