Academic Session 2008-2009Mini-Project ReportHydraulic Ram PumpLect. S. G. Mahakalkar Prof. S. L. BankarProject guide HOD ...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTI would like to express my gratitude towards the Principal, YCCE,Nagpur, for his permission for mini projec...
successful, particularly in Europe, in the days before electrical power andthe internal combustion engine become widely av...
water falling a small height to lift a small amount of that water to a muchgreater height. In this way, water from a sprin...
Although hydraulic ram pumps come in a variety of shapes and sizes,they all have the same basic components as shown in Fig...
needs to be understood. Although waste water is not delivered by the rampump, it is the energy of this water that pumps th...
• They are limited in hilly areas with a year-round water sources• They pump only a small fraction of the available flow a...
o Valve design considerations. The correct design of valves isa critical factor in the overall performance of ram pumps.He...
locally designed and manufactured hydraulic ram pumps and othersimilar appropriate technologies.• To disseminate hydrams a...
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Hydraulic Ram Pump Mini-Project Report - Agriculture and Rural Development, Alberta

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Hydraulic Ram Pump Mini-Project Report - Agriculture and Rural Development, Alberta

  1. 1. Academic Session 2008-2009Mini-Project ReportHydraulic Ram PumpLect. S. G. Mahakalkar Prof. S. L. BankarProject guide HOD Mechanical DepartmentSubmitted by:-Murtaza Husain Nikhil Gajre Nilesh GhanokarB-130 B-132 B-134
  2. 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTI would like to express my gratitude towards the Principal, YCCE,Nagpur, for his permission for mini project. I want to thank Prof. S. L.Bankar HOD of mechanical department who gives us constantinspiration.It gives me immense pleasure to extend my special thanks to Lect. S. G.Mahakalkar for his support, guidance and co-operation. I will alwaysremain grateful to all my teachers for their excellent support in makingthis project on the hydraulic ram pump.INTRODUCTIONRam Pumps have been used for over two centuries in many parts of theworld. Their simplicity and reliability made them commercially
  3. 3. successful, particularly in Europe, in the days before electrical power andthe internal combustion engine become widely available. As technologyadvanced and become increasingly reliant on sources of power derivedfrom fossil fuels, the ram pump was neglected. It was felt to have norelevance in an age of national electricity grids and large - scale watersupplies. Big had become beautiful and small-scale ram pump technologywas unfashionable. In recent years an increased interest in renewableenergy devices and an awareness of the technological needs of aparticular market in developing countries have prompted a reappraisal ofram pumps. In hilly areas with springs and streams, the potential for asimple and reliable pumping device is large. Although there are someexamples of successful ram pump installation in developing countries,their use to date has merely scratched at the surface of their potential.The main reason for this being, lack of wide spread local knowledge inthe design and manufacture of ram pumps. Hence, the wide spread use ofram pumps will only occur if there is a local manufacturer to deliverquickly; give assistance in system design, installation, and provide anafter-sales service.HYDRAULIC RAM PUMP SYSTEMHydraulic Ram Pumps are water pumping devices that are powered byfalling water. The pump works by using the energy of a large amount of
  4. 4. water falling a small height to lift a small amount of that water to a muchgreater height. In this way, water from a spring or stream in a valley canbe pumped to a village or irrigation scheme on the hillside. Wherever afall of water can be obtained, the ram pump can be used as acomparatively cheap, simple and reliable means of raising water toconsiderable heights.The diagram in Fig. 1 shows all the main components of a hydraulic rampump system. Water is diverted from a flowing river or taken from intakestructure of a spring. A drive tank is usually built between the ram pumpand the intake to insure constant flow of water to the ram pump. The rampump lifts part of the water coming through the drive pipe to a higherlevel at the delivery tank. A pump house is built to protect the ram pumpand fittings from theft or accidental damage.Fig. 1 Components of a Hydraulic Ram Pump StationWORKING PRINCIPLE OF HYDRAULIC RAMPUMPS
  5. 5. Although hydraulic ram pumps come in a variety of shapes and sizes,they all have the same basic components as shown in Fig. 2. The mainparts of a ram pump are Hydram body, Waste value snifter valve, deliveryvalve, air chamber and relief valve. Ram Pumps have a cyclic pumpingaction that produces their characteristic beat during operation. The cyclecan be divided into three phases; acceleration, delivery and recoil.Acceleration - When the waste valve is open, water accelerates down thedrive pipe and discharges through the open valve. As the flow increases itreaches a speed where the drag force is sufficient to start closing thevalve. Once it has begun to move, the valve closes very quickly.Delivery - As the waste valve slams shut, it stops the flow of waterthrough it. The water that has been flowing in the drive pipe hasconsiderable momentum which has to be dissipated. For a fraction of asecond, the water in the body of the pump is compressed causing a large~surge in pressure. This type of pressure rise is known as water hammer.As the pressure rises higher than that in the air chamber, it forces waterthrough the delivery valve (a non-return valve). The delivery valve staysopen until the water in the drive pipe has almost completely slowed andthe pressure in the pump body drops below the delivery pressure. Thedelivery valve then closes, stopping any back flow from the air vesselinto the pump and drive pipe.Recoil - The remaining flow in the drive pipe recoils against the closeddelivery valve - rather like a ball bouncing back. This causes the pressurein the body of the pump to drop low enough for the waste vale to reopen.The recoil also sucks a small amount of air in through the snifter valve.The air sits under the delivery valve until the next cycle when it ispumped with the delivery water into the air vessel. This ensures that theair vessel stays full of air. When the recoil energy is finished, waterbegins to accelerate down the drive pipe and out through the open wastevalve, starting the cycle again. Throughout the cycle the pressure in theair vessel steadily forces water up the delivery pipe. The air vesselsmoothes the pulsing in flow through the delivery valve into an evenoutflow up the delivery pipe. The pumping cycle happens very quickly,typically 40 to 120 times per minute.During each pumping cycle only a very small amount of water ispumped. However, with cycle after cycle continuing over 24 hours, asignificant amount of water can be lifted. While the ram pump isoperating, the water flowing out the waste valve splashes onto the floor orthe pump house and is considered waste water. The term waste water
  6. 6. needs to be understood. Although waste water is not delivered by the rampump, it is the energy of this water that pumps the water which isdelivered.Fig. 2 Hydraulic Ram PumpAPPLICATIONS AND LIMITATIONS OFHYDRAULIC RAM PUMPSFor any particular site, there are usually a number of potential waterlifting options. Choosing between them involves consideration of manydifferent factors. Ram pumps in certain conditions have many advantagesover other forms of water-lifting, but in others, it can be completelyinappropriate. The main advantages of ram pumps are:• Use of a renewable energy source ensuring low running cost• Pumping only a small proportion of the available flow has littleenvironmental impact• Simplicity and reliability give a low maintenance requirement• There is good potential for local manufacture in the rural villages• Automatic, continuous operation requires no supervision or humaninput.The main limitations are:
  7. 7. • They are limited in hilly areas with a year-round water sources• They pump only a small fraction of the available flow andtherefore require source flows larger than actual water delivered• Can have a high capital cost in relation to other technologies• Are limited to small-scale applications, usually up to 1kW, but thisrequires economical and other considerations.CONSIDERATIONS IN HYDRAULIC RAM PUMPSYSTEM DESIGNThe following factors need to be considered in hydraulic Ram pumpsystem design.• Area suitability (head and flow rate)• Flow rate and head requirement• Floods consideration• Intake design• Drive system• Pump house location• Delivery pipes routing• Distribution systemHYDRAULIC RAM PUMP DESIGNCONSIDERATIONS• Manufacturing considerations - A choice between casting andwelding method of manufacture has to be made. Cast ram pumpsare less susceptible to corrosion and have longer life. On the otherhand, cast ram pumps are costly and cannot be made in a simplerural setting workshop. Usually, for low and medium sized rampumps welding method of manufacture is preferred because ofsimplicity and less cost.• Maintenance and service life considerations - The critical parts thatrequire frequent maintenance are bolts, studs and nuts. Therefore, itis usually preferable to have stainless steel bolts, studs and nuts,even though they are costly and difficult to source.• Material availability• General considerationso Shape of hydram has little effect on performance
  8. 8. o Valve design considerations. The correct design of valves isa critical factor in the overall performance of ram pumps.Hence, this needs special consideration.o Strength considerations. This determines thickness ofhydram body and air chamber.Fig. 3 Hydraulic Ram Pump BodyFig. 4 Waste Valve, Retainer Ring and Rubber Parts of Hydraulic Ram PumpCONCLUSION• There is broad prospect of utilizing the countrys abundant surfacewater run off potential for various purposes or requirements using
  9. 9. locally designed and manufactured hydraulic ram pumps and othersimilar appropriate technologies.• To disseminate hydrams at potential sites throughout the country,there is a need to create awareness through training and seekintegrated work with rural community, government institutions likewater, energy and mines bureau of local regions and non-governmental organizations.• Hydraulic Ram pumps made by casting have many advantages, butthey could be expensive. In addition, considering the cost of civilwork and pipe installation, the initial investment could be veryhigh. To reduce cost of hydrams made by casting, there is a needfor standardization. Standardizing hydram pump size will also havean advantage to reduce cost of spare parts and facilitate their easyaccess when they are needed.• The use of appropriate means of treating river water should belooked at in conjunction with any development project of domesticwater supply using hydrams.

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