Process Mapping For Systems Improvement


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A guide for process mapping from tasks level to system level for continuous improvement.

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Process Mapping For Systems Improvement

  1. 1. For Systems Improvement Process Mapping: Adapted by Mitchell W. Manning from the work of the Process Mapping Training Team at GlaxoWellcome 1995-1997
  2. 2. Process Mapping <ul><li>Process Map : A graphic representation of a process, showing the sequence of tasks; uses a modified version of standard flowcharting symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Mapping : The activity of creating a detailed flowchart of a work process showing its inputs, tasks, and activities in sequence </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>A good map is the foundation for continuous quality improvement efforts in which you analyze and agree on the most efficient routes to take under various circumstances </li></ul>Continuous Improvement
  4. 4. Objectives <ul><li>Map process as it is now </li></ul><ul><li>Produce a working document </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize that real value is in the map’s creation </li></ul>
  5. 5. Process Definitions <ul><li>Process : A sequence of steps, tasks, or activities that converts inputs to an output; adds value to the inputs by changing them or using them to produce something new </li></ul><ul><li>Input : The materials, equipment, information, people, money, or environmental conditions needed to carry out the process </li></ul><ul><li>Output : The product or service that is created by the process; that which is handed off to the customer </li></ul>
  6. 6. Types of Customers <ul><li>External Customer : User of an organization’s overall product or service who is not a member of the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Customer : User of products or services who is a member of the organization </li></ul>
  7. 7. Mapping Levels <ul><li>Level 1—System </li></ul><ul><li>Level 2—Primary Process </li></ul><ul><li>Level 3—Function </li></ul><ul><li>Level 4—Task </li></ul>
  8. 8. Level 1: System <ul><li>System Map : Organizational overview showing the first level of supply process and customer </li></ul><ul><li>How? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interview </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System owner </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To get direction and establish boundaries </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Level 2: Primary Process <ul><li>Primary Process Map : A high level overview of the basic steps of a primary process </li></ul><ul><li>How </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interview </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process owner </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems improvement </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Level 3: Function <ul><li>Function Map : A map which contains more detail and includes the major functions in the process </li></ul><ul><li>How? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SMEs describe functions in detail, usually through structured brainstorming </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process owner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct reports </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process improvement </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Level 4: Task <ul><li>Task Map : A more detailed map including individual tasks or activities which make up the function </li></ul><ul><li>How? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SMEs describe activities in detail, usually through structured brainstorming </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drill down to the lowest level of detail for process re-engineering, computer system implementation, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May include documents, screen prints, and data </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Define the Process <ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>Customer(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Process Participants </li></ul><ul><li>Process Owner </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Process Boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Inputs and their Suppliers </li></ul>
  13. 13. Process Definitions <ul><li>Process Participants : People who perform the steps of the process </li></ul><ul><li>Process Owner : Person responsible for the process and its output; key decision maker who can allot organization resources to the process participants </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholder : Someone who is not a supplier, customer, or process owner; but who has an interest in the process and stands to gain or lose based on the results of the process </li></ul><ul><li>Process Boundaries : The first and last steps of the process; the first thing done in the process and the last thing done before delivery to the customer </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Process : The basic steps or activities that must occur to produce the output </li></ul>
  14. 14. Steps <ul><li>Each step, task, or activity within a flowchart is depicted as a rectangle </li></ul>Take out trash Wash dishes Sweep floor
  15. 15. Sweep floor Take out trash Wash dishes Put Steps in Sequence
  16. 16. <ul><li>Inputs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drawn as parallelograms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linked to the step where they are used </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outputs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drawn as a parallelograms </li></ul></ul>Mapping Inputs and Outputs
  17. 17. Wash dishes Hot water Soap Sponge Broom Bag/can Inputs Process Kitchen cleaned Output Sweep floor Take out trash Map of a of Primary Process
  18. 18. Parallel Process <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>A process executed by someone (or something) else that occurs simultaneously (concurrently) with the primary process </li></ul><ul><li>May or may not be part of the primary process </li></ul>
  19. 19. Clear table Map of a of Parallel Process Wash dishes Stack dishes Refrigerate leftovers Sweep floor Take out trash Dry dishes
  20. 20. Parallel Process <ul><li>Reduces cycle time </li></ul><ul><li>Cycle time : The total amount of time required to complete the process, from boundary to boundary; one measure of productivity </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Brown paper for background </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3x5 stick-on notes or index cards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Represent task rectangles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a different color for input and output parallelograms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May use different c o l o r s to represent different departments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easily moved around, re-sequenced, eliminated, or added to </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pencil lines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Erasable </li></ul></ul>Mapping Guidelines
  22. 22. Steps in the Mapping Process <ul><li>Brainstorm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brainstorm a list of tasks and activities on a flip chart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write each item “as is” rather than the “should be” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Include the boundary steps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have two or three people write the items listed on 3 x 5 stick-on notes or index cards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each task should include a verb and its object </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Steps in the Mapping Process <ul><li>Sort </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Find a large, flat surface on which to lay out the notes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read the stick-on notes while moving around the work surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove any tasks that have to do with “inspection,” “revision,” “rework,” or “fix” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove any tasks that may belong to another administrative/management process </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Sort </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examine each remaining task and place it into one of two stacks/categories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tasks which absolutely must occur </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tasks which occur sometimes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*Team must be unanimous to put a task in the “must occur” pile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*“Must occur” pile represents primary process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discard any duplicated tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If different people, departments, or functions perform some of the tasks, code the stick-on notes with a colored dot coordinated to the individual, department, or function </li></ul></ul>Steps in the Mapping Process
  25. 25. <ul><li>Select flowchart format </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flowcharts may run either vertically or horizontally based on the amount and nature of the available wall space </li></ul></ul>Steps in the Mapping Process
  26. 26. <ul><li>Prepare work field </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attach brown paper firmly in place according to the format chosen and the available working surface </li></ul></ul>Steps in the Mapping Process
  27. 27. <ul><li>Place primary process notes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Place the first step of the process (boundary) at the top of the first page </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place the last step (boundary) at the bottom of the last page </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Draw ovals around the boundary steps with a marker (see below) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place the remaining steps in sequence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leave space between steps for the insertion of things later </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not draw any lines or arrows yet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Save the “sometimes occur” notes </li></ul></ul>Steps in the Mapping Process (Boundary step)
  28. 28. <ul><li>Check for reasonableness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider each step of your primary process; is it necessary to produce the output? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have any important steps been forgotten? If so, add them </li></ul></ul>Steps in the Mapping Process
  29. 29. Characteristics of a Truly Useful Map <ul><li>The map must describe </li></ul><ul><li>The map must allow flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>The map must build alternative paths, depending on circumstances or personal preference </li></ul><ul><li>The map must represent the process as it is , not as it ought to be </li></ul>
  30. 30. Alternative Path <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>A path through a flowchart comprised of one or more optional tasks off the mandatory primary path </li></ul><ul><li>Preceded by a decision diamond </li></ul>?
  31. 31. Decision Diamond <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Used for a decision leading to an alternative path </li></ul><ul><li>Depicted by a square stick-on note turned 45 degrees </li></ul><ul><li>Always poses a question and requires an answer </li></ul><ul><li>Most often, will lead to yes/no alternatives </li></ul>?
  32. 32. Pick up son from baseball practice? Drive to playground Drive home no yes Alternative Paths
  33. 33. Decision Diamond <ul><li>Each “sometimes occurs” task requires a decision diamond </li></ul><ul><li>There is usually a three-step thought process for creating and placing a “sometimes occurs” step with its decision diamond </li></ul>
  34. 34. Three-Step Process <ul><li>Pair a “sometimes” task with a blank decision diamond </li></ul><ul><li>Why would you do that optional step? Write it in question form </li></ul><ul><li>Place the pair (diamond and its task) in its appropriate sequence within the process with the “no” line being connected to the next task box in the primary process </li></ul>
  35. 35. Get out of car ? Sometimes Task Get out of car Self- service pump? yes
  36. 36. Get out of car Self- service pump? yes no Give order to attendant Alternative Paths
  37. 37. Multiple Response Paths
  38. 38. Multiple Decisions
  39. 39. Decision Questions <ul><li>Should be specific and objective (measurable) </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone should interpret the question the same way </li></ul><ul><li>Many of the decisions in the “as is” version may be quite subjective </li></ul>?
  40. 40. Inspection Point <ul><li>Finds errors before they reach the customer </li></ul><ul><li>Decision diamond typically requiring a “pass/fail” answer </li></ul><ul><li>Failures cause the process direction to reverse itself </li></ul>
  41. 41. Rework Loop <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>The result of a failed inspection point </li></ul><ul><li>Adds steps to the process and generally leads back to the inspection diamond </li></ul>
  42. 42. Rework Loop <ul><li>Adds to cycle time </li></ul><ul><li>Adds to cost </li></ul>no yes Inspect Pass? Correct
  43. 43. Do-Over Loop <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Another result of a failed inspection point </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to an earlier step in the process </li></ul><ul><li>Steps must be repeated </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with scrap </li></ul>
  44. 44. Do-Over Loop Do (Re-do) no yes Inspect Pass? Next step Do (Re-do)
  45. 45. Inspection Points <ul><li>Represent standards </li></ul><ul><li>Should be specific , objective , and measurable </li></ul><ul><li>If the above criteria are not met, this is an area for improvement </li></ul>
  46. 46. Eliminate or Minimize Non-Value-Added Steps <ul><li>This is one of the most important steps of improving a process </li></ul><ul><li>Look for “approval” and “for-your-information” steps </li></ul>
  47. 47. Value-Added Step <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>A step that contributes to customer satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>A customer would notice if it were eliminated </li></ul>
  48. 48. Customer Requirements <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>The needs, wants, and expectations of your customers, in their words </li></ul>
  49. 49. <ul><li>Question your customers about their requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Ask, “Does this step add value in our customers’ eyes? What would happen to the customer if this step were eliminated?” </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorm creative ways to eliminate or shorten particularly time-consuming crucial steps </li></ul>Eliminate or Minimize Non-Value-Added Steps
  50. 50. Develop and Apply Standards <ul><li>Each inspection point must clearly specify the conditions to “pass” </li></ul><ul><li>Must have objective, measurable inspection criteria </li></ul>
  51. 51. Process Standard <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Precise, measurable statement of an acceptable level, quantity, or other characteristic </li></ul>
  52. 52. Develop and Apply Standards <ul><li>Select an inspection point for which you will begin developing measurable standards/criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Using the flip chart, brainstorm a list of possible standards </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the list using the criteria of criticality , objectivity , measurability , and practicality </li></ul><ul><li>Agree on standards for each inspection point in the process </li></ul>
  53. 53. Move Inspection Points Forward <ul><li>Decide where the process error is likely to occur </li></ul><ul><li>Create an inspection point as close to the error-producing step as possible </li></ul>
  54. 54. Eliminate the Need for Inspection Points <ul><li>Identify the inspection point to be eliminated </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorm a number of ideas for elimination </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate each idea for its strengths and weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a solution and plan its implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Try out the solution </li></ul><ul><li>Continue to monitor for errors (check) to see if your solution has worked </li></ul><ul><li>Rearrange and redraw affected sections of the map </li></ul>PDCA
  55. 55. Chart and Evaluate Inputs and Suppliers <ul><li>Select process steps for which there are multiple inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorm inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Fill in the name of the supplier for each input </li></ul><ul><li>Rate each input as a </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs attention now </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Postpone for later action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No attention needed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Develop requirements for inputs rated “1” </li></ul><ul><li>Judge your inputs against your requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Share findings with your suppliers and negotiate improved inputs </li></ul>
  56. 56. Total Cycle Time <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>The time it takes to complete a process, from boundary to boundary </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes called actual cycle time </li></ul>
  57. 57. Theoretical Cycle Time <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>The sum of the times required to perform each step in the process </li></ul><ul><li>Does not account for hand-off or wait times </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretically, the shortest possible time to complete the process </li></ul>
  58. 58. Cycle-Time Studies <ul><li>The difference between total and theoretical cycle times represents the opportunity for improvement </li></ul>
  59. 59. <ul><li>Look for bottlenecks and other inefficiencies </li></ul><ul><li>Develop solutions and try them out </li></ul><ul><li>Take cycle-time measures of your changed process </li></ul><ul><li>Adjust and adapt until your changes reliably reduce total cycle time </li></ul>Conduct a Cycle-Time Study PDCA
  60. 60. Move Steps into Another Process <ul><li>Means of uncluttering a process and minimizing cycle time </li></ul><ul><li>Move one or more steps to an earlier time, making them part of a different, less time-sensitive process </li></ul><ul><li>Look for anything that can be done ahead of time </li></ul>
  61. 61. Design a Parallel Process <ul><li>Occurs simultaneously with the primary process </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces cycle time </li></ul>
  62. 62. Clear table Wash dishes Stack dishes Refrigerate leftovers Sweep floor Take out trash Dry dishes Design a Parallel Process
  63. 63. <ul><li>Identify steps that could be done by someone else, in parallel </li></ul><ul><li>Map the parallel process so that all can see exactly what would occur </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the idea by thinking of all the pluses and minuses of such a reorganization </li></ul>Design a Parallel Process
  64. 64. Automate or Mechanize Steps <ul><li>Reduces cycle time, errors, or both </li></ul><ul><li>Identify steps that could be done by someone (or something) else </li></ul><ul><li>Map the new process </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the idea by thinking of all the pluses and minuses </li></ul>
  65. 65. Sub-process Level 3 Function <ul><li>The smaller steps that comprise one process step; the next level of detail </li></ul><ul><li>Has all the same characteristics of a primary process, such as decision diamonds, parallel processes, and inspection points </li></ul>
  66. 66. <ul><li>Each step in the sub-process can be further broken down into its elements or tasks (sub-sub-process, or Level 4 Task) </li></ul><ul><li>Map the sub-processes and sub-sub-processes when </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A primary step has been identified as a potential problem area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No further improvement at the primary process level can be found </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You want to understand your process even better </li></ul></ul>Mapping Sub-processes
  67. 67. <ul><li>To collaboratively gain an even deeper understanding of how the process works </li></ul><ul><li>Gain new insights and to understand how your process affects other processes </li></ul>Get Feedback on Map
  68. 68. Process Mapping Guidelines <ul><li>Use brown paper for background </li></ul><ul><li>Use stick-on notes or index cards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Represent task rectangles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different c o l o r s to represent input/output parallelograms or different departments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turn 45 degrees to represent decision diamonds </li></ul></ul>
  69. 69. Process Mapping Guidelines for Teams <ul><li>Boundary steps represented by oval drawn with a marker </li></ul><ul><li>Connector nodes represented by circle drawn with a marker </li></ul><ul><li>Process arrow showing direction of flow drawn initially with pencil </li></ul>
  70. 70. Process Mapping Symbols <ul><li>Symbols to be used for coding of tasks, activities, documents, etc. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone : Conversation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer 1 : Mainframe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer 2 : Client/Server </li></ul></ul>
  71. 71. <ul><ul><li>Computer 3 : PC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light Bulb : Bright idea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chain : Interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clouds : Thought, issue, “Don’t forget this” </li></ul></ul>Process Mapping Symbols continued
  72. 72. <ul><li>Red : Manually generated document </li></ul><ul><li>Blue : Computer generated report/ document </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow : Batch record document </li></ul><ul><li>Orange : Regulatory document </li></ul><ul><li>Green : Computer print screen </li></ul><ul><li>Purple : Management report </li></ul>Process Mapping Colors
  73. 73. Summary <ul><li>A map is a tool for the organization to use </li></ul><ul><li>Dozens of maps form a detailed system </li></ul><ul><li>This is true systems thinking </li></ul>