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The
Columbus
Urban League


  Marketing Plan 2009

         Buckeye Marketing
               Dave Coleman
                ...
The Columbus Urban League
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Table of Contents
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY............................................................
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RECOMMENDED TACTICS..............................................................................
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E-DIRECT MAIL....................................................................................
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Executive Summary
Situation, Positioning and Market Analysis


For the past ninety years, the...
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Proposed Actions


To facilitate such growth, this marketing plan divides the audience of the ...
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The second goal is designed to ensure stable and consistent funding sources. Approximately eig...
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presenting them with ways in which the CUL can meet their immediate and ongoing needs. The sel...
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Situational Analysis
     Current status of resources



     Currently the CUL is staffed b...
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           3. Education and Prevention Services Department - Assists people in pursuing their...
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     annual report. The CUL also hosts promotional events throughout the year such as the Bla...
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     program.


     Messages should be clear, focused, consistent, and have meaning to the t...
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     The messages that were identified were found predominantly on the CUL’s website and in i...
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     (Columbus Urban League, 2008). Honda of America is another strategic partner, being a sp...
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     Competitor analysis


     The CUL is one of the few central Ohio organizations offerin...
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     offer a handout.


     The lack of an effective marketing and communication plan has hi...
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     Weaknesses
           The CUL is primarily sustained by United Way and government fund...
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                        o Speaking engagements by one primary spokesperson, the CUL president...
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     impacts donations and volunteer support, because the general public is not aware of the ...
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     CUL should always be looking to develop additional strategic partnerships from the local...
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Market analysis
There are numerous non-profits competing for charitable contributions. In ad...
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     government has been conservative in its social views for the past eight years. Therefore...
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               with local and national government leaders.


               Likely changes in...
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     Economic
     The current state of the national economy could not be worse. Inflation, t...
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     unemployment, local social service agencies, food banks, and other charities will see an...
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      Figure 2 National vs. local unemployment rates

                                      ...
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               Google Grants is a program designed for nonprofits that share in their vision ...
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                  to a reduction in the amount of disposable income that consumers have. Thus...
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        o Race: 76% white, 13% black, 1% American Indian and Alaska native, 4% Asian, 15% His...
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     o Poverty: 21% of people were in poverty. 28% of related children under 18 were below th...
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              Figure 2 U.S. Census Rankings

                                        U.S. Ce...
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     childcare and health care services for these groups. There might be an opportunity to ex...
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               communities, by utilizing social networking sites like Facebook and MySpace.

...
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     Technological
        Opportunities
               Impact of emerging technologies - On...
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                  Although technology has played a positive role in information access and ne...
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     downturn, individual and corporate spending patterns have changed and contributions may ...
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     Technological improvements made by the CUL should be for the purpose of promotions and i...
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Segmentation

The CUL serves the Columbus community, a large multi-cultural diverse communit...
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focus much of the marketing efforts and communication to the disadvantaged (See Figure 3).


...
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      Figure 4: High Income Zip Codes (Columbus Dispatch, 2008)

                        High...
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The first table details the target client participants and the characteristics that exemplify...
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                                     and Ebony and Jet magazines (Claritas, (2008).




     ...
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Columbus Urban League are detailed in the following table.

        Support              Desc...
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                              the CUL.
                          •   Includes potential, curr...
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        Government                 These groups have specific expectations and requirements t...
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Positioning
The CUL provides a unique mix of services to serve the Columbus community. This ...
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The CUL’s wide diversity of services helps provide children, families, and individuals, with...
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Marketing objectives, strategies, and tactics
     Selected goals, objectives, and strategie...
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     Recommended Tactics
     Strategy #1

     Tactic #1: Prisoner Transition Initiative

  ...
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     Description: Host a Cookout/Health Fair in a neighborhood where potential program users/...
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     Strategy #2

     Tactic #3: Donor Retention Program

     Description: Send direct emai...
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                   The information sent to new donors will differ from the information sent t...
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Recommended tactics
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Implementation
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Budget
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References
Business First of Columbus (2008). Dramatic changes in nonprofit sector usher in ...
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        http://nonprofit.about.com/od/trendsissuesstatistics/a/giving2008.htm

Kotler, P., & ...
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      http://www.ssicom.com/documents/2008EODpressrelease.doc

SRI Consulting Business Intell...
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     null&qr_name=null&reg=null%3Anull&_keyword=&_industry

U.S. Census Bureau. (2008). Incom...
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Appendix A
     Projected population growths




                                          (...
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Appendix B
     Tactic #1 – Prisoner Transition Flyer
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Appendix C
     Tactic #2 Health Fair Cookout Flyer
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Appendix D
     Tactic #2 Radio PSA for Health Fair & Cookout

        Columbus Urban League...
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Appendix E
     Tactic #3 E-Thank you card & E-Newsletter
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Appendix F
     E-Direct Mail
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Appendix G
     E-Newsletter
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Transcript of "Columbus Urban League Marketing Plan"

  1. 1. The Columbus Urban League Marketing Plan 2009 Buckeye Marketing Dave Coleman Faye Oney Nicky Miller Brent Wells
  2. 2. The Columbus Urban League 2 Table of Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY..............................................................................................................................................................5 SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS.........................................................................................................................................................10 CURRENT ............................................................................................................................................................10 STATUS OF RESOURCES COMPETITOR ANALYSIS.........................................................................................................................................................................16 STRENGTHS.......................................................................................................................................................................................17 WEAKNESSES.....................................................................................................................................................................................18 ORGANIZATION ANALYSIS......................................................................................................................................................................19 MARKET ANALYSIS..................................................................................................................................................................22 POLITICAL.........................................................................................................................................................................................22 ECONOMIC.........................................................................................................................................................................................25 SOCIAL.............................................................................................................................................................................................29 TECHNOLOGICAL.................................................................................................................................................................................35 MARKET ANALYSIS CONCLUSIONS............................................................................................................................................................36 SEGMENTATION.......................................................................................................................................................................39 POSITIONING............................................................................................................................................................................47 MARKETING OBJECTIVES, STRATEGIES, AND TACTICS......................................................................................................49 SELECTED GOALS, OBJECTIVES, AND STRATEGIES......................................................................................................................................... 49
  3. 3. The Columbus Urban League 3 RECOMMENDED TACTICS.......................................................................................................................................................................50 RECOMMENDED TACTICS.......................................................................................................................................................55 IMPLEMENTATION...................................................................................................................................................................57 BUDGET..................................................................................................................................................................................... 58 REFERENCES............................................................................................................................................................................59 APPENDIX A..............................................................................................................................................................................63 PROJECTED POPULATION GROWTHS..........................................................................................................................................................63 APPENDIX B..............................................................................................................................................................................64 TACTIC #1 – PRISONER TRANSITION FLYER.............................................................................................................................................64 APPENDIX C .............................................................................................................................................................................65 TACTIC #2 HEALTH FAIR COOKOUT FLYER ..............................................................................................................................................65 APPENDIX D ............................................................................................................................................................................ 66 TACTIC #2 RADIO PSA FOR HEALTH FAIR & COOKOUT............................................................................................................................66 APPENDIX E .............................................................................................................................................................................67 TACTIC #3 E-THANK YOU CARD & E-NEWSLETTER ...................................................................................................................................67 APPENDIX F..............................................................................................................................................................................68
  4. 4. The Columbus Urban League 4 E-DIRECT MAIL.................................................................................................................................................................................68 APPENDIX G.............................................................................................................................................................................69 E-NEWSLETTER..................................................................................................................................................................................69
  5. 5. The Columbus Urban League 5 Executive Summary Situation, Positioning and Market Analysis For the past ninety years, the Columbus Urban League (CUL) has made a significant impact upon the communities in and around central Ohio. The impact of the organization has taken the form of providing individuals and families with opportunities to learn job skills, strengthen their families, improve their health, and obtain affordable housing. True to the CUL’s slogan, when lives are changed in ways like these, communities are empowered. The CUL’s legacy of civil rights activism and community service has positioned it as a well-respected organization among its peers. This history also effectively positions the CUL in the minds of the community, as a social service organization that strives to improve the community in general. However, to maintain its relevance and ability to make attract clients, the CUL needs to grow into an organization that delivers more focused, directed, and contemporary messages. Recent and impending political, economic, social, and technological changes to the marketplace demand that the CUL reflect the image of a modern agency that serves the community in precise and practical, yet innovative, ways.
  6. 6. The Columbus Urban League 6 Proposed Actions To facilitate such growth, this marketing plan divides the audience of the CUL into three groups: users, donors, and volunteers. The goals suggested focus on user and donor audiences, as they are the two that most directly impact the success of the organization. To effect growth among these target audiences, the CUL must set two goals: first, it must position itself as a valuable, contemporary, growing organization dedicated to helping low-income disadvantaged people become productive members of society, both socially and economically. Secondly, the CUL must raise its profile among potential private and individual donors, making itself a more compelling option for charitable donations. Reaching each of these goals is imperative to the continued existence and success of the CUL. The first goal is designed to shore up the target audience of clients and potential clients. Competition poses a serious and consistent threat in business, even in the non-profit arena. Columbus is home to several non-profit organizations that seek to provide the same, or at least similar, services to the community as the CUL provides. Thus, the CUL shares at least one target audience with its competitors. That target audience must be inspired and motivated to look to the CUL for assistance, rather than to the competition. If the target audience is not sufficiently motivated, the CUL will consistently lose clients to competitors, and as a result, lose public funding.
  7. 7. The Columbus Urban League 7 The second goal is designed to ensure stable and consistent funding sources. Approximately eighty percent of the CUL’s current funding comes from government or federal grants (Columbus Urban League, 2008). These grants are mainstays of non-profit agencies and have typically been relied on as stable for decades. However, the current economic crisis and redirection of government resources may cause a significant reduction the amount of government grants available (Cummings, 2008). It is with this looming possibility in mind that the goal of appealing to private and individual donors is suggested. Should public funds diminish, regular donations from private organizations and individuals will help to sustain the CUL financially. Our proposed objectives and strategies for reaching these goals are straightforward. With regard to the first goal, we propose increasing the number of participants in CUL programs by ten percent within twelve months. Similarly, to raise the CUL’s profile among potential donors, we propose the objective of increasing the number of private donations by ten percent within twelve months. The strategies to be utilized in reaching these objectives entail vigorous and extensive promotion of the CUL in the communities frequented by the target audiences of potential clients and donors. The tactics that our strategies employ in bringing these objectives and goals to fruition are multi-pronged. They include flyers, direct mail, viral marketing and sponsored events. These tactics will reach potential clients by
  8. 8. The Columbus Urban League 8 presenting them with ways in which the CUL can meet their immediate and ongoing needs. The selected tactics will also appeal to target audiences’ sense of community and desire to give back by helping others receive the assistance and guidance that, in some cases, they received themselves. Finally, this multi-pronged approach will capitalize on needs and sympathies of certain audiences by juxtaposing those needs and sympathies against the offerings of the CUL. Rationale The formula for the success of this marketing plan lies in the fact that it is not just advertising for advertising’s sake. Elements of this plan facilitate contact between the CUL and the audiences by inviting members of the audiences to experience those programs and interact with the CUL. This provides both potential clients and donors with a taste of the CUL’s offerings as well as a taste of the CUL’s purpose and mission. As a result, we believe the target audiences, and the community in general, will develop an image of the CUL as an agency that posses the resources, expertise, and compassion to address the needs of the underprivileged, change their lives, and empower their communities.
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  10. 10. The Columbus Urban League 10 Situational Analysis Current status of resources Currently the CUL is staffed by approximately 100 employees and is supported by many volunteers. Of the 100 employees, more than half work in the area of Head Start. Volunteers fill the roles of tutors, mentors, court advocates, counselors, and administrative office support. The tutors and mentors assist adults with studying for their GED and assist school children with learning math and reading. Others assist in the areas of crime, AIDS, and rape prevention. The organization offers a vast selection of programs and services that focus on five key areas. These areas include: 1. African American Male Initiative - Focuses on helping them navigating the challenges and social issues facing them. For example, the Father2Father program helps fathers re-engage in their children’s lives as a responsible parent. 2. Career Services Department - Provides services that help low-income individuals develop financial independence.
  11. 11. The Columbus Urban League 11 3. Education and Prevention Services Department - Assists people in pursuing their GEDs and provides after school tutoring in addition to providing preventative workshops on HIV/AIDS, sexual assault, and alcohol and drug prevention. 4. Head Start - Comprehensive early childhood education program designed to help low-income children establish a good educational foundation. 5. Housing Services Department - Education workshops on home buying, and assistance with landlord/tenant disputes, and fair housing. The CUL is primarily funded through government grants and affiliates such as the United Way. Additional funding comes from the contributions, special events, fees for services, memberships and non-federal share. Current marketing initiatives The CUL’s current marketing activities include its website, brochures, programs and services fliers, and the
  12. 12. The Columbus Urban League 12 annual report. The CUL also hosts promotional events throughout the year such as the Black & White Gala fundraiser, the Annual Equal Opportunity Day Awards Luncheon, and the Annual Urban League Sunday. A Google search yields a few articles, primarily on Business Week, about the Columbus Urban League. A brief examination of the current marketing efforts would suggest that the chosen channels limit the exposure and do not address the target audiences effectively. The website, for example, lacks focus and can be confusing to navigate. The CUL’s tag line “Empowering Communities, Changing Lives,” epitomizes the types of messages that it strives to send its target audience. These messages, including the organization’s motto, “Know us by what we do,” communicate the organization’s desire and ability to help the underprivileged. A glance through the CUL’s 2007/2008 annual report reveals messages that are tied to certain clusters of programs. However, the messaging is undeveloped, dated, inconsistent, and lacks focus. For example, the events information listed to the right on the website is misleading and some is outdated. Specifically, the Home Buyer Education Series flyer has dates beyond November 1. It is unclear why the November 1 date is listed in the events column. The summer youth program information needs to be removed, as it is outdated. The “when” and “where” of the various program offerings is missing. Users should be able to see the dates, times, and locations of each
  13. 13. The Columbus Urban League 13 program. Messages should be clear, focused, consistent, and have meaning to the target audience. For example, the mission statement had numerous versions communicated via the Internet and even among the CUL’s internal documents. The mission statement is no longer current with its expanded reach to other disadvantaged people. In fact, some may find in today’s social climate that the wording may communicate that other disadvantaged persons may be less of a priority than African Americans. An updated mission statement could easily be worded to include the CUL’s current focus. The key message on the website to the primary audience is that the CUL is there to help them to improve their current situation and take control of their lives. The key message to the donors is that their contributions will improve economic opportunity and life conditions (Contribute, n.d.). There needs to be a stronger “big picture” message to the donors, such as “Your contributions make our society stronger.” The volunteer message clearly states what volunteer opportunities are available. What is missing is a benefits statement targeted to potential volunteers – why should they volunteer their time to this organization? Again, a “big picture” message will give people a reason to get involved.
  14. 14. The Columbus Urban League 14 The messages that were identified were found predominantly on the CUL’s website and in its annual report. The disadvantaged audience is not likely to use either of these tools. While the CUL is certain to have brochures in circulation that also carry these messages, they were not found in the community or online. Important information that appears to be missing is the CUL’s reach to the Hispanic community. In 2006 the CUL hired a bilingual housing specialist to help Latinos deal with shady landlords and other issues (Williams, 2006). There is no information on the website that indicates there is a Spanish-speaking person to help the Hispanic population. Strategic relationships The CUL has a strategic alliance with the United Way, as they receive 6% of their income from that source. The government is also another strategic alliance, contributing more than 8 million annually to the organization
  15. 15. The Columbus Urban League 15 (Columbus Urban League, 2008). Honda of America is another strategic partner, being a sponsor of the Equal Opportunity Day awards luncheon (Randolph, 2008). The Young Professionals Association is another strategic partner, which supports the CUL by getting younger people engaged in the organization (Young Professionals Association, n.d.) The development of strategic partnerships could assist with raising awareness of the CUL, while also potentially providing some opportunities for shared advertising and logistical support. Some programs could be greatly enhanced by joining together, since some organizations are providing similar services. For example, Dress for Success is an organization that provides low-income women business attire. A partnership with an organization, like this, could possibly be a win/win for both groups. Additional strategic partnerships with the local business community would not only help increase donations and volunteers, but could possibly open the door to job opportunities for its clients.
  16. 16. The Columbus Urban League 16 Competitor analysis The CUL is one of the few central Ohio organizations offering a wide variety of programs to people in need. Research shows CUL’s offerings similar to other agencies such as: Those agencies are well established and benefit from a well- respected image. The CUL needs to position itself with those organizations in the minds of the public. By doing so, it will promulgate itself as a major player in the central Ohio arena. The advantage that the Columbus Urban League has is that it offers the most comprehensive selection of childhood to adult services for the disadvantaged. The CUL offers practical hands-on-training while many of the other competitors simply
  17. 17. The Columbus Urban League 17 offer a handout. The lack of an effective marketing and communication plan has hindered the organization for positioning its self as the quality organization that it is. Limited marketing and communication has put them at a disadvantage in comparison to well-respected agencies with more established brand awareness. Strengths Well-informed regarding the needs of underprivileged persons. Have the staff and resources to address those needs. Is well regarded by those who are familiar with the organization and its programs. 90-year history and experience serving the community. Passionate, dedicated leadership with a vision for growth. Offers a wide variety of services to a very diverse population of disadvantaged people. Among the most comprehensive service providers in central Ohio. 77% Revenue is through Federal grants and 6% through the United Way. Openness to technology – Created website and hired GroundWork Group to plan technical infrastructure and recommend processes to become more efficient.
  18. 18. The Columbus Urban League 18 Weaknesses The CUL is primarily sustained by United Way and government funding The inability of the organization to consistently build and maintain activities related to brand awareness. Lack of strategic marketing and communication plan. Limited use of effective communication mix. The limited marketing activities include: o Website: Navigation is not user-friendly and functionality as a communication tool is not fully developed. o Brochure: Unfocused on target audience, and the messaging and format are ineffective. o Promotional fundraisers: Contributed only 4% to revenue.
  19. 19. The Columbus Urban League 19 o Speaking engagements by one primary spokesperson, the CUL president. o Limited internal plan to keep employees and volunteers informed and motivated. o Annual report. o Current messaging is inconsistent, dated, lacks focus, and does not communicate value or meaning to target audiences. Mission statement has not evolved with the organization and could potentially communicate preference for serving African Americans, rather than all disadvantaged regardless of race. Numerous versions of the mission statement were found, even within internal documents. Lacks development of strategic partnerships with corporations, organizations, agencies, and groups that have the potential to share advertising, logistical support, and expenditures. Organization analysis It is evident that the CUL has been so focused on helping people that they have failed to effectively brand the organization within the community. The result is that most are unaware of their existence, services, or impact on the community. This lack of awareness impacts the organization significantly. One result is that those who are in need not benefiting from the services and continuing to live in need. The lack of branding
  20. 20. The Columbus Urban League 20 impacts donations and volunteer support, because the general public is not aware of the benefits of its work to the greater Columbus community. This means those donations and support efforts are going to more well branded groups like the United Way, The Red Cross, or Salvation Army. This lack of branding strategy has also possibly overextended the organization by having it attempt too much, rather than focusing on its core strengths. The CUL could benefit from some strategic planning, starting with redefining its mission. Its customer base is changing, and it needs to reach out to all disadvantaged people, not just black people. There are already three established strategic business units (Kotler & Keller, 2006): The unit that serves the clients, the unit that secures and establishes partnerships with donors, and the unit that recruits and trains volunteers. Each unit should undergo a SWOT analysis to determine each area’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (Kotler & Keller, 2006). The organization can then begin to set goals and objectives for each business unit, and move forward with implementing a marketing strategy. The organization also needs to assess its growth opportunities (Kotler & Keller, 2006), to determine if new programs need to be added, or others removed or updated. For example, adding English classes to its menu of programs would be a way for the CUL to reach out to new immigrants and still stay within its mission. The
  21. 21. The Columbus Urban League 21 CUL should always be looking to develop additional strategic partnerships from the local business community. This would not only help increase donations and volunteers, but could possibly open the door to job opportunities for its clients. A marketing plan would enable the organization to clarify its vision and mission, and focus its efforts in communicating a consistent and impactful message to all of its target audiences. The CUL may simply be unaware of the many resources available, or it many not have an individual with marketing skills directing the efforts. The few marketing channels it has chosen are not well thought out or implemented well. Either way, it has a long legacy of changing lives; the problem is no one is hearing its story. The organization is in desperate need of a marketing and communication plan that tells its story, and we think there are many who will want to hear it.
  22. 22. The Columbus Urban League 22 Market analysis There are numerous non-profits competing for charitable contributions. In addition, networking and the development of strategic partnerships have demonstrated that those who try to go it alone may find themselves left out. The current economic downturn and recent election of a new president have many non-profits anxious about what the future holds. On a local level, Columbus is a growing city with a diverse population. The CUL’s 90 years of experience serving the local community should provide it with a wealth of understanding of the community it serves, as well as allow it to establish some significant relationships in the community. An examination of the market does show some helpful insights into the influences and changes affecting non-profit organizations. The PEST analysis format below will provide an overview of the aggregate and the regional/local market (PEST analysis, 2008). Political Opportunities On a national level, government funding and support for community service endeavors has been cut since September 11, 2001. Homeland security and the war on terror has become the funding priority. The federal
  23. 23. The Columbus Urban League 23 government has been conservative in its social views for the past eight years. Therefore legislation relating to the funding of area of social services has trended conservative as well. However, a newly elected government may likely shift funding and support back towards domestic issues and nonprofit support. Locally, the city and state tend to be supportive of non-profit and service-oriented organizations, but both are still somewhat limited by national funding trends. The political climate is in a state of transition with a newly elected president. The election of a new democratic president, along with a democratic Congress, brings some uncertainty due to potential policy changes. However, this president may be more sympathetic to non-profits like the CUL. This may be a good time to have some voice on the political scene, through discussions
  24. 24. The Columbus Urban League 24 with local and national government leaders. Likely changes in the political environment - The election of a new president with more liberal views will likely change the orientation of the country and the government on national, state, and local levels. Many of the policies and funding patterns implemented over the last two terms will be altered or repealed. The country can expect legislation that focuses more on service, and helping the lower socioeconomic classes. Threats Non-profits, and the Urban League in particular, might be subject to stricter reporting requirements, and budgets may be more closely scrutinized. Although more grant money might become available, at the same time stricter requirements may negate the increase in grant money non-profits might receive. If too many regulations are placed on larger corporations, mandated changes could cut into charitable donations from corporate sponsorships. For example, according to Business First of Columbus, the IRS’ new 990 form, which requires more information from donors and nonprofits to ensure more accountability, is going to pose some challenges to the giving process (2008).
  25. 25. The Columbus Urban League 25 Economic The current state of the national economy could not be worse. Inflation, the housing crisis, increased gas and energy prices, and higher food prices all contribute to the overall recession. Spending has decreased dramatically on the part of consumers. Businesses are suffering and failing in national and local markets. As more companies outsource jobs, unemployment continues to increase. Charities and non-profit organizations will continue to be overwhelmed with people needing food, housing, and job services, increasing the need for more client services. Changes are likely in the economic environment, but not in the immediate future. The economic downturn will have to run its course. The new administration promises aggressive and immediate action to stimulate the economy, but those measures will require time to take effect. As of October 2008, the unemployment rate was at 6.5% (Labor force statistics, 2008). Figure 1 shows a 10- year history of unemployment rates nationally. The unemployment rate in Columbus is about the same as the national rate; currently at 6.1%, as shown in Figure 2 (Sept. 2008 unemployment rates, 2008). Ohio’s unemployment rate is slightly higher, at 7.2% (Ohio Labor Market Information, 2008). Locally, Columbus’ unemployment rate has held steady at 6% for the past several months (Labor force statistics, 2008). The U.S. Department of Labor reports that 240,000 jobs were lost in October (Krasny, 2008). Because of higher
  26. 26. The Columbus Urban League 26 unemployment, local social service agencies, food banks, and other charities will see an increase in clients. This increase puts a strain on resources, which makes it extremely important for the CUL to increase the amount of donations it receives in the immediate future. Figure 1 Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey Seasonal Adjusted Series title:(Seas)Unemployment Rate Labor force status: Unemployment rate Type of data: Percent Age:16 years and over (Labor force statistics, 2008)
  27. 27. The Columbus Urban League 27 Figure 2 National vs. local unemployment rates (Unemployment rates, 2008) Unemployment Rates Area Sep’08 Aug’08 Sep’07 Ohio 7.2% 7.4% 5.7% Ohio not seasonally adjusted 6.9% 7.1% 5.5% U.S. 6.1% 6.1% 4.7% U.S. not seasonally adjusted 6.0% 6.1% 4.5% Opportunities Current and projected economic growth, inflation and interest rates - In an effort to spark economic activity and growth, the Federal Reserve recently cut interest rates. The federal government has already bailed out Wall Street, and is considering other economic stimulus packages. Workforce Partnerships: There is an opportunity to partner with the National Fund for Workforce Solutions or some of their affiliates. Partnership with these groups helps connect employees with employers in up and coming job markets, like healthcare, while also providing job training and advancement.
  28. 28. The Columbus Urban League 28 Google Grants is a program designed for nonprofits that share in their vision for education, health, and advocacy for youth. It helps nonprofits advertise organizations and services by advertising on Google. Non-profits such as the CUL, could benefit from the services of probonolink.org. This is an opportunity to get design work for a brochure, website, or other marketing communications created at no charge, from local ad agencies willing to donate their resources (Phillips, 2003, How it works section). Threats Giving USA 2008 Report indicates the trend in giving is up by 3.9%, with 74.8% of the contributions coming from individuals, which is good news. However, the numbers of non-profit organizations have increased, which means the competition for funds has also increased. According to the Ohio Association of Nonprofit Organizations (OANO) there are 194 nonprofit organizations in Columbus alone (OANO, 2008). Groups with more strategic marketing plans and effective branding strategies could crowd out the CUL. Levels of disposable income and income distribution - The state of the economy has naturally led
  29. 29. The Columbus Urban League 29 to a reduction in the amount of disposable income that consumers have. Thus, many are only spending money on needs as opposed to wants. For example, Starbucks reported a 97% decrease in revenue at the end of the last quarter (Cummings, 2008). Impact of globalization: the U.S. or North America no longer dominates the global economy. The world no longer looks exclusively to the U.S. for certain needs. The U.S. is increasingly looking to the rest of the world. As a result, economic growth is depleted on all levels (Cummings, 2008). In Ohio, companies such as DHL are closing, or pulling out of communities that have thrived on their presence. Social The downturn in the economy will continue to affect the disadvantaged population. Broad market information and trends help provide context to the work of non-profits, and specifically the CUL. The following demographics were taken from the U.S. Census Bureau and the 2007 American Community Survey: United States o Population: 301.6 million; 25% under 18 years of age.
  30. 30. The Columbus Urban League 30 o Race: 76% white, 13% black, 1% American Indian and Alaska native, 4% Asian, 15% Hispanic. o Poverty: 13% of people were in poverty. 18% of children under 18 were below the poverty level. 10% of all families and 28% of families with a female head of household and no husband present had incomes below the poverty level. Ohio o Population: 11.5 million; 24% percent under 18 years of age. o Race: 85% white, 12% black, 2% Asian, 2% Hispanic. o Poverty: 13% of people were in poverty. 18% of children under 18 were below the poverty level. 10% of all families and 32% of families with a female head of household and no husband present had incomes below the poverty level. Columbus o Population: 718,000; 24% under 18 years of age. o Race: 66% white, 28% black, 4% Asian, 4% Hispanic.
  31. 31. The Columbus Urban League 31 o Poverty: 21% of people were in poverty. 28% of related children under 18 were below the poverty level, and 15% of all families and 35% of families with a female head of household and no husband present had incomes below the poverty level.
  32. 32. The Columbus Urban League 32 Figure 2 U.S. Census Rankings U.S. Census Comparison & Rankings Category National % Ohio % National Rank Adult Poverty 13.0 13.1 19 Children below 18.0 18.5 18 poverty level African American 12.4 11.7 18 Populace Household Public 2.1 2.6 12 Assistance Income Columbus has a higher black populace and poverty level than compared to state and national census figures, which should highlight the need for an organization like the CUL. In addition, population growth rates are projected to increase for blacks, Hispanics, and other minorities, as shown in Appendix A (Day, n.d.). Hispanics have represented 50% of the population growth rate in this decade (Pinkerton, 2008). Columbus also has the second largest population of Somali immigrants in the country – approximately 35,000 (Unknown, 2008). A growing immigrant population will need educational and job placement services, two of the major services that the CUL provides, which will help them assimilate into our culture. There will also be an increased need for
  33. 33. The Columbus Urban League 33 childcare and health care services for these groups. There might be an opportunity to expand services to include English classes, as the immigrant population encounters language barriers. Again, the increase in the number of clients will require an increase in the number of donations. There will also be a need for more volunteers to serve this larger client base. Opportunities Legacy gifts are a current trend as Baby Boomers who are on the verge of retirement consider charitable giving as part of their wills and estate planning (The NonProfit Times, 2008). A campaign directed at this large demographic group could provide some additional funding. Socio-Cultural changes – The country is becoming more diverse as a result of increasing minority populations. As a result, it can be expected that tolerance and understanding of other cultures will also increase. The election of an African American president should serve to increase awareness of minority cultures. The eco-friendly environmental trend is capturing the attention of the younger demographic donors. Aggressive campaigns about the importance of the environment are working. The CUL may want to position itself as a contemporary, growing group that changes lives and improves
  34. 34. The Columbus Urban League 34 communities, by utilizing social networking sites like Facebook and MySpace. Threats Population employment patterns, job market freedom and attitudes to work - Increasing minority numbers cause concern with regards to employment patterns. Many fear that undocumented immigrants are taking jobs and contributing to the jobless rate for citizens. Others believe that some minorities are content not to work and simply bleed the system for assistance. Media attitudes, public opinion, social attitudes and social taboos – Social attitudes such as those above may translate into bias against social service agencies. Some may see as enabling “non-workers.”
  35. 35. The Columbus Urban League 35 Technological Opportunities Impact of emerging technologies - Online communication tools and technologies are increasing at break-neck speed. No one industry can utilize all the options that are available. However, the public utilizes them on various levels. Therefore, at least some must be used to effectively reach the public. Columbus is often on the cutting edge of market testing and advancements. The newest on-line tools and trends can be found here. The CUL recently utilized the services of GroundWork Group, a new company that recently merged with another technology company Civic Solutions. The company helps non-profits in Columbus address their IT challenges, and helps troubleshoot solutions for project management, educational services, and fundraising (Business First of Columbus, 2008). Threats The Internet has made information more widely available to larger numbers of people. Those who have access to a computer can find information on any topic with just a few clicks of a mouse, giving consumers more access to information in the marketplace (Zikmund, et al, 2008).
  36. 36. The Columbus Urban League 36 Although technology has played a positive role in information access and new product innovations, the downside of improved technology and automation is loss of jobs – including outsourcing them to other countries (PEST Analysis, 2007). This will continue to affect jobs as technology improves in the long term. The development of an IT department committed to CRM and PRM software programs to better manage past, current, and future relationships with the organization is essential. Viral marketing and communication technology, which would ease regular communication to staff, volunteers, donors, and partners is money well spent. Without it, it would be like trying to operate a nonprofit via the Pony Express. Market analysis conclusions The issues identified in the PEST analysis above all speak to the market in which the CUL operates. Some have more a more direct impact than others, particularly those that are political and economic in nature. The CUL, being a non-profit that is funded to a large degree by government grants, is somewhat at the mercy of political changes with regard to that funding. Funding cultivated locally from private donors might be perceived as more reliable, but then economic conditions come into play. In the current economic
  37. 37. The Columbus Urban League 37 downturn, individual and corporate spending patterns have changed and contributions may or may not be guaranteed. Socio-cultural factors are significant to the CUL because the majority of its target market is minorities. Attitudes towards minority populations can and will translate into attitudes about the CUL. By the same token, population increases among minorities should translate into increased clients for the CUL. The CUL would benefit significantly by specifically targeting other minority and disadvantaged groups in addition to African Americans. With the Hispanic population currently booming around the country, as well as in Columbus, the organization could expand its impact by creating programs aimed at addressing Hispanic issues and identifying with Hispanic culture. When it comes to technology, the CUL has dipped its toe in the water, by virtue of creating a website. This is a very necessary tool in today’s world and the CUL’s site has room for improvement. Aside from the website, there are various other online avenues that the organization could pursue. However, given the disadvantaged status of its audience, it would not be productive for the CUL to overindulge in the latest online or technological marketing tools that the audience cannot afford, or does not have access to.
  38. 38. The Columbus Urban League 38 Technological improvements made by the CUL should be for the purpose of promotions and interactions with potential donors, staff, and volunteers. Despite the fact that it is a non-profit agency that is in the business of serving the community, the CUL has a challenging market to contend with. The state of government priorities, the bottom lines of for-profit agencies, and even the incomes of private citizens all influence the stability of agencies like the CUL. Societal perceptions of different cultures indirectly affect the degree to which the CUL’s work is appreciated in the community at large. Finally, advances in technology require the CUL to constantly explore and evaluate the methods it uses to market itself. It seems that changing lives is most difficult when change is most needed, but with the right marketing strategies, the CUL can continue to be successful.
  39. 39. The Columbus Urban League 39 Segmentation The CUL serves the Columbus community, a large multi-cultural diverse community. To better focus the CUL’s services and resources, it is beneficial to better define the target market and the positioning strategy of the organization. Its marketing strategy is based on market specialization, and by targeting primarily disadvantaged individuals and families within the Columbus community. The secondary audiences are those within the community, both individuals and corporations, who are in a position to support the CUL through donations, volunteering, and partnerships. Three predominant segments of the target market are clients, donors, and volunteers. Each of these segments has unique needs and requires specific messages tailored to those needs. Each segment also requires different channels of communication to receive those messages. These three audiences describe the broad groups among whom we wish to increase awareness of the CUL. Within each group are sub-groups with specific preferences and interests. Identifying these sub-groups will result in a natural segmentation of each audience. The resulting segments will represent diverse groups towards which specific and unique marketing efforts need to be focused. Identifying the Columbus zip codes with the largest number of low-income households is a good starting point to
  40. 40. The Columbus Urban League 40 focus much of the marketing efforts and communication to the disadvantaged (See Figure 3). Figure 3: Market Segmentation: Income by Zip Code(Columbus Dispatch, 2008) Low Income Zip Codes Disadvantaged Area Zip Household Codes Income Columbus 43203 $19,334 43201 $21,743 43205 $25,808 43222 $25,272 43215 $27,045 43210 $28,843 43211 $29,459 The zip codes with the highest household incomes in Columbus provide a possible geographical area to focus on potential funding and support (See Figure 4). However, giving is not limited to individuals with high incomes, because people of all economic classes have found ways to give when a cause inspires them to do so. These simply provide areas of focus where individuals who potentially may have more disposable income, and have greater potential to be able to give.
  41. 41. The Columbus Urban League 41 Figure 4: High Income Zip Codes (Columbus Dispatch, 2008) Higher Income Zip Codes Potential Donors Area Zip Codes Household Income Bexley 43209 $50,359 Gahanna 43230 $70,565 New Albany 43054 $111,941 Westerville 43082 $113,070 Pickerington 43147 $80,084 Upper 43221 $78,106 Arlington The task of describing target audiences and markets will allow us to determine who the CUL needs to attract. What type of individual will typify a client or volunteer, and what type of individual or group will typify a donor? These descriptions are explained by way of fairly specific characteristics that are rooted in behavioral components, demographics, geographics, and psychographics.
  42. 42. The Columbus Urban League 42 The first table details the target client participants and the characteristics that exemplify the target groups. Target Audiences Audience Description • Mostly inner-city geographical area, low-income, minorities, unemployed Disadvantaged or underemployed, high-school dropouts, limited education, recent immigrants, single parents, children of low-income households, black male fathers, ex-convicts, and others who are considered disadvantaged (Claritas, (2008). • According to the VALS framework, the psychographics of most of the audience could be classified as Survivors (SRIC-BI, 2008). They are focused on meeting basic needs and have few resources (SRI Consulting Business Intelligence, 2008). Disadvantaged Targeted Groups • The most economically challenged and low-income social groups Urban Core segments. Consists of a mix of African American, Hispanic, Asians, and other multi-ethnic groups. Age 25 to 55. This segment faces many challenges: unstable jobs, low income, and minimal education. • Moderate to low-income ($26,181). Moderate to low-income housing, with less then ¼ of them able to afford a home, but many have a strong desire for affordable housing. • Most have kids. Many are single-parent families with only some high school education. • Approximately 40% never finished high school. • They like fast food, daytime TV (Maury and Jerry Springer), ethnic focused radio and TV (BET Network), mobile phones, high-end department stores,
  43. 43. The Columbus Urban League 43 and Ebony and Jet magazines (Claritas, (2008). • Urban multi-ethnic and multi-cultural mix of young (Age 35 -45) American Dreamers predominantly African American, Hispanic, and Asian individuals and families who are striving hard to improve their quality of life and living status, but are struggling due to such things as learning a new culture, lack of marketable skills, low-income, and language barriers. • This group mostly rents and has some college education. • They enjoy Jerry Springer, cultural music, and professional sporting events, Spin and Source magazine (Claritas, (2008). • Multi-ethnic and multi-cultural working class families (Age 25 to 45) who Struggling Families live in older, smaller homes, or mobile homes. • Many are single moms struggling to raise a family alone. • Like playing games, any TV or radio, and shopping at discount stores (Claritas, (2008). The following descriptions provide an understanding of the individuals and groups who are likely to support the
  44. 44. The Columbus Urban League 44 Columbus Urban League are detailed in the following table. Support Description Targets • Includes potential, current, groups, neighborhoods, and individual Individual Donors contributors. There are segments broken down according to recency, frequency, and amount of giving: frequent high, frequent low, infrequent high, and infrequent low. • Demographics include middle- to upper-income, age 30+, all religious faiths. They live outside of the geographic area where the users live. • The donor audience tends to fall into the Believers category of VALS. They have traditional moral codes rooted in family, religion, and community (SRIC-BI, 2008), and are socially responsible (SRI Consulting Business Intelligence, 2008). • Concerned with the valuation for non-profits. Key considerations: donation will be used effectively, perception the organization is financially stable, personal experience with the cause, the non-profit’s level of contact with the donor, and how easy it is for the donor to make the transaction (Claritas, (2008). • Demographics of volunteers include people age 21 and older, middle- Volunteers upper income households, high school/college graduates, church- going, possibly empty nesters who have extra time to volunteer. • Volunteers may also be former CUL clients who want to give back to the organization that initially helped them. • Similar to the donor audience, volunteers tend to fall in the Believers category of VALS (SRIC-BI, 2008), and are also socially responsible. Volunteers fulfill their self-actualization needs when they choose to volunteer their time (Kotler & Keller, 2006). When they see that they are making a difference in someone’s life they will continue to give more of their time to
  45. 45. The Columbus Urban League 45 the CUL. • Includes potential, current, and past volunteers, which are made up of skilled and non-skilled multiethnic individuals who have various commitment levels, who are able to offer unique levels of availability (heavy & light). These individuals live throughout the community, but most have a vested interest in the development and improvement of the disadvantaged, and have a heart for helping people. Age 25 to 65, but mostly older and more established individuals (Claritas, (2008). • Corporate donors include those companies who believe in the CUL’s Corporate mission and have seen its successes. However, some organization’s & Strategic donations are a result of cause-related marketing efforts. • Partnerships National and Columbus city government agencies, corporations, small businesses, and individuals that have services or resources that complement or supplement the services of the CUL. • These are broken down into one-time gift supporters, sponsorship, and mission partners. Many are cause-related marketing partners. • These are not limited to the Columbus area. Includes potential, current, and past government, corporate, groups, neighborhoods, and individual contributors. • There are segments broken down according to recency, frequency and amount of giving: frequent high, frequent low, infrequent high, and infrequent low. • Multiethnic individuals, age 21 to 75, committed to the vision and mission of Internal employees the CUL. Many are skilled in education, administration, legal, and social services. • Segmented according to Leadership Team, Education, Housing, Career Development, Social, and Administrative support. • Includes government and grant agencies, regulators and auditing groups.
  46. 46. The Columbus Urban League 46 Government These groups have specific expectations and requirements that must be Agencies followed to ensure accountability. An understanding of these key elements that describe these target audiences can help provide direction and insight into the appropriate messages, channels of communication, and potential.
  47. 47. The Columbus Urban League 47 Positioning The CUL provides a unique mix of services to serve the Columbus community. This unique positioning distinguishes it from other nonprofits and social services also serving the community.
  48. 48. The Columbus Urban League 48 The CUL’s wide diversity of services helps provide children, families, and individuals, with education, career services, and programs to help them overcome the negative social influences within the communities. Each service has as its foundation one of our four values: Equality, Education, Opportunity, and Responsibility. We believe changed lives result in empowered communities, which benefit all of us. The CUL offers solutions for independence, whereas the other nonprofits offer primarily public assistance. We believe it is better to teach someone to fish, than it is to simply feed him or her for a day. To the disadvantaged, the CUL is like a well- connected friend. To the greater Columbus community it helps make Columbus a better city for all of us (The Columbus Urban League, 2008).
  49. 49. The Columbus Urban League 49 Marketing objectives, strategies, and tactics Selected goals, objectives, and strategies Selected Goals 1. To position the CUL as a valuable, contemporary, growing organization dedicated to helping low-income disadvantaged people become productive members of society, both socially and economically. 2. To raise the profile of the CUL among potential corporate and individual donors Objectives 1. To increase the number of participants in CUL programs by 10% within the next 12 months. 2. To increase the amount of private donations to the CUL by 10% within the next 12 months Strategies 1. Advertise and promote the CUL by highlighting specific programs in markets where the target audience of participants/users live and work 2. Promote the CUL to current and potential donors, as a better value than other non-profits with similar service offerings
  50. 50. The Columbus Urban League 50 Recommended Tactics Strategy #1 Tactic #1: Prisoner Transition Initiative Description: Create a flyer and promote the CUL’s Prisoner Re-entry Program to pre-release prisoners. Implementation: Obtain agreement from Ohio Department of Rehabilitation and Corrections to provide prisoners with information about the Prisoner Re-entry Program, upon their release from prisons and jails. Create a flyer informing prisoners that the CUL wants to help them make a successful transition back into society (Appendix B). Provide adequate copies of the flyer to local jails and state prisons with significant amounts of prisoners rooted in Franklin County. Schedule presentations to groups of pre-release prisoners every two months, informing them about the benefits of the CUL’s Prisoner Re-entry Program. Tactic #2: Cookout/Health Fair
  51. 51. The Columbus Urban League 51 Description: Host a Cookout/Health Fair in a neighborhood where potential program users/participants live and work. Implementation: Solicit event partnerships from City Barbeque and Nationwide Children’s Hospital. Secure location in an urban neighborhood (e.g. park at the corner of E. Livingston and Parsons Ave., in front of Children’s Hospital). Arrange for City Barbeque to supply food and beverages. Arrange for Nationwide Children’s Hospital to provide medical staff, testing and diagnostic equipment (e.g. blood pressure equipment, HIV/AIDS test kits, mammogram trailers, etc.). Create and distribute flyers in the target neighborhood, and produce a public service announcement to air on local radio stations for 30 days prior to the event (Appendices C & D). Host event, and promote the CUL with a table staffed by volunteers who will interact with participants and explain the programs and services the CUL offers.
  52. 52. The Columbus Urban League 52 Strategy #2 Tactic #3: Donor Retention Program Description: Send direct email pieces such as “thank you” cards and electronic communications such as e- newsletters to donors whenever a monetary donation is received (Appendix E). Implementation: Maintain donor information database that will keep track of names, contact information, and regularity of donations. Create electronic thank you cards with varying messages and themes to send to repeat donors within 48 hours of receipt of the donation. Create a package of information that welcomes new donors into the CUL’s circle of support and informs them of ways that their donations are used to empower the underprivileged. Design and publish e-newsletters to send to donors informing them of developments in the community, and success stories that are related to the CUL’s work, and specifically, their donation.
  53. 53. The Columbus Urban League 53
  54. 54. The Columbus Urban League 54 The information sent to new donors will differ from the information sent to repeat donors initially, so as to welcome new donors and inspire them to continue giving. Tactic #4 Name: Donor Referral Program Description and Implementation: Encourage repeat/regular donors to forward the e-newsletter and e-thank you cards to friends and family to inform them of the opportunity to help better the community by way of donations to the CUL. “In a study of 7,000 consumers in seven European countries, 60% said they were influenced to use a new brand by family and friends” (Kotler & Keller, 2006, p. 548). “A study by Burson- Marsteller and Roper Starch Worldwide found that one influential person’s word of mouth tends to affect the buying attitudes of two other people, on average” (Kotler & Keller, p. 548).
  55. 55. The Columbus Urban League 55 Recommended tactics
  56. 56. The Columbus Urban League 56
  57. 57. The Columbus Urban League 57 Implementation
  58. 58. The Columbus Urban League 58 Budget
  59. 59. The Columbus Urban League 59 References Business First of Columbus (2008). Dramatic changes in nonprofit sector usher in 990 overhaul. Retrieved November 10, 2008, from http://www.bizjournals.com/columbus/stories/2008/07/21/focus1.html Business First of Columbus (2008). GroundWork group brings technology expertise to other nonprofits. Retrieved November 10, 2008, from http://www.bizjournals.com/columbus/stories/2008/09/01/story16.html Claritas (2008). PRIZM: My best segments. Retrieved 11/12/2008, from http://www.claritas.com/MyBestSegments/Default.jsp?ID=0&SubID=&pageName=Home Columbus Urban League, (2008). Columbus Urban League. Retrieved November 10, 2008, from Columbus Urban League Web site: http://www.cul.org/ Columbus Urban League Young Professionals Association. (n.d.) Retrieved November 9, 2008 from http://www.culypa.org/ Contribute. (n.d.). Retrieved November 8, 2008 from http://cul.org/contribute.aspx Cummings, J. (2008, November 10). The first recession of the age of globality. Retrieved November 10, 2008, from Business Finance Web site: http://businessfinancemag.com/article/first-recession-age-globality-1110 Giving USA. (2008). Through the roof! Trends in philanthropy for 2008. Retrieved November 10, 2008, from
  60. 60. The Columbus Urban League 60 http://nonprofit.about.com/od/trendsissuesstatistics/a/giving2008.htm Kotler, P., & Keller, K.L. (2006). Marketing management. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. Krasny, R. (2008, November 7). US rate futures-Oct payrolls support big fed cut ideas. Retrieved November 10, 2008, from Reuters Web site: http://www.reuters.com/article/marketsNews/idUSN0748985520081107 Ohio Association of Nonprofit Organizations (2008). Columbus nonprofit directory listing. Retrieved November 10, 2008, from http://oano.officialbuyersguide.net/SearchResult.asp?city=Columbus Ohio.gov. Department of Job and Family Services. (2008). Ohio labor market information. Unemployment rates. Retrieved November 10, 2008 from http://lmi.state.oh.us/ PEST Analysis. (2007). Retrieved November 9, 2008 from http://www.quickmba.com/strategy/pest/ Phillips, K. (2003). Probonolink.org. How it works. Retrieved November 30, 2008 from http://www.probonolink.org/about.asp Pinkerton, J. (2008, October 23). Hispanics account for more than half of U.S. population growth. Retrieved November 10, 2008, from Chron.com/Chronicle Web site: http://www.chron.com/disp/ story.mpl/hotstories/6075560.html Randolph, R. (October 20, 2008). Press release. Retrieved November 8, 2008 from
  61. 61. The Columbus Urban League 61 http://www.ssicom.com/documents/2008EODpressrelease.doc SRI Consulting Business Intelligence (2008). Welcome to VALS. Retrieved November 10, 2008, from http://www.sric- bi.com/VALS/ The Columbus Urban League (2008). About CUL. Retrieved November 8, 2008, from http://cul.org/default.aspx The Columbus Urban League. (2008). 2007/08 Annual report. Columbus, Ohio. The NonProfit Times (2008). Help boomers plan their giving. Retrieved November 10, 2008, from http://www.nptimes.com/ The NonProfit Times (2008). Recession-fighting ideas for philanthropy. Retrieved November 10, 2008, from http://www.nptimes.com/webex/08aug/c3-8-1-08.html Unknown. (2008, October 21). Area’s jobless rate eases to 6%. Retrieved November 10, 2008, from Columbus Business First Web site: http://www.bizjournals.com/columbus/stories/2008/10/20/daily11.html U.S. Census Bureau. (2007). American community survey. 2007 American community survey 1-year estimates, 1. Retrieved 11/10/2008, from http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ACSSAFFFacts?_event=&geo_id=01000US& geoContext=01000US&_street=&_county=&_cityTown=&_state=&_zip=&_lang=en&_sse=on& ActiveGeoDiv=&_useEV=&pctxt=fph&pgsl=010&_submenuId=factsheet_1&ds_name=null&_ci_nbr=
  62. 62. The Columbus Urban League 62 null&qr_name=null&reg=null%3Anull&_keyword=&_industry U.S. Census Bureau. (2008). Income, earning, and poverty data from the 2007 American Community Survey. Washington, DC,: U.S. Government Printing Office. U.S. Department of Labor. (2008). Bureau of labor statistics. Labor force statistics from the current population survey. Retrieved November 9, 2008 from http://data.bls.gov/PDQ/servlet/SurveyOutputServlet? data_tool=latest_numbers&series_id=LNS14000000 U.S. Department of Labor. (2008). Bureau of labor statistics. Unemployment rates for metropolitan areas. Retrieved November 10, 2008 from http://www.bls.gov/web/laummtrk.htm Williams, S. (2006, December 23). Urban League offers aid to Latinos. The Columbus Dispatch, p. D1. Zikmund~Babin~Sheth~Mittal. (2008). Behavioral research. Mason, OH: Thomson.
  63. 63. The Columbus Urban League 63 Appendix A Projected population growths (Day, n.d.)
  64. 64. The Columbus Urban League 64 Appendix B Tactic #1 – Prisoner Transition Flyer
  65. 65. The Columbus Urban League 65 Appendix C Tactic #2 Health Fair Cookout Flyer
  66. 66. The Columbus Urban League 66 Appendix D Tactic #2 Radio PSA for Health Fair & Cookout Columbus Urban League “Health Fair & Cookout,” :30 Radio NARRATOR: The Columbus Urban League is hosting a free Health Fair and Cookout on June 19, from 4-9pm at Nationwide Children’s Hospital. Get a flu shot, mammogram, HIV test, and many other health screenings. Find out about the Urban League’s new programs and join us for a cookout. The Columbus Urban League is a non-profit organization that offers services on education, job skills, career assessment, and job placement. For more information, please call 257-6300, or visit cul.org.
  67. 67. The Columbus Urban League 67 Appendix E Tactic #3 E-Thank you card & E-Newsletter
  68. 68. The Columbus Urban League 68 Appendix F E-Direct Mail
  69. 69. The Columbus Urban League 69 Appendix G E-Newsletter
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