Acid,bases and salts 2


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Acid,bases and salts 2

  1. 1. Acid is a substance that dissociates in aqueous solution to give hydrogen ions. HA H+ + A- An Acid is a substance (molecule or ion) that can donate Proton (H+) to another substance. AnAcid is a substance which can accept a pair of electrons.
  2. 2. • Acids have sour taste. For example, unripe citrus fruits or lemon juice. • They turn blue litmus red. • They are corrosive in concentrated form. • Their aqueous solutions conduct electricity.
  3. 3. • Names and formulae of some important acids are as follows : Name of Acids Formulae 1. Hydrochloric Acid HCl 2. SulphuricAcid H2SO4 3. Phosphoric Acid H2PO4 4. NitricAcid HNO3
  4. 4. • Sulphuric acid is used to manufacture fertilizers, ammonium sulphate, explosives, paints, drugs and drugs. • Nitric acid is used in manufacturing of fertilizers, explosives, paints and drugs etc. • Hydrochloric acid is used for cleaning metals, tanning and in printing press • Benzoic acid is used for food preservation. • Acetic acid is used for flavoring food and food flavoring.
  5. 5. A Base is a substance which dissociates in aqueous solution to give hydroxide ions BOH B+ + OH- A Base is a substance that can accept (H+) from another substance. A Base is a substance (molecule or ion) which can donate a pair of electrons.
  6. 6. • Sodium Hydroxide is used for manufacturing soap • Calcium Hydroxide is used for manufacturing of bleaching powder, softening of hard water and neutralization. • Potassium Hydroxide is used in alkaline batteries. • Magnesium Hydroxide is used as a base to neutralize acidity in stomach. • Aluminium Hydroxide is used as a foaming agent in fire extinguishers. • Ammonium Hydroxide is used to remove grease stains from cloths.
  7. 7. • Names and formulae of some important Bases are as follows : Names of Bases Chemical Formulae 1. Sodium Hydroxide NaOH 2. Potassium Hydroxide KOH 3. Calcium Hydroxide Ca(OH)2 4.Aluminium Hydroxide Al(OH)3
  8. 8. • Salts are ionic compounds generally formed by the neutralization of acid with a base. • Salts are made up of positive and negative ions. • Its general equation is as follows: • Acid + Base Salt +Water • For Example : HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O NaCl is also shown in figure • o Normal Salts o Acidic Salts o Basic Salts o Double Salts o Mixed Salts o Complex Salts
  9. 9. Beside the production of Salt from reaction of Acid and Base, Salts can also be produced by other reactions, namely : 1. Base + Metallic Oxide Salt +Water 2. Acid + Metallic Oxide Salt +Water 3. OxideAcid + Oxide Base Salt 4. Metal + Acid Salt + Hydrogen
  10. 10. • Sodium Chloride(NaCl) is commonly used as a table salt and for cooking purposes. It is also used for de-icing roads in winter. • Sodium Carbonate/Soda Ash(Na2CO3) is used for the manufacture of glass, detergents, pulps and paper etc. • Sodium Carbonate/Washing Soda(Na2CO3.10H2O) is used as cleaning agent for domestic and commercial purposes, for softening of water, in manufacture of chemicals • Sodium Sulphate(Na2SO4) It is used for the manufacture of glass, paper and detergents. • Sodium Silicate(Na2SiO3) It is used for manufacturing of detergents, cleaning agents and adhesives • Sodium Chlorate(NaClO3) It is used for manufacture of explosives plastics and other chemicals. • Calcium Chloride(CaCl2) It is used for de-icing roads in winter, as a drying agent and as freezing agent. • Potassium Nitrate(KNO3) It is used for fertilizer and for the manufacture of flint glass.
  11. 11. • pH is a measure of hydrogen ion concentration; a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution.Aqueous solutions at 25°C with a pH less than seven are acidic, while those with a pH greater than seven are basic or alkaline.A pH level of 7.0 at 25°C is defined as ‘Neutral’. • pH is the negative logarithm of molar concentration of Hydrogen ions. • pH = -log[ H+ ] • with reference to this equation , a scale develops to the molar concentration of H+ ions that is called pH scale. • A pH scale is shown below :
  12. 12. • Indicators are organic compounds. They have Different colours in acidic and alkaline solutions. • Litmus is a common indicator • Red LitmusTurns blue in base • Blue LitmusTurns red in acid • Each indicator has a specific colour in acidic medium which changes at specific pH to another colour in basic medium.