Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. 3. Educational Leadership and ICT Policy
  2. 2. <ul><li>Educational Leadership and ICT Policy </li></ul><ul><li>FOCUS: Analyzing policy statements - definition, elements of policy, key concepts, policy analysis </li></ul><ul><li>* Paper 1 :  Harris, A. & Spillane, J. (2008). Distributed Leadership Through the Looking Glass. Management in Education, 22 (1): 31–34. </li></ul><ul><li>NG Chun Chun Janny </li></ul><ul><li>LEE Shi Shing </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to Self-review Framework </li></ul><ul><li>* Paper 2: McMillan Culp, K., Honey, M. & Mandinach, E. (2003). A Retrospective on Twenty Years of Education Technology Policy . </li></ul><ul><li> CHENG Ching Wai </li></ul><ul><li>CHUNG Ka i Lun Peter </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Questions, Reflections & Conclusions </li></ul>Session 3 Outline    
  3. 3. Alice: Please tell me which way I ought to go? Cat: That depends where you want to get to Alice: I don't much care where Cat: Then it doesn't matter which way you go Alice: …so long as I get somewhere Cat: You're sure to do that if you walk far enough Lewis Carrol. Alice in Wonderland . [Ch6 Pig & Pepper] http://www.sabian.org/alice.htm Understanding Policy
  4. 4. Understanding Policy <ul><li>Defining where you are </li></ul><ul><li>Deciding where you want to go </li></ul><ul><li>Working out how to get there </li></ul>http://www.linkingcommunities.org.uk/images/home/SignPosts.gif What’s the policy in your workplace regarding IT? If you don’t have one, what would you like it to be? If you are working from home, upload your comments in the Forum
  5. 5. Why focus on policy? <ul><li>Policy is - a definite course of action </li></ul><ul><li>Good policy is essential in developing an effective [education] system </li></ul><ul><li>Changing times need creative proposals and solutions. EG </li></ul><ul><li>Reallocating resources by closing some schools or </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating new technologies into the curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>What could this mean? What actions may be needed? </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss in your groups. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Definition <ul><li>‘ public policy can be defined as a course of action or inaction chosen by public authorities to address a given problem or interrelated set of problems’. </li></ul><ul><li>Pal, L. A. (2001). Beyond Policy Analysis. Public Issue Management in Turbulent Times. (2 nd ed). Scarborough (Ontario): Nelson. </li></ul>
  7. 7. About this definition . . . <ul><li>‘ policies are guides to a range of related actions in a given field’ </li></ul><ul><li>refers to inaction, if this is a choice </li></ul><ul><li>policy is usually designed to deal with problems (sometimes opportunities) </li></ul><ul><li>policy rarely tackles single problems – usually sets of smaller problems </li></ul>
  8. 8. Restatement of definition <ul><li>‘ The general character of a public policy </li></ul><ul><li>. . . is that it is a guide to action, a plan, a framework, a course of action or inaction designed to deal with problems’ (p.5) </li></ul>
  9. 9. ‘ Classical’ definition <ul><li>Policy is: </li></ul><ul><li>formulated consciously </li></ul><ul><li>analytically </li></ul><ul><li>made explicit </li></ul><ul><li>implemented formally </li></ul><ul><li>[compare with the view that ‘policy is what governments do , not what they say or intend’] </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>problem definition </li></ul><ul><li>policy goals </li></ul><ul><li>policy instruments (how the policy is to be addressed and the goals achieved) </li></ul>Elements of a policy statement
  11. 11. Problem definition <ul><li>Is the problem recognized and defined? </li></ul><ul><li>Was the process of problem definition exhaustive or causal? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the factors which lead to the problem or issue? (causal connection) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Problem definition . . . <ul><li>Problem definition ‘is rarely articulated in great detail in a policy statement’ (p.7) despite the debate which often takes place in the media and interest groups. </li></ul><ul><li>It is often necessary to research more widely for the background to a problem or issue, and the reasons (rationale) for doing something. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Policy Goals <ul><li>Are the policy goals clearly stated? </li></ul><ul><li>Usually agreement about general goals, but often debate about specific goals. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Policy Instruments – how the problem is to be addressed and the goals achieved <ul><li>‘ The theoretically wide range of choices over instruments is actually quite constrained in the real world’ (p.8) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Instrument choice can be limited by legal restrictions’ (p.9) – e.g., local/regional/national responsibilities for education </li></ul>
  15. 15. Group Activity To find out about a policy: - find an authoritative source for the policy statement - search this source for statements about policy definition, goals and instruments Problem definition Goals Instruments <ul><li>Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Activities </li></ul>