WHO IS KENNETH BURKE? NAME: Kenneth Duva Burke (May 5, 1897 – Nov 19, 1993) BORN :Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Vocations: Editor, Essayist, Literary Critic, Novelist, Philosopher, Poet, Professor, Reviewer, Rhetorician, Social Commentator, Translator 3
HIS WORKS• The White Oxen. New York: A. & C. Boni, 1924.• Counter-Statement. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1931.• Towards a Better Life, Being a Series of Epistles, or Declamations. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1932.• Permanence and Change: An Anatomy of Purpose. New York: New Republic, 1935.• The Philosophy of Literary Form: Studies in Symbolic Action. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State UP, 1941; revised and abridged edition, New York: Vintage, 1957.• A Grammar of Motives. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1945.• A Rhetoric of Motives. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1950.• Books of Moments: Poems 1915-1954. Los Altos, CA: Hermes Publications, 1955.• The Rhetoric of Religion: Studies in Logology. Boston: Beacon Press, 1961.• Language as Symbolic Action: Essays on Life, Literature, and Method. Berkeley: U of California P, 1966. 4• Dramatism and Development. Worcester, MA: Clark UP, 1972.
CONTEXT Rhetoric is the art of effective or persuasive speaking or writing. For example the use of figures of speech and compositional techniques. At it’s best, rhetoric is a thoughtful, reflective activity leading to effective communication. Rhetoric typically provide heuristics for understanding, discovering, and developing arguments for particular situations, such as Aristotles three persuasive audience appeals:
THE DEVELOPMENT OF RHETORIC Since Homer in the 8th century BC, wisdom (sophos) and skill were prized. The Sophists were originally itinerant poets and teachers who spread learning and culture . The Sophists were the effective lawyers and advised on governance and the new Athenian democracy. Over time, the Sophists focused more on eloquent speech and rhetoric, making grand claims about their ability to answer all questions. Aristotle also helped separate out philosophy as a separate school, leaving sophism as being largely about the techniques of rhetoric.
• Whilst Aristotle denounced the sophists, he also refined rhetoric in The Art of Rhetoric, documenting and defining its rules and methods in the various forms of Aristotelian argument.• In Rome, Cicero, with his Rhetorica ad Herennium and Quintilian developed rhetoric further and the five canons of rhetoric was very influential for centuries.• Across the centuries from the Greeks and Romans, various writers continued to explore, refine and re-define rhetoric, including:a St. Augustine (354-430), in De Doctrina Christiana.5 Boethius (~480-524), in his Overview of the Structure of Rhetoric.2 Erasmus (~1466-1536)in De Duplici Copia Verborum et Rerum.5 Juan Luis Vives (1492-1540) in Rhetoricae and other works.( Thomas Wilsons The Arte of Rhetorique (1553)• Eloquent persuasion became a mainstay of the civilized intellectual as well as the courtiers preferred mode of speech. From the Romans to the Middle Ages, rhetoric was taught as a liberal art alongside logic and grammar.
• Rhetoric thus became a mainstay of priests, lawyers, politicians, writers and all who would persuade, in particular those who addressed a wide audience.• From the Greek rhetor who addressed juries to modern leaders who address global audiences, rhetoric is a indeed a powerful tool.• Today, the use of the word rhetoric sometimes approaches a derogatory form, implying the use of fancy language to persuade, much as sophism lost credibility amongst the Greeks, and much for the same reason.
DEVELOPMENT OF DRAMATISM -Burke is a symbolic theorist who pays attention to language as a strategic human response to a specific situation. -He considered clusters of words as dances of attitudes. -Thus, the critics should focuses on why a writer or speaker selected the words that were choreographed into specific message. -Burke suggests the word dramatism to describe what he saw going on when people start communicate. -Dramatism was influenced by Aristotles Rhetoric but was less concerned with the persuasion but more on identication.
-Burke used the word "substance" as the key term to describe a persons physical characteristics, talents, occupation, experiences, personality, beliefs, and attitudes. -The more overlap between the substance of the speaker and the listener, the greater the identification is. -Burke was influenced by religious description of Martin Luther Kings that was based on Old Testament and further perceived identification as consubstantiation. -The main idea of dramatism lays on identification, without it, no persuasion happen. -Burkes idea of dramatism get attention after Marie Hochmuth Nichols, a rhetorician from University of Illinois shown the significant contribution of the theory to the field of communication. -Since that, thousand of communication scholars have used his persepctives as a methodology to analyze public adress and other forms of symbolic action.
BURKES’ DRAMATISM: “L ife is drama. T he dramatistic pentad of A C T , S C E NE , A GE NT , A GE NC Y and P UR P OS E is the tool for discovering a speaker’s motives”.…Without audience identification with the speaker, there is no persuasion. 13
How the speaker talk ‘what their talk about’ are based on 5 elements: 14
APPLICATION Rhetorical theory is a way in which persuasion can be used successfully. The most common use of rhetorical theory is used within political speeches. Dramatism theory may be used widely in persuasive speech, political speeches, or attention-grabbing tools. Other than that, this theory also might be practically use in theatre, acting, selling or may be in advertising. 16
STRENGTHS• Rhetoric and dramatism skill are used widely in order to grab people’s attention, to make them understand, and apply it.• It’s more than to persuade and to convince people. It is the art of making people think what the speaker has thought and practice.• History has proven, a powerful speech has changed the world and the whole content. 18
WEAKNESSES• Aristotle discussion of emotional proof does not really deal with the power of speakers who rely on shock, charisma, dynamism. His discussion may really have been targeted at elites rather than the average people.• He promises analysis in terms of logical ethical and emotional appeals, but actually structure his argument in terms of speakers, speech and audience.• Lecture note form leaves many holes , lack of precision in terms. 19
COMMENTS AND CRITIQUESBurke’s ideas was closely tied to symbolic interactionismBurke’s tends to flood his text with literary allusionsHis writing invite active reader participation as he surrounds an idea.He also has done us all a favor by celebrating the life-giving quality oflanguage.The integrated procedure offers five artistic element tools for the critic touse in analyzing human interaction.It is very helpful for pinpointing a speaker’s motivation and the way thespeech serves that need or desire.Burke’s concept of rhetoric as identification was a major advance in a fieldof knowledge that many scholars had thought complete.He gave it contemporary luster by showing that common ground is thefoundation of emotional appeal.His ethical stands; he refuse to let desirable ends justify unfair meaning
CONCLUSION• Dramatism is a very complex theory with a very interpretive perspective. The basic idea is that everything in life can be viewed as drama, complete with a plot, actors, setting etc.• It also describes three lenses with which we can view life: identification, dramatistic pentad, and guild-redemption cycle. Dramatism focuses on the role of the critic and their responsibility of uncovering a speaker’s motives.
SUMMARYBurke’s theory has teaches us to analyze the social movements, using a simple dramatic ratios like the dramatic pentad, he give us the tools to understand and critique speech, a campaign, a social movement or a revolution. Lastly, Burke’s method is infused with the idea of moral choice and good in unmasking hidden meaning and coded phrases.Rhetoric is a thoughtful, reflective activity leading to effective communication or writing and use of figure speech , compositional techniques and language designer to have a 22 persuasive or impressive effect.
REFERENCES Chambers, S. (2009). Has Deliberative Democracy Abandoned Mass Democracy. Rhetoric and Public Sphere, 323-350. Fulford, R. L. (1976). Platonism and Dramatism. Kenneth Burkes Dialectic, n/a. Griffin, E. (2008). A First Look at Communication Theory. New York: McGraw Hill. Kuypers, J. A. (2005). The Art of Rhetorical Criticism. USA: Pearson. Smith, R. M. (2008). The Case of George W. Bush. Religious Rhetoric and Ethic of Public Discourse, 272-300. Weisberg, E. (1984). Kenneth Burkes Dramatism. The Rhetoric of Criticism, n/a. Weiser, M. E. (2004). The Development of Kenneth Burkes Dramatism. Word Man at War, n/a.