1. CRT/N e-news, February 2012 Vol. 2 No. 18 1BackgroundTwo-thirds of Nepals total population belongs tothe hilly region in Nepal and their settlements areusually remote and sparse. Such settlements cannot beeasily served with conventional piped water systems.The installation, fuel and maintenance of conventionalpumping systems using fossil fuel (diesel or gasoline) orother forms of energy such as electrical or solar drivenpumps are usually unaffordable for poor, remotecommunities. In this context, rural people, especiallywomen and children, have to walk for hours to distantsprings for collecting water for household purposes. Inaddition, managing water for irrigation purpose is still abig challenge.Hydram as a SolutionThe Hydraulic Ram Pump (Hydram) is a maturetechnology existing since 18th century. It uses thepower available in flowing water, dropped from heightof few meters, to lift certain volume of the water tomuch greater height. As the technology only uses thepower of flowing water resource that is free, itsoperating costs is very low. Moreover, Hydram canalso be considered as a zero emission technology.With the advancement in the design, the technologycan be manufactured in the country, easily operatedand maintained by the rural communities. The systemmay cost over USD 5000 depending upon size andcapacity of the system.In developing countries, the Hydram is typically used todeliver water for household use (drinking andsanitation) in rural communities where people have tocollect and carry water manually from a distant source.It is also used for small and medium scale irrigation inmany developing countries. This system can alsosupport other income generating activities such ascattle rearing, fish farming and bio-fertilizer production.Centre for Rural Technology, Nepal (CRT/N) hasadopted an appropriate hydraulic ram pump systembased on the patented technology of AlternativeIndigenous Development Foundation, Inc. (AIDFI), thePhilippines. AIDFI has eight different designs of rampump of various sizes and intake rates (10 to 1300 litresper minute) that are suitable for different heads, flowrates and delivery heights. Usually, for small schemes,an individual pump is installed but for larger schemesmultiple pumps are connected in parallel or in seriesdepending on the head and flow rate. The pump canoperate continuously lifting water up to 200 metreshigh and delivering water in a reservoir at the village,which normally will be filled up overnight and used upthroughout the day.Hydram as Irrigation TechnologyWater pumped by Hydram is used for householdpurpose including sanitation and irrigation. Generally,water supplied by the system is used in micro-irrigationespecially for vegetable farming. The Hydram canoperate even during the dry months supplying waterfor vegetable crops. This serves to be additional yieldand income for the farmers compared to their usualharvest. Further, the Hydram can also be used tosupplement rice and cereal cultivation during erratic orinsufficient rains. This will help the farmers adapt to thechanging climate and allow more reliable returns.Access to water can boost economic development inthe community and also support livelihooddevelopment, such as brick making or types of agro-processing.One Hydram of 4 inch can irrigate approximately 20ropanies (approx. 1 hectare) of land. A single Hydramcan pump approximately 28,000 to 250,000 litres ofwater per day. Over a 110 day crop growing period,the system can deliver an estimated irrigation wateramount of nearly 300 mm (or about 3 mm per day) tothe 20 ropanies of land.CRT/Ne-newsCentre for Rural Technology, NepalTowards Action for Development… Since 1989 February 2012, Vol. 2 No. 18Hydram a Solution to Livelihood Enhancement
2. CRT/N e-news, February 2012 Vol. 2 No. 18 2Hydram as a Solution to Gender NeedsNepalese society perceives water fetching activity asmainly womens responsibility. Household works aretraditionally on the shoulder of women and caring offamily is a household domain, which is where womenmean to confine their works. "Water and energy… areactivities that take up an enormous amount of women’stime and pose a major bottleneck to their productivityas well as their contribution to society as care providers.By addressing these bottlenecks, women can bringabout improvements in all-round quality of life for theirhousehold and themselves. It can help them meet thepractical needs (ensuring daily survival) of the womenand also addressed their productive needs (incomegeneration and increased economic capabilities), aswell as their strategic needs (position in society, inparticular to gain greater equality with men, and helptoward their empowerment)." (Women, Energy andWater in the Himalayas, UNEP/ICIMOD) This saving intime must be harnessed by integrating other supportmechanisms (such as credit mobilization, skilldevelopment training, and institutional developmenttraining). Uplifting of water saves many hours whichreduces drudgery and the time spent collecting water.This, in return, can allow more time for children tostudy, and adults to spend on livelihoods or social time.Author: Dinesh Adhikari, EngineerContact: email@example.com(This article may not necessarily reflect views of CRT/N.)Improved Water Mill (IWM)The Improved Water Mill (IWM) is a modified version oftraditional water mill. IWM is an intermediatetechnology that increases the efficiency of thetraditional water mill resulting in increased energyoutput thus helping both the millers and its users. Theimprovement covers basically the replacement ofwooden parts (rotor, shaft and chute) with metallicparts. This increases its operational efficiency as well asmakes it more useful with additional machines forhulling, oil expelling, saw milling, lokta beating, andelectricity generation. The chute is mostly wooden,however, sometimes is made of polyethylene or tinsheet.The speed of IWM shaft ranges around 200-300 rpmdepending upon the head and flow of water and thepower output ranges from 0.5 kW to 3 kW. Its grindingcapacity ranges from 20-50 kg/hr (maize) while thetraditional mill only grinds 10-20 kg of maize per hour.The repair/maintenance cost is reduced afterinstallation of IWM and its life span can be maximizedup to 10 years.The IWM exists in short shaft (SS) and long shaft (LS)versions. The selection of whether to install a SS or LSalso depends on availability of water power. The lengthof a SS is 4ft whereas that of LS is 6ft. A SS IWM is usedfor grinding only while a LS IWM has diverse end-usesof its power. Having a longer shaft, the LS IWM can runa number of machineries transferring its power throughsuitable couplings. Thus LS IWM has great versatility inits final delivery of services. Though the installation costincreases, a LS IWM provides opportunity for theinvestors to diversify their business.TechnologySketch of an Improved Water MillWomen Carrying Water to Meet Their Practical Needs
3. CRT/N e-news, February 2012 Vol. 2 No. 18 3Solar Dryer ProjectThe Solar Dryer Project under the title "Women inDrying Food and Heating Water Using Solar Dryer" isundertaken by Centre for Rural Technology Nepal(CRT/N) since October 1, 2010 with support form TheLemelson Foundation, USA. The project has a target todisseminate 75 units of cabinet type solar dryer amongthe rural women in suburbs of Kathmandu with supportfrom Women Support Cooperative (WSC).Participatory Assessment ReportCRT/N has conducted "Participatory Assessment" onthe impact of the cabinet solar dryer. The majorobjective of the assessment is to get comprehensiveand integrated understanding of the project,stakeholders involved and project implementation. Theassessment methodology followed data collection toolssuch as semi-structured interview, phone interview,field visit, observation, focus group discussion.Based on qualitative and quantitative analysis, theassessment concluded that behavioral change in usingsolar dryer for heating water and drying food is seenamong technology users. The report also depicts thatthe users benefited from the technology especially forhousehold purpose. Moreover, the technology provedeven more beneficial for those who took up homebusiness from solar dryer. It was found that the dryersare being used for drying variety of food items such as,meat, pulse nuggets, radish, spices, fruits and nuts,cereal, bread crumbs, etc. The users are also utilizingdryer to heat water which is used in making tea,washing and bathing.The project has been successful in disseminating 75solar dryers to WSC members. The reasons of successin meeting physical target of the project as highlightedby the report are credit support from WSC and subsidydelivery from Alternative Energy Promotion Centre(AEPC). These approaches have made the solar dryersaffordable to the users.Excerpt from Final Report: Gender Issues in Renewable (Rural) Energy Policies of Nepal, February 2011, CRT/N andIAPH Forum with support from ENERGIA: International Network on Gender and Sustainable Energy, the Netherlands.Following analysis has been extracted here to highlight to what extent Subsidy Policy 2009 has addressed genderconcerns. - EditorsThe subsidy policy has been formulated with the objective of enabling to rural poor and socially disadvantagedpeople to access improved energy services. The Policy makes direct provisions for micro hydro, solar (home systems,dryer, PV pumping and cookers), metal cook-stoves, biogas and wind technologies. Largely, the subsidies are decidedbased on end use, sector (domestic, institutional and community) and geographical location. However, in case ofbiogas programme additional subsidy has been announced for the “Poor, Dalit, Depressed, Conflict Affected” whichincludes the poor women member group of the rural development banks.The Subsidy Policy 2009 has been analyzed from gender perspective. The gender gaps identified from analysis arepresented in the Table 3.5 below.Project FeatureInterview with Solar Dryer UsersGender Mainstreaming in Energy
4. CRT/N e-news, February 2012 Vol. 2 No. 18 4Table 3.5: Highlights of the Subsidy Policy 2009 AssessmentPolicy Issues Addressed in the Policy Gender GapsGeneralstatementIncrease development impact in terms of service delivery efficiency andincreased access to rural poor and socially disadvantaged to energy servicesSocially disadvantagedgroup includeswomen, but this is notclearly stated.Objectives – To maximize service delivery efficiency in the use of renewable energyresources and technologies in rural areas and to provide opportunity tolow-income rural households to use RETs– To support rural electrification and to gradually reduce the growing gap ofelectricity supply and consumption between rural and urban areas.– To support development and extension of RET markets by attractingprivate sector Entrepreneurs– To support the envisaged long-term target of GoN in providing ruralelectrification and energy services– To make use of grant assistance provided by donors, existing andforthcoming, in a more effective and objective waySociallydisadvantaged groupincluding genderdisparity group are notmentionedPolicystatementand subsidylevelsMicro-hydro:– Provision of subsidy for installation of new micro hydro plant andrehabilitation of old ones– Provision of subsidy for Micro-hydro providing community services.– Provision of transport subsidy– Additional financial support for productive use of energy.Solar home system: subsidy provision based on geographical location, subsidyon small solar system to get rid of kerosene wick lampsInstitutional solar PV system: subsidy based on community services providedSolar water pump, solar cooker: subsidy generalSolar dryer: general subsidy for household and special preference forcommercial use and drying organic productsBiogas:– Subsidy on the basis of capacity, geographical location, community benefit(recently announced by the government), toilet attached– Additional subsidy for poor, dalit, deprived women, and conflict affected.– Provision of transportation subsidy for remote areasIWM: subsidy for short shaft and long shaft and endues applicationICS: No subsidy for mud stove, provision of subsidy for metal stoves andgasifiersWind technology: Financial support for research and development, for solarand wind power hybrid system in rural areas with no access to grid line andmicro hydro power, subsidy provision for feasible electrification of small turbineNo consideration ofgender differencesConsideration ofhealth and hazardresulting from the useof kerosene wicklampsSubsidy provisionconsidering ownershipof systems by womenalso women headedhouseholdsSubsidydeliveryprocedureInstitutional credit mechanism established under Rural Energy Fund so as tomaintain and expand service delivery sustainability in RET sector
5. CRT/N e-news, February 2012 Vol. 2 No. 18 5Improved Water Mill ProgrammeInitiated in 2003, the Improved Water Mill (IWM)Programme has now been executed by the AlternativeEnergy Promotion Centre (AEPC) since 2011 under itsEnergy Sector Assistance Programme (ESAP). CRT/N isthe technical service provider of the programme.Programme Initiation WorkshopA one-day "Programme Initiation Workshop" wasorganized to newly pre-qualified local partnerorganizations (LPOs) and kit manufacturers in Surkhetdistrict on 29thJanuary 2012 under IWM Programme. Atotal of about 50 members including CRT/N FieldFacilitators (FFs), LPOs, Ghatta Owners Association(GOAs) and IWM kit manufacturers, representativesfrom District Development Committee/District Energyand Environment Unit (DDC/DEEU) and Sundar Nepal(RRESC of ESAP) participated at the workshop.The workshop was conducted with an objective toaware the local stakeholders about the IWMProgramme objectives, strategies, approachesactivities, and also to seek support, co-operation andparticipation from them in programmeimplementation. The workshop also highlighted aboutpossibility of integrating Clean DevelopmentMechanism (CDM) on IWM Programme and its practicalimplementation; roles and responsibilities of LPOs,GOAs and IWM kit manufacturers. The workshopenhanced the capacity of the participants to coordinatewith the IWM Programme stakeholders. The workshopwas facilitated by Mr. Madan Thapaliya, ProgrammeManager of IWM Programme; Mr. Tej Bahadur Oli andMr. Pitamber Pandey, Programme Officers and otherField Facilitators.Improved Water Mill Installation TrainingSeven-day "IWM Installation Training to the Staff ofNew LPOs" was conducted in Surkhet district from 30January – 5 February 2012. Altogether, 19 techniciansfrom newly pre-qualified LPOs from 14 districtsparticipated the training.The main objective of the training was to build thecapacity of technical staffs of newly pre-qualified IWMLPOs by imparting knowledge and practical skills ondifferent aspects of operation, repair and maintenanceof IWM. Theoretical and practical knowledge about thefeasibility, technical survey as well as installation ofIWM was also provided to the participants. The trainingwas facilitated by Mr. Tej Bahadur Oli, Mr. PitamberPandey, Programme Officers, Mr. Ghanshyam Poudel,Programme Assistant and Mr. Deepak Raut, FieldFacilitator.Biomass Energy Support ProgrammeThe Regional Rural Energy Service Centre (RRESC)Kathmandu of Biomass Energy Support Programme hascarried out different promotional activities aimed toProject UpdatesParticipants in Program Initiation WorkshopParticipants Measuring Discharge Using Float MethodVDC level campaign in Pyutar VDC, Lalitpur
6. CRT/N e-news, February 2012 Vol. 2 No. 18 6foster installation and use of Improved Cookstove (ICS)in communities as part of its regular activities. InJanuary, 17 village development committee (VDC) levelinformation campaigns, 5 orientation anddemonstrations and 4 control cooking tests wereperformed in five service districts, namely, Nuwakot,Lalitpur, Makwanpur, Rasuwa and Kathmandu. VDClevel information campaign is designed to disseminaterelevant information regarding ICS and its benefits tothe users and also demonstrate different types of ICS.Control cooking test is performed in ICS to evaluate itsperformance. It is achieved in terms of parameters likespecific fuel consumption and cooking time. The resultsvary according to place and time, however the testshave revealed that an ICS consumes about 25% less fuel(wood) and cooking is accomplished in around 44% lesstime than in case of traditional stoves.These activities have been successful in promotingknowledge about ICS and its demand, and in somecases have earned supports from local stakeholders.Terai ICS Carbon ProjectReview and Planning MeetingAn Annual Review and Planning Meeting of Terai ICSCarbon Project was organized from 18-19 January 2012in Kathmandu. Central and regional project teamparticipated in the meeting to review the activity planof 2012 based on experiences and learning of last year.Mr. Rajan Thapa, representative of EGLURO, UK alsoparticipated at the meeting providing valuable inputduring action plan revision.Promoting Renewable EnergyTechnologies for Enhanced RuralLivelihoods, NepalCRT/N initiated a two-year project on "PromotingRenewable Energy Technologies for Enhanced RuralLivelihoods, Nepal" (REFEL Project) from 1 December2011 – 30 November 2013 in partnership with FinnishConsulting Group Ltd., Finland with the support fromNordic Environment Finance Cooperation (NEFCO)within the framework of Nordic Climate Facility. RuralVillage Water Resources Management Project(RVWRMP) is the main partner to facilitate at locallevel. The objective of the project is to reducegreenhouse gas emissions, improve food securitysituation and to improve the living conditions andeconomic situation of rural population in remotedistricts via application of renewable energytechnologies.Orientation/Training for Project StaffsEight-day orientation training was organized under theREFEL project to newly recruited project staffs atCRT/N, from 16-23 January 2012. A total of 7 memberscomprising Regional Field Coordinator, RegionalAccount/Administration Assistant, District FieldCoordinators for Baitadi, Dadeldhura, Doti, Kailali andAchham districts participated at the orientationtraining.The orientation training was conducted with anobjective to orient newly recruited staffs about therenewable energy technologies, strengthen theknowledge of staffs on installation, repair andmaintenance of ICS, IWM, Hydram and build thecapacity of staffs so that they can orient about RETs ontheir own. The orientation training was jointlyfacilitated by various experts from CRT/N and RVWRMPon introduction to the project and different IWM, ICSand Hydram technology, gender integration inrenewable energy technology, green house gasreduction, food security and livelihood enhancementand community mobilization.Participants from Central and Regional Project TeamParticipants during practical session in Dhading
7. CRT/N e-news, February 2012 Vol. 2 No. 18 7As part of orientation training, the participants visitedDhading district to observe IWM, ICS and Hydramtechnologies. The participants were provided withhands-on knowledge on construction of ICS, repair andmaintenance of ICS, IWM and Hydram technologiesduring the session.Central Level Introductory MeetingCRT/N organized "Central Level Introductory Meeting"under REFEL Project on 8thFebruary 2012 at CRT/Nwith related stakeholders/line agencies. The objectiveof the meeting was to introduce and share aboutproject and seek cooperation and coordination fromthe partners/stakeholders for successfulimplementation of the project.Altogether 20 participants from Alternative EnergyPromotion Center (AEPC), Department of LocalInfrastructure Development and Agricultural Roads(DOLIDAR), Rural Village Water Resources ManagementProject (RVWRMP II) and CRT/N participated in themeeting. The participants provided valuable inputs atthe meeting that are important in implementing theproject.Workshop on "Earthquake Risk inKathmandu - Are We Prepared?"A one day national workshop on "Earthquake Risk inKathmandu - Are We Prepared?" was jointly organizedby the Department of Urban Development and BuildingConstruction (DUDBC), Center of Resilient Development(CoRD), UN-Habitat and DP-NET on the occasion ofEarthquake Safety Day 2068 on 27thJanuary, 2012.The main objective of the workshop was to reviewlesson learned from earthquake occurred on 18thSeptember 2011 (Asoj 01, 2068 BS) in Eastern Nepal,other earthquakes in the recent past in the world andto identify strengths, gaps and challenges forearthquake risk mitigation. Mr. Subarna Kapali, ActingDirector of CRT/N, participated at the workshop.Interaction on Indoor Air Pollution in NepalIndoor Air Pollution and Health Forum (IAPHF), Nepalorganized a talk programme on 8thFebruary 2012. Mr.Samuel Neal Shiroff, Business Development Directorfrom BSH-Bosch und Siemens Hausgeräte GmbH,Germany and Dr. Agnes Klingshirn from GIZ visitedPractical Action Nepal to discuss about the indoor airpollution problem in Nepal and current initiatives offorum members. Mr. Subarna Kapali, Acting Director ofCRT/N, shared on CRT/Ns Initiatives on HouseholdEnergy and Indoor Air Pollution Reduction at theinteraction programme. There was also experiencesharing from other presenters on IAP issues.Orientation Programme for ManufacturerCompanies and RRESCsThe Biomass Energy Support Programme of AEPC/ESAPorganized a two day "Orientation Programme forManufacturer Companies and RRESCs" from 18-19January in Lalitpur district. Altogther 11 manufacturercompanies and 3 RRESCs were oriented on newMetallic Improved Cookstove (MICS) models, theirmanufacturing and installation process, revised subsidydelivery mechanism, monitoring mechanism andcompensation calculation for deviated cases. Duringthe programme, various aspects of shifting biomassenergy technologies to CDM carbon projects and rolesand responsibilities of RRESCs and manufacturercompanies were also explored. Mr. Damodar Karki,Regional Coordinator, Mr. Roshan Adhikari, BiomassEnergy Engineer of RRESC Kathmandu managed byCRT/N, participated on the programme.Enterprising Ideas at Eco-Fair 2012Himal Media Pvt. Ltd. held “1stNepali Times Eco-fair2012” at Academy Hall, Kamaladi from 11-12 February2012 to promote environmental friendly technologiesand solutions. Centre for Rural Technology Nepal(CRT/N) along with its sister concern Rural EnergyNepal HighlightsParticipants in the Meeting
8. CRT/N e-news, February 2012 Vol. 2 No. 18 8Technology Service Centre (RETSC) Pvt. Ltd.participated in the Eco-Fair 2012 demonstratingParabolic Solar Cooker, Solar Dryer, IWM, Rocket Stoveand Hydram technologies.Students and young energy enthusiasts seemedfascinated by the demonstration of Hydram, which canbe an appropriate technology for the geographicallydifficult areas of rural Nepal, deprived of proper watersupply for drinking and irrigation. Moreover, SolarDryer and Parabolic Solar Cooker also drew attention ofvisitors.During the two-day event, over 40 exhibitors offeredtheir innovations and information on solartechnologies, waste management, rainwaterharvesting, organic farming, electric vehicles and othereco-friendly products. Among 10,000 plus visitors, mostof them were drawn towards the solar technologies ondisplay. As the chief spokesman of the fair andpublisher of Nepali Times, Mr. Kunda Dixit aptly put it“It’s high time we start regarding these renewable andeco-friendly technologies not as alternative, butmainstream the technologies.”Low Emissions Asian Development (LEAD)ProgramLow Emission Asian Development (LEAD) Programinitiated by U.S. Agency for International Development(USAID) is a five-year program designed to buildcapacity and low emission strategy GHG inventoriesand accounting, and carbon market readiness in 11countries including Nepal.In this context, Forest Action Ne pal has assisted inorganizing a consultation meeting of relevant NGOs on19thJanuary 2012 to discuss how the LEAD programcould provide support to Nepal. Mr. Subarna Kapali,Acting Director participated at the meeting.Heartfelt CondolenceCRT/N family is deeply saddened by the sudden loss of our staff Mr. Dhanashyam Ghimire on 23rdFebruary 2012.We pray for the eternal peace of the departed soul.CRT/N e-news Advisors: Ganesh Ram Shrestha, Executive DirectorVol. 2 No. 18, February 2012 Subarna Kapali, Acting DirectorCentre for Rural Technology, Nepal (CRT/N) Editors: Babita Adhikari, Lachana Shresthacharya, Pratikshya Pradhan,Kumaripati, Lalitpur. Programme OfficersPO Box 3628, Kathmandu. Nepal Assisted by: Kaushila Rai, Programme AssistantTel.: +977-1-5008536, 5008538. Fax: +977-1-5008537.Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Web: www.crtnepal.orgInternational HighlightsRecent PublicationSolar Dryer ManualCRT/N has published "Solar Dryer Manual" targetingsolar dryer users to provide information on thetechnology, process of drying food and heating water,repair and maintenance and entrepreneurshipdevelopment. The manual has been produced under"Women in Drying Food and Heating Water UsingSolar Dryer" Project.Distinguished Guests at CRT/NMr. Venkata R. Putti, Ph.D., Programme TeamLeader, Energy Access, Energy Sector ManagementAssistance Programme (ESMAP), The World Bank,USA and Mr. Ashish Shrestha, World Bank,Kathmandu made a visit to CRT/N on 20thJanuary,2012 to know about household energy services incontext to Nepal.