OBJECTIVES• Define Pneumonia.• Mention the classifications .• Explain the pathophysiology of pneumonia.• State the anatomy of the lung.• Describe the risk factors and causes.• Asses the relation between hypertension and pneumonia.
Definition and Epidemiology• DEFINITION:An inflammation of the lungs caused by aninfection.• Epidemiology:Pneumonia is a common illness affectingapproximately 450 million people a year andoccurring in all parts of the world. It is amajor cause of death among all age groupsresulting in 4 million deaths (7% of theworlds yearly total).Rates are greatest inchildren less than five and adults older than75 years of age. It occurs about five timesmore frequently in the developing worldversus the developed world. Viralpneumonia accounts for about 200 millioncases.
Classificationpathogen Bacterial Atypical Fungal Viral Other; Rickettsias, Parasites, protozoaAnatomy Lobar BronchialAcquiring Community acquired Pneumonia CAP Hospital acquired pneumonia HAP, NP Nursing home acquired pneumonia NHAP Immuno-compromised acquired pneumonia ICAP
Pathophysiology of pneumonia Bacteria may The macrophages and Bacteria enter the neutrophils inactivatelungs (from the throat invade the spaces the bacteria. The or nose, airborne between cells and neutrophils also droplets, or blood). between alveoli. release cytokinesThe neutrophils, Leading to the This cause bacteria, and general fluid fill the fever, chills, activation of the alveoli and fatigue. immune system.Resulting in the consolidationseen on chest X- ray.
CauseThere are over a hundred microorganisms which can cause CAP.The most common types of microorganisms are different amongdifferent groups of people. Newborn infants, children, andadults are at risk for different spectrums of disease causingmicroorganisms.
• Breathing infected amniotic fluid or across theInfants placenta. • Commonly caused by Streptococcus agalactiae • children less than five years are much less likelyChildren to have pneumonia • older children and teenagers are more likely to acquire certain types of pneumonia than adults. • Viruses; influenza, para-influenza.Adults • Bacteria; Atypical organisms, Streptococcus pneumonia, Hemophilus influenza, Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Risk factors• Age; If youre age 65 or older, young children.• Obstruction of bronchi, the lung is not able to clear fluid when it accumulates.• Lung disease; Diseases such as emphysema or habits such as smoking• Certain diseases; AIDS , immune deficiencies , heart disease.• Exposure to certain chemicals or pollutants.
Hypertension and Pneumonia• High blood pressure can be caused by lifestyle habits, a chronic condition or a family history of it. In some cases an infection can also cause a dramatic rise in blood pressure. High blood pressure should be assessed by your physician and treated with lifestyle changes and medication to prevent long- term damage to vital organs. In addition, if an infection is causing your high blood pressure, it should also be diagnosed and treated.