Growing Vegetables in Containers - Utah State University
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Growing Vegetables in Containers - Utah State University

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Growing Vegetables in Containers - Utah State University

Growing Vegetables in Containers - Utah State University

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  • 1. 2/27/2009 Finding a Spot to Garden Growing Vegetables • You don’t need a lot of space to have a in Containers vegetable garden! • All you need is a: – P ti Patio Annette Wszelaki – Deck – Balcony Commercial Vegetable Specialist – Doorstep – Windowsill Benefits of Container Gardening Selecting Containers• Accessibility • Be creative!• Side-steps soil problems • Plan for drainage – If adding holes, drill four or more ¼” spaced evenly• Requires little or no land – Put ~ ½” coarse gravel or small stones in bottom ½• Convenient • Small containers will• Economical dry out more quickly• Efficiency 1
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  • 4. 2/27/2009 Recycling Containers• Scrub them well• Rinse in a mild bleach solution – (9 parts water:1 part bleach) 4
  • 5. 2/27/2009 The Container Dictates the Preparing Containers Environment• For porous containers (clay, wood, cement), • Plants will be more sensitive to temperature soak well in water before filling extremes • Overheating can be the end of your container planting • Thick wood insulates best • Dark colored containers will absorb more heat • Light colored containers reflect heatChoose the Right Container Choose the Right Container •Medium-depth containers (12-18” deep)• Shallow containers (9-12” deep) – 9 to 18 inches – 14 to 16 inches – Beets • Carrots • Peas – Leaf lettuce – 12 to 14 inches • Peppers – Onions • Broccoli • Cherry tomatoes – Radishes • Cabbage – Spinach – Swiss chard • CauliflowerChoose the Right Container Choosing Your Soil•Deep containers (16-18” deep) • Media should drain well, but not dry out too – Beans fast – Cucumbers • Soilless mixes are a good choice because: –FFree of disease organisms f di i – Potatoes and weed seed – Summer Squash – Less likely to compact – Tomatoes – Hold moisture and nutrients well – Lightweight- make containers portable 5
  • 6. 2/27/2009 Potting Mix Recipe ‘Organic’ Potting Mix Recipe• Shredded sphagnum peat moss 1 bushel • Shredded sphagnum peat moss 1 bushel• Vermiculite 1 bushel • Vermiculite 1 bushel• Ground limestone 1 ¼ cups • Ground limestone 1 ¼ cups• Superphosphate (0-20-0) (0 20 0) ½ cup • Bonemeal 10 lbs lbs. or (0-45-0) ¼ cup • Bloodmeal 5 lbs.• Granular 5-10-5 fertilizer 1 cupMoisten with water and store in plastic garbage Moisten with water and store in plastic garbage bags or trash (clean!) can. Makes 2 bushels. bags or trash (clean!) can. Makes 2 bushels. Caring for Your Containers Caring for Your Containers• Location • Watering – Most vegetables grow & produce – Required frequently! Daily? best when grown in full sun – Water thoroughly and deeply g y py (at least 6 hours/day… 8 hours better!) – Never let soil dry out completely – Fruit bearing plants require the most sun – Overwatering will slowly kill your plants (cukes, tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, etc.) – Avoid wetting leaves – Leafy vegetables (greens, cabbage, herbs) tolerate more shade than root crops – Water first thing in the morning (radishes, beets, onions)AquaSpikes and AquaRocks Caring for Your Containers • Fertilization – Container-grown plants require more frequent fertilization than field-grown • Less soil from which to obtain nutrients – Apply a soluble fertilizer every week or two 6
  • 7. 2/27/2009 Caring for Your Containers Diagnosing Common• Trellising or Caging Problems in –Some tomatoes, cukes, beans and Container Gardens greens will require –Be sure not to ‘shade out’ other containers The Container Doctor The Container Doctor• Symptoms: • Symptoms: – Plants tall, spindly and unproductive – Plants yellowing from bottom, lack vigor, poor color• Cause: • Cause: – I ff Insufficient light l h – Excessive water – Excessive nitrogen – Low fertility• The Cure: • The Cure: – Move container to receive more sun – Reduce watering interval; check drainage – Reduce feeding intervals – Increase fertility level The Container Doctor The Container Doctor• Symptoms: • Symptoms: – Plants wilt with sufficient moisture present – Marginal burning or firing of the leaves• Cause: • Cause: –P Poor d drainage and aeration d – H h salts High l• The Cure: • The Cure: – Use mix containing higher – Leach container with tap % organic matter water at regular intervals – Increase # of drainage holes 7
  • 8. 2/27/2009 The Container Doctor The Container Doctor• Symptoms: • Symptoms: – Plants stunted in growth; sickly, purplish color – Holes in leaves, leaves distorted in shape• The Cause: • Cause: – Insects – L temperature Low – Low phosphate • The Cure: – Scout your containers!• Cure: – Squash them! – Relocate container to warmer area – Dilute soap solution – Increase phosphate level – Use a recommended insecticide The Container Doctor• Symptoms: – Plants leaves with spots; dead dried areas, or powdery or rusty areas• Cause: The Crops p – Plant diseases• The Cure: – Remove infected parts – Be careful what time/how you’re watering – Give your plants more space next year! Eggplant Tomatoes• Varieties to try: Minimum container size: • Minimum container size: – Florida Market – 5 gallons – 5 gallons (large)• DistanceBeauty – Black between plants: – 1 gallon (cherry) – Long Tom – 18-24” • Distance between plants: – Fai Tale Fairy• Days from seed to harvest: – Bambino – 18-24” 75-100 – Slim Jim • Days from seed to harvest:• – Ichiban Requires fertile soil – 55-100 – Mohican• Full sun • Helps to stake and prune – Turkish Orange • Full sun 8
  • 9. 2/27/2009 Tomatoes Hanging Tomatoes• Slicers • Cherry – Bush Early Girl – Golden Nugget • Upside Down Tomatoes – BushSteak Hybrid (Shepherd’s) – Sweet 100 Patio – Tiny Tim – www.upsidedowntomatoplant.com/ – Spring Giant – Better Boy – Tommy Toe – Jetstar – Patio – Bush Celebrity – Pixie – Super Bush (Shepherd’s) – Small Fry – Totem – Supersweet 100• Roma – Sun Gold – Saladette – Patio Princess (large)• Hanging Baskets • Grape – Tumbling Tom – Golden Sunshine – Tumbler Hybrid Peppers Peppers • Bell – Tequila • Sweet Specialty • Minimum container size: – Redskin – Yummy – Mohawk – Pizza My Heart (sweet) – 2 gallons – Lady Bell – Gypsy Bell Boy • Distance between plants: – Yolo Wonder – Baby Belle – – Sweet Banana – 12-18” 12 18 – Keystone Resistant Giant – Balloon (sweet wings, HOT wings – New Ace seeds!) • Days from seed to harvest: • Hot – Apache Chile – 60-90 – Cherry Bomb (Johnny’s) • Require hot weather – Long Red Cayenne – Super Chile (Johnny’s, AAS) • Full sun – Prairie Fire (Johnny’s) – (Hot) Red Cherry – Hot Lemon – Red Chili (hot) – Numex Twilight Squash Squash • Zucchini • Yellow Squash • Minimum container size: – Eight Ball – Papaya Pear – 5 gallons – One Ball – Pic-N-Pic – Cue Ball – Early Prolific Straightneck • Distance between plants: – Gold Rush (yellow) • Winter Squash – 24-36” 24 36 – Diplomat p – Bush Delicata – Senator • Patty Pan • Days from seed to harvest: – (Green) Zucco – Scallopini – 50-60 (summer) – Dixie – 90-105 (winter) • Bush types work best • Full sun 9
  • 10. 2/27/2009 Cucumbers Melons• Minimum container size: • Varieties to try: • Minimum container size: • Varieties to try: – Liberty – 5 gallons – Early Pick – 5 gallons – Minnesota Midget• Distance between plants: – Crispy • Distance between plants: – Snow Leopard – Salty – 14-18” – Bush Champion (Burpee) – 18-24” – Savor• Days from seed to harvest: – Bush Slicer (Shepherd’s) • Days from seed to harvest: – Charentais – Patio Pik – 45-60 – 70-80 – Sugar Nut – Patio Pickles – Alibi• Vining types will – Spacemaster • Personal-sized melons need support – Pot Luck • Full sun – Salad Bush• Full sun – Mexican Sour Gherkin Lettuce Leaf Lettuce• Minimum container size: • Buttercrunch • Green Ice • Salad Bowl • Red Sails – 1/2 gallon • Romaine• Distance between plants: • Dark Green Boston • Black Seeded Simpson – 4-6” • Ruby • Buttercrunch • Bibb • Oakleaf• Days from seed to harvest: • Garden Babies • Gourmet Lettuce Blends – 21-35 • Heatwave Loose Leaf • Mesclun Mixes• Multiple cuttings on leaves• Partial shade Swiss Chard Spinach • Minimum container size:• Minimum container size: • Varieties to try: – 1 gallon • Varieties to try: – 2 gallons – Bright Lights – Baby Spinach • Distance between plants:• Distance between plants: – Dark Green – Fordhook Giant – 1-2” Bloomsdale – 18-24” (white ribbed) • Days from seed to harvest harvest: – American Viking• Days from seed to harvest: – Lucullus – 40-60 – Melody – About 30 for baby (green ribbed) • Partial shade/ – About 60 for bunching – Bionda di Lyon full sun – Malabar• Partial shade/ – New Zealand Spinach full sun 10
  • 11. 2/27/2009 Kale Other Greens• Minimum container size: • Varieties to try: • Arugula – 5 gallons – Starbor• Distance between plants: – Redbor • Pak Choy – 10-15” – Winterbor • Watercress• Days from seed to harvest: – Kale-Dwarf Bl C l d K l D f Blue Curled Scotch • Radicchio – 55-65 – Dinosaur (Lacinato) • Komatsuna• Excellent in fall & winter • Mizuna• Partial shade/full sun Broccoli and Cauliflower Brussel Sprouts• Minimum container size: • Varieties to try: • Minimum container size: • Varieties to try: – 3 gallons – Green Comet – 5 gallons – Jade Cross• Distance between plants: – DeCicco • Distance between plants: – Long Island – 8” – Munchkin – 18”• Days from seed to harvest: – Happy Rich H Ri h • Days from seed to harvest: – 50-70 – 90-110 – Graffiti• Fall or spring • Can be harvested after – Cheddar• Full sun frost • Full sun Cabbage Onions• Minimum container size: • Minimum container size: • Varieties to try: • Varieties to try: – 5 gallons – 1/2 gallon (green) – Green – Dwarf Morden – 3 gallons (bulb) • Beltsville Bunching• Distance between plants: – Red Ace • Crystal Wax – 12-18” – Early Jersey • Distance between plants: • Evergreen Bunching• Days from seed to harvest: Wakefield – 2-5” – White – 65-105 – Caraflex • Days from seed to harvest: • White Sweet Spanish• Heavy feeder – Chinese – 65-100 – Yellow • Michihili • Yellow Sweet Spanish• Full sun/partial shade • Need lots of moisture – Mini • Full sun/partial shade • Purplette • Gold Coin 11
  • 12. 2/27/2009 Green Beans Lima Beans Minimum container size:• Varieties to try: • Minimum container size: • Varieties to try: Topcrop – 2 gallons – 3 gallons – Henderson Bush – Greencrop – Jackson• Distance between plants: • Distance between plants: – Contender – Wonder Bush – 2-3” Blue Lake – (Pole) – 3-4” (baby)• – Kentucky Wonder Days from seed to harvest: – 6” (bush) – Bush Romano – 45-60 • Days from seed to harvest: – Tender Crop• Succession planting – Derby – 65-80• Full sun ‘N Narrow – Straight • Full sun – Royal Burgundy Edamame Beets• Minimum container size: • Varieties to try: • Minimum container size: • Varieties to try: – 3 gallons – 1/2 gallon – Little Egypt – Black Jet• Distance between plants: – Envy • Distance between plants: – Early Red Ball – 15-30” – Sayamusume – 2-3” – Chioggia• Days from seed to harvest: • Days from seed to harvest: – Ruby Queen – 75-104 – 50-60 – Golden• Harvest immature • Thin plants when 6-8” tall – Detroit White – Bull’s Blood (tops,• Full sun • Full sun/partial shade beets) Carrots Radishes• Minimum container size: • Varieties to try: • Minimum container size: • Varieties to try: – 1 quart – Short & Sweet – 1 pint (A shoe?) – Cherry Belle• Distance between plants: – Danvers Half Long • Distance between plants: – Scarlet Globe – 2-3” – Tiny Sweet – 1” – (White) Icicle• Days from seed to harvest: – Little Finger • Days from seed to harvest: – Champion – 65-80 – Nantes Half Long – 25-35 – Comet – Thumbelina – Sparkler• Several plantings • Several plantings – Easter Egg Blend• Full sun/partial shade • Full sun/partial shade 12
  • 13. 2/27/2009 Turnips Herbs• Minimum container size: • Basil • Nasturtiums • Varieties to try: – 3 gallons • Thyme • Parsley ‘Evergreen,’ – Hakurai ‘Moss Curled’• Distance between plants: • Cilantro – Toyko Cross • Catmint ‘Walkers Low’ • Rosemary – 2-3” – Golden Ball (prostate or creeping) • Dill ‘Compatto’ Compatto• Days from seed to harvest: • Horehound • Tarragon – 30-60 • Lavender • Sage Lemon Balm • Savory (summer or winter)• Harvest leaves and roots • • Marjoram • Scented geraniums• Full sun/partial shade • Mint (always contain!) Potential Benefits Companion Planting • Attract beneficial insects • Increased pollination • Planting species together that • Fertilizer provide one or more plants a • Shade cultural benefit • Weed control • Trellis system • Increased yields How does it work? Scientific Basis • Trap cropping• Employed for centuries • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation• Mechanisms behind interactions not well understood • Biochemical pest suppression• Planting combinations based on • Plant spatial interactions observations, science & • Nurse cropping unconventional sources • Beneficial habitat • Diversity 13
  • 14. 2/27/2009 The Italian Container The Fiesta Container• Basil • Cilantro• Oregano • Your favorite hot pepper• A patio tomato • Chives• A sweet pepper • A patio tomato • Tomatillo plant From www.motherearthsgarden.com From www.motherearthsgarden.comThe Summer Tea Container Container Gardening Resources• Lemon balm (plant in its own pot) – Container Vegetable Gardening • http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/hil/hil-8105.html• Echinacea • http://www.extension.iastate.edu/Publications/PM870B.pdf• Bee Balm (Oswego tea) – Grow Vegetables in Containers • http://celosangeles.ucdavis.edu/garden/articles/pdf/container-growing-vegetables.pdf• Chamomile – Container Gardening• Lavender • http://www.wvu.edu/~agexten/hortcult/homegard/cntanegrd.htm• Mint – Vegetable Gardening in Containers • http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/extension/container/container.html • http://www.ext.vt.edu/pubs/envirohort/426-336/426-336.pdf From www.motherearthsgarden.com Seed Sources– Johnny’s Selected Seed • www.johnnyseeds.com/ Thank you!– Burpee • www.burpee.com/ Questions?– Sh h d’ Seed or Renee’s Garden Shepherd’s S d R ’ G d • www.reneesgarden.com/hm-gardnr/resource/shepherd.htm Email annettew@utk.edu– Seeds of Change http://organics.tennessee.edu • www.seedsofchange.com/– Totally Tomatoes • www.totallytomato.com/ 14