Measuring e-Governance as an Innovation in the Public Sector


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Measuring e-Governance as an Innovation in the Public Sector

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Measuring e-Governance as an Innovation in the Public Sector

  1. 1. Measuring e-Governance as an Innovation in the Public Sector Fatih ÖZLÜ Innovation Management (IS531)
  2. 2. OUTLINE Introduction  e-Government  Evaluating e-Governance The Innovation Management Measurement Framework(IMMF)  IMMF Constructs Methodology for Measurement e-Governance Innovation  Conceptual Content Analysis on Surveys  Percentage Normalizated Scores Results of Measurement Recommendations Conclusion 2 11/10/2012
  3. 3. e-Government e-Government: “utilizing the internet and the World Wide Web for delivering government information and services to citizens” (United Nations, 2001, p.1). Key stakeholders: various units of government, private-public sector, nongovernment organizations, and citizens. Until the end of the 20th century, offering government services to citizens through electronic media was essentially a very new idea. e-Government was a new trend, but today? 3 11/10/2012
  4. 4. Evaluating e-Governance e-Governance can be referred to as an innovation management process in the public sector (United Nations) to evaluate e-Governance, Indices:  e-Government Readiness Index (e-GRI)  e-Participation Index (e-PI) Indices:  composite measurement of capacity and willingness of Member States of the UN for e-Governance  ranking countries according to their e-government efforts like web portals, mobile technologies, other e-services 4 11/10/2012
  5. 5. Surveys The UN has used the Indices as metrics for evaluating  more than 50,000 online features and government services  more than 178 Member States across economic and social sectors The surveys measure how willing and ready the governments The surveys applied by  United Nations Public Administration Network (UNPAN)  United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA)  United Nations Division for Public Economics (UNDPE) It covers all member states of the UN 5 11/10/2012
  6. 6. IMMF (Innovation ManagementMeasurement Framework) a innovation measurement methodology many organizations have difficulties in  define the scope of innovations, quantify the measures of innovations,  create benchmarks for the innovation management processes,  evaluate innovation management processes. to evaluate innovative activities in organizations against proposed framework of innovation management measurements. 6 11/10/2012
  7. 7. IMMF ConstructsThe IMMF measures innovation management using by seven inductivelyderived constructs:7 11/10/2012
  8. 8. IMMF Constructs Inputs  resources ranging from human and physical resources to financial resources  process of generating innovative Ideas  SubConstructs:  People  Physical and financial resources  Tools Knowledge Management  idea generation  tacit and explicit types of information in organizations  SubConstructs:  Idea generation  Knowledge repository  Information Flow 8 11/10/2012
  9. 9. IMMF Constructs Innovation Strategy  organizations new products  resource allocations for innovation  business-related processes in competitive environment  SubConstructs  Strategic orientation  Strategic leadership Organization and Culture  cultural and structural elements  interaction frequency of various units in the organization  nature and features of organizational work culture  SubConstructs  Culture  Structure 9 11/10/2012
  10. 10. IMMF Constructs Portfolio Management  scoring and optimization models  return on investment  balance sheets between high-gain vs low-gain projects  SubConstructs  Risk/return balance  Optimization tool use Project Management  the process of converting inputs into a marketable innovation  information and communication technologies  SubConstructs  Project efficiency  Tools  Communications  Collaboration 10 11/10/2012
  11. 11. IMMF Constructs Commercialization  taking innovation to markets  marketing, sales and distribution  SubConstructs  Market research  Market testing  Marketing and sales 11 11/10/2012
  12. 12. Methodology of Measurement IMMF is applied with selected surveys namely:  Benchmarking e-Government: A Global Perspective (United Nations, 2001);  The UN Global e-Government Survey 2003 (United Nations, 2003);  Global e-Government Readiness Report 2004: Towards Access for Opportunity (United Nations, 2004);  Global e-Government Readiness Report 2005: From e- Government to e-Inclusion (United Nations, 2005); and  The UN e-Government Survey 2008: From e-Government to Connected Governance (United Nations, 2008). Conceptual content analysis is used for analyzing surveys By conceptual content analysis, the IMMF measures the degree of which the existing Surveys assess innovation 12 e-Government initiatives in 11/10/2012
  13. 13. Conceptual Content Analysis A dictionary of items is defined to measure the occurrence of constructs. Various words and combinations relevant to all IMMF’s seven constructs/subconstructs are defined as concepts. Outcomes of content analysis are typically summarized and compared to better describe communication data 13 11/10/2012
  14. 14. Concepts in Surveys As a part of this research method, conceptual content analysis was carried out, by using a software named Concordance 2.0. key words are selected pick lists are formed frequency count for all of the concepts in all of the Surveys. “innovat*”=innovate, innovat ion, innovated and innovative 14 11/10/2012
  15. 15. Frequency Count Project Management  digitatization of goverments through ICTs with web sites Organization&Culture  governments pay attention towards organizational environment Portfolio Management  complexity in measuring return on investments 15 11/10/2012
  16. 16. PNS(Percentage Normalized Scores) large variation in terms of the content size of all five Surveys. the one published in 2003, is the shortest in size with just 81 pages, whereas the largest in size was published in 2004 with 270 pages. direct comparison of frequency count would introduce error, and could challenge the internal validity of this research. Hence PNS were calculated. For example, in the 2008 Survey, frequency count of Inputs summed up to 482. The total frequency count for all seven constructs from the IMMF equaled to 10,738. The percentage normalized score for Inputs in the 2008 Survey: =(Frequency Count of Inputs/Total Frequency Count)*100 =(482 /10.738)*100 =4:4887 = Approximated to 4:489 16 11/10/2012
  17. 17. Research Design after PNS, graphical figure of the results17 11/10/2012
  18. 18. Results High correlation in Knowledge Management and Innovation strategy  natural interdependence of innovation and knowledge management 18 11/10/2012
  19. 19. Results High drop in the Project Management construct  not remain heavily emphasized criteria, any more  UN has shifted its focus from investments in ICT to building human skills and human capital. 19 11/10/2012
  20. 20. Recommendations for more powerful Indices R1: there is need to balance criteria between hard (ICTs) and soft components (people, information and processes) of e-Governance  high gap between Project Management(average of 29.546%)-Knowledge Management(average of 10.993%)  narrowing gap between Project Management and Knowledge Management  instead of heavily paying attention to ICTs, focus on relations between people, process and information. 20 11/10/2012
  21. 21. Recommendations for more powerful Indices R2: better equip the UN for assessing capabilities of Member States for empowering their citizens with knowledge and information pay attention:  types of software and hardware used to develop web portals and e-Government interfaces,  level of expertise, skills, and education levels of employees  the degree of outsourced e-Government projects,  the features associated with public-private partnerships 21 11/10/2012
  22. 22. Recommendations for more powerful Indices R3: bringing greater equity to e-Readiness rankings assigned to Member States of the UN  The existing e-Government assessments take into account only the end products, for example: websites represent just one type of e-Government initiatives  but UN assessments do not attempt to quantify unique dynamics among social, economic and cultural contexts  For the equal amount of investment made by the U.S. and Africa, there is a very high likelihood that the African governments willingness and capacity for e-Government is higher than U.S 22 11/10/2012
  23. 23. Recommendations for more powerful Indices R4: efficiency of an e-Government initiative could be achieved by paying more attention to the Portfolio Management construct, which has a PNS of 0.34% on average.  Portfolio Management as a combination of risk-to- return ratio and optimization tools  return on investment (ROI), breakeven values (BEV) for investments in e-Government efforts would give information about increasing value of an e- Government initiative 23 11/10/2012
  24. 24. Conclusion e-Governance can be referred as an innovation management process. with the help of IMMF, conceptual content analysis run on the existing surveys this study demonstrates new way of analyzing existing practices of the UN. proposes a set of recommendations. 24 11/10/2012
  25. 25. End… Any Questions? 25 11/10/2012