Integrated Pest Management - Oregon State University
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Integrated Pest Management - Oregon State University

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Integrated Pest Management - Oregon State University

Integrated Pest Management - Oregon State University

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Integrated Pest Management - Oregon State University Integrated Pest Management - Oregon State University Document Transcript

  • 2/9/2009 Pest Control and Biological Diversity Master Gardener Training, 2009 20X Pesticide Treadmill Sustainable Pest Management ndex 15X IPM Integrated Pest Management Complexity In 10X Gail Langellotto, Ph.D. (Entomology) 5X OSU Department of Horticulture 1X 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 TimeDiamondback Moth on Cabbage Parasitoids on Cabbage • Triangles = • Triangles = Sprayed Sprayed • Ci l = Circles • Ci l = Circles Unsprayed Unsprayed Number of Species Currently Conservation Biological Control Controlled with Pesticides • Few studies have been conducted in garden systems Diseases 137 – Exception: Shrewsbury and Raupp (2006). Do top-down or bottom up forces determine Stephanities pyriodes in Insects 304 urban landscapes? p Mites 34 Two Dimensional System Three Dimensional System Nematodes 23 Weeds 102 1
  • 2/9/2009 Components Landscape Natural Disease Ecology Pest Enemies Complex Complex • Raupp et al. 2001. Plant species diversity and abundance affects the number of Management arthropod pests in residential landscapes. Land Plant Abiotic Land Diversity Factors Soil Soil Nutrients Organic Nematodes Matter Micro/ Macro Microbial Inverte- Flora brates Climbing the Alternatives Ladder Climbing the Alternatives Ladder Level III Level III Level II Level II Level I Level I Cultural Physical Multiple Tactics Biological Pesticides Pesticides Chemical Climbing the Alternatives Ladder Climbing the Alternatives Ladder Level III Level III Level II Level II IPM (Monitoring) Multi- Multi-species / Multi-strategy Multi- No Single Strategy Level I Biodynamic Level I (Integrated, or Not)Integrated Strategies Organic Integrated Strategies Fits All Pests Conventional Multiple Tactics Multiple Tactics Pesticides Pesticides 2
  • 2/9/2009 Climbing the Alternatives Ladder Climbing the Alternatives Ladder Your Neighbor Regional Integration Your City Planner Your Area Farms Level III Level III Systems Integration Diverse Yards Require Flexible Systems Integration and Diverse Strategies Level II Level II •Vegetable GardenMulti-species / Multi-strategy •Perennial BedMulti- Multi- Multi- Multi-species / Multi-tactic Multi- Level I Level I •Home OrchardIntegrated Strategies •Waterwise Plants Integrated Strategies Multiple Tactics Multiple Tactics Pesticides Pesticides Objective Principles of IPM • Introduce Principles of IPM, and consider how you can use an IPM approach to pest • Prevent Problems control in your garden • Monitor the plants • Identify the pest organism y p g • Establish an acceptable injury threshold • Manage using all available strategies Principles of IPM (1) Monitoring • Prevent Problems • Look for pest organisms, damage and beneficial • Monitor the plants predators/parasitoids on a regular basis • Identify the pest organism y p g • Keep a record of your observations • Establish an acceptable injury • Collect samples of pest organisms or of damage threshold – Helps to ensure that damage / pest match up • Manage using all available strategies 3 View slide
  • 2/9/2009 (1) Monitoring Techniques (1) Monitoring: Visual Estimates • Estimate % of plant that• Visual Counts Least Cost is damaged• Damage Estimates Least Effort – % of leaves damaged – % damage per leaf – Describe damage• Water Pan Traps Moderate Cost Black Vine Weevil Damage • Count or estimate # of• Yellow Sticky Traps Some Effort pests per plant – Count or estimate on a per leaf basis if plant is• Beer and Board Traps Moderate – High Cost large• Pheromone Traps Moderate Effort Lacebug Damage (1) Monitoring: Water Pan Traps (1) Monitoring –Sticky Traps Yellow Yellow Sticky Trap Blue White Yellow sticky trap Trapping for fungus gnats Bees in Pan Trap Blue Sticky Trap (1) Monitoring – Beer and Board Traps (1) Monitoring – Pheromone Traps Beer Trap Roach Pheromone Trap• For slugs and snails Apple Maggot Trap• Raised boards• Homemade or Apple maggot trap commercial beer traps p Codling Moth Traps Board Trap Beer Trap 4 View slide
  • 2/9/2009 Monitoring – Phermone Traps Carbon Dioxide Traps • Japanese Beetle Traps • Used to monitor mosquito populations – West Nile – Malaria • Many blood feeding parasites cue in on CO2 emissions Japanese Beetle Principles of IPM Identify the Problem • Look for patterns of damage• Prevent Problems – In the garden and on a plant• Monitor the plants Uniform Damage Non-Uniform Damage• Identify the pest organism y p g• Establish an acceptable injury threshold• Manage using all available strategies Non-Living (Abiotic) Causes Living (Biotic) Causes • Vertebrate pests • Insects & mites • Nematodes • Fungi • Bacteria • Viruses 5
  • 2/9/2009 Abiotic or Biotic? Abiotic or Biotic? Abiotic or Abiotic or Biotic? Biotic Diagnosing Insect Problems Step by Step Method of Diagnosis• Do not, if at all possible, diagnose a pest problem from a photo • Define the problem. – Get a sample of the “insect” – Get a sample of the damage• Make sure that the organism is indeed an insect • Look for patterns. – Is it an adult or a juvenile?• Identify the insect to order (easier to do for adults than • Observe where the damage occurs on a plant. for juveniles) – What do the wings look like? Are they membraneous? Are there 2 pair? What about cross veins? Are the wings held flat over the • Examine spread of problem. body, or tent like over the body? – Do the mouthparts of the insect match up with the type of damage being reported? • Determine likely cause of damage. 6
  • 2/9/2009 Damage by Mining Insects Damage by Chewing Insects Black Vine Weevil Miners Chewers DamagePear slug damage Pear slug Boxwood Leaf Miner Flea Beetle Larvae and DamageBoxwood Leaf Miner Damage Cucumber Beetle & Damage Boxwood Leaf Miner Damage by Sucking Insects and Damage by Sucking Insects Mites Phloem Mesophyll Feeder Feeder Spider Mite Damage Spider Mite Damage Azalea Lace Spider Mite Aphid Damage Aphid Infestation on Bug Damage Damage Hybrid Tea Rose Identify your Pest Principles of IPM • Local Extension Office and OSU Master Gardener Program • OSU Insect ID Clinic • Prevent Problems – http://www.science.oregonstate.edu/bpp/insect_clinic/ • Monitor the plants • OSU Plant Disease Clinic – http://plant disease ippc orst edu/clinic cfmPacific http://plant-disease.ippc.orst.edu/clinic.cfmPacific • Identify the pest organism y p g Northwest Nursery IPM • Establish an acceptable injury – http://oregonstate.edu/dept/nurspest/ • OSU IPPC IPM Handbooks Online threshold – http://www.ipmnet.org/IPM_Handbooks.htm • Manage using all available strategies 7
  • 2/9/2009 Principles of IPM Manage Using All Available Strategies • Prevent Problems Cultural Least Toxic • Monitor the plants Physical • Identify the pest organism y p g Biological • Establish an acceptable injury Chemical Most Toxic threshold • Manage using all available strategies – Use a least hazardous approach, that will also enact effective control Cultural Control  Prevention! Plant / Site Selection • Altering your garden or gardening practices • RIGHT PLANT. RIGHT PLACE. to reduce pest populations or injury • Select quality nursery stock • Reduce plant stress through proper • Select plants with pest resistance horticultural practice • Companion Planting • Three Components – Selection – Installation – Maintenance Plant Selection: Resistant Plants Plant Selection: Companion planting R. davidsonianum Adult Root Weevil Damage to Leaves • Pests and the Plants that Repel Them Flea beetle Catnip, marigold, nasturtium, peppermint, rue, spearmint, southernwood, tansy Japanese beetle Catnip, chives, garlic, nasturtium, odorless marigold, tansy, Root Weevils white geranium Rabbit Garlic, marigold, onion Slugs and Snails Fennel, garlic, rosemaryList of Rhododendrons Resistant to Root Weevils can be found at:http://www.co.thurston.wa.us/health/ehcsg/pdf/weevil%20guide.pdf Spider mite Coriander, dill Resistant varietiesInformation on Managing Root Weevils in the Pacific Northwest:http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/pdf/ec/ec1485.pdf http://counties.cce.cornell.edu/Chemung/publications/companion-planting.pdf 8
  • 2/9/2009 Plant Installation Cultural Control: Plant Maintenance• Improper planting often results in stressed • Water for deep, spread roots plants. • Fertilizing• Compacted soils are often a particular – Too much fertilizer can increase insect pest problem on home sites. problems as much as too little fertilizer.• “I’d rather plant a $0.50 plant in a $5.00 • Mulching / Groundcovers hole than a $5.00 plant in a $0.50 hole.” – Can reduce weed problems • Remove and properly dispose of garden debris Disease Management: Sanitation Disease Management: Sanitation Hellebore with gray mold • Clean up Debris • Remove diseased plants • Prune away diseased plant partsPhysical/Mechanical Control Physical Control: Sticky barrier• Use of physical barriers, machines or • Can prevent objects to prevent an infestation pests from (preventative), or kill the pest (remedial) climbing and colonizing tree. – Horticultural fabrics to cover plants • Can prevent (preventative) pests from – Flyswatter (remedial) climbing down tree to pupate in soil 9
  • 2/9/2009 Physical Control: Collars and Copper Barriers for Molluscs Cages Plant Cage on Radishes Cabbage Maggot Control Brown Garden Snail Tin Collar Cutworm Control Physical Control: Row Covers Handpicking • Covers many plants, or entire rows • Protection for seedlings, or during other vulnerable times lnerable • Light, thermal and air environment will be modified Place insects in soapy water to kill them Water Sprays Pruning Spider Mites Spray plants with water to dislodge aphids. Aphids p Aphids Spider mitesMust be sprayed regularly to prevent recolonization. Tent caterpillars 10
  • 2/9/2009 Vacuuming TillingBoxelder Bug Flea Garden symphylan Asian Ladybug Beetle Tilling Physical Control: Bug Zappers Biological Control • Biological control is the use of living organisms —parasites, predators, or pathogens—to maintain pest populations below economically damaging levels, and may be either natural (conservation) or applied (augmentative). (augmentative) Royal Walnut Moth The 3 P’s: sitting on a bug zapper Predators, Parasitoids, Pathogens Parasitoids as Insect Predators as Biological Control Agents Biological Control Agents • There are 32 families that are significant for pest• While at least 26 families of parasitoids suppression, most common of which include: have been used, the most frequent • Heteroptera • Neuroptera hymenopterans are • Anthocoridae • Chrysopidae (minute pirate bugs) – Braconidae (green lacewings) Superfamily Ichneumonoidea • Pentatomidae – Ichneumonidae (soldier bugs) • Diptera • Reduviidae • Cecidomiidae – Eulophidae (assassin bugs) (predatory midges) – Pteromalidae Superfamily Chalcidoidea • Coleoptera • Syrphidae – Encyrtidae • Carabidae (syrphid flies) (ground beetles) – Aphelinidae • Coccinellidae • Hymenoptera (lady bird beetles) • Formicidae• In the Diptera, the most frequent group • Staphylinidae (ants) has been the Tachinidae (rove beetles) 11
  • 2/9/2009 Arachnid Predators as Predaceous Insects Biological Control Agents Green • Spiders (Araneae) are all predacious Lacewing Larvae • Predacious mites (Phytoseiidae) are important in controlling spider mites Rove BeetleAssassin Bug Ground Beetle Syrphid Fly LarvaeSoldier Bug Photo Credit: Jay Rosenheim Department of Entomology UC Davis Photo Credit: Jim Walgenbach Southern Applalachian Apple IPM Program Minute Pirate Bug Mountain Horticultural Crops Research & Extension Center Parasitoid Wasps Parasitoid Wasps Braconid emerging from moth cocoon Ichneumonid Ichneumonid Ptermomalid Wasp Eulophid Wasp Image Source: AMNH Braconid pupae on tomato hornworm Aphelenid Wasp Encyrtid Wasp Parasitized Insects Augmentative Biological ControlAphid Mummies • Increase local abundance of predators and parasitoids by releasing the biological control agents into the garden • Use of biological control agents as you would a Parasitized Cabbage Moth Larvae chemical pesticide h i l ti id Parasitized Beetle Larvae Stapling Egg Lacewing Egg Cards Parasitoid Emerging from Cards Eggs Aphid Mummy 12
  • 2/9/2009 Conservation Biological Control Conservation Biological Control• Increases the abundance of natural enemies where the habitat • Few studies have been conducted in garden has been manipulated (Langellotto and Denno 2004) systems• Spatial scale of conservation biological control area influences – Exception: Shrewsbury and Raupp (2006). Do top-down success (Langellotto and Rosenheim in prep) or bottom up forces determine Stephanities pyriodes in urban landscapes? p Beetle Banks Hedgerow Two Dimensional System Three Dimensional SystemField Margin Four Principles of IPM • Monitor the plants • Identify the pest organism • Establish an acceptable injury p j y threshold • Manage using all available strategies Number of Species Currently Chemical Control in IPM Controlled with Pesticides • IPM permits integrated use of chemical pesticides, but also actively seeks to minimize applications Diseases 137 • REDUCE – spray when needed, and not according to schedule g Insects 304 Mites 34 • REPLACE – use other, less toxic alternatives to Nematodes 23 pesticides Weeds 102 • REDESIGN – correct past landscape design issues to reduce pest problems 13
  • 2/9/2009 Organic and Synthetic Broad Spectrum / Non-Selective• Organic: Derived from an • Controls a wide range of pest organisms organic source – Botanicals (pyrethrum – Organophosphates (a.i. malathion) NeemTM, RotenoneTM) – Carbamates (a.i. carbaryl, methomyl) – Microbials (Bt sprays) – Pyrethroids ( y (a.i. cyfluthrin, fenpropathrin) y p p ) – Naturalytes (SpinosadTM) – Neonicotinoids (a.i. imidacloprid)• Synthetic: Manufactured pesticides Examples of Broad Organic Spectrum Pyrethrin Insecticides Synthetic Pyrethroid Narrow Spectrum / Selective Pesticide Classes - Insecticides Class Mode of Range of Notes• Controls a narrow range of pest organisms Action Activity – Insect Growth Regulators (IntrepidTM), Organophophates Cholinesterase Broad Potential non-target effects on Inhibitor mammals, beneficial insects a – Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.), Bt-k (DipelTM) and concern Bt-t (NovodorTM) Carbamates Cholinesterase Broad – Chewing Potential non-target effects on Inhibitor Insects beneficial insects a concern concern, mammals Pyrethroids Impacts Ion Broad Low toxicity to mammals, birds. Channels Toxic to fish. Potential non-target Colorado potato beetle effects on beneficial insects. Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Neonicitinoids Impacts Ion Channels Broad – Homoptera and Systemic. Low toxicity to mammals. Potential non-target effects on Bt-t toxin is effective against beetles beneficial insects, especially bees. This pest of potatoes, tomatoes Microbials - Bt Stomach Narrow – (Bt-k) Must be ingested in order to be and other solanaceous crops poison. caterpillars, (Bt-t) effective. Thus, targets only those Paralyzes beetles, (Bt-i) - insects that are feeding on the insect gut. Flies protected plant. Pesticide Classes - Insecticides Pesticide Classes - InsecticidesClass Mode of Range of Notes Class Mode of Range of Notes Action Activity Action ActivityMicrobial Inhibits ion Mites, Leaf Moderate toxicity to mammals. Botanical Impacts Ion Many insects, but Low toxicity to mammals. RapidDerivitives - channels Miners, Leaf Toxicity to aquatic organisms Insecticides - Channels particularly useful break down in sun. DegradationAvermectims Beetles potentially high. pyrethrum against limits impact on beneficialMicrobial Overexcites Leaf Chewers, Low toxicity to mammals and caterpillars, sawfly insects, but may require repeatDerivitives -D i iti nervous Thrips, some Gall Th i G ll beneficial i b fi i l insects. t larvae, larvae leaf application. applicationSpinosad system Makers beetles, leafhoppersHorticultural Oils Smothering Effective against Low toxicity and minimal impacts (block many insects – on non-target insects. Botanical Inhibits Effective against a Low toxicity to mammals. Low risk spiracles) active stages and Insecticides - neem feeding, limited range of to beneficial insects. eggs interferes with insects. molting andInsecticidal Soaps Disrupts cuticle Small, soft-bodies Vertebrates and non-target insects egg production insects and mites generally not impacted. Toxic against beneficial mites. May directly harm plant Information for Tables Taken From: Whitney Cranshaw. Classes of Pesticides Used in Landscape/Nursery Pest Management. In Chapter 9 of Tactics and Tools for IPM. 14
  • 2/9/2009 Minimizing the Negative Effects of Components Chemical Control Landscape Disease Ecology Pest Natural Enemies Complex Complex• Avoid applying pesticides on a windy day.• Choose narrow over broad spectrum Management insecticides.• Spot treat, rather than broadcast a p Land Plant Abiotic Land pesticide. Diversity Factors Soil Soil• Always read the label, follow directions and do not apply more than is recommended. Nematodes Nutrients Organic Matter• Wear protective clothing and eyewear. Micro/ Macro• Dispose of unwanted pesticides and empty Inverte- Microbial Flora containers properly. brates 15