Process Mapping For Systems Improvement

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A guide for process mapping from tasks level to system level for continuous improvement.

A guide for process mapping from tasks level to system level for continuous improvement.

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  • 1. For Systems Improvement Process Mapping: Adapted by Mitchell W. Manning from the work of the Process Mapping Training Team at GlaxoWellcome 1995-1997
  • 2. Process Mapping
    • Process Map : A graphic representation of a process, showing the sequence of tasks; uses a modified version of standard flowcharting symbols
    • Mapping : The activity of creating a detailed flowchart of a work process showing its inputs, tasks, and activities in sequence
  • 3.
    • A good map is the foundation for continuous quality improvement efforts in which you analyze and agree on the most efficient routes to take under various circumstances
    Continuous Improvement
  • 4. Objectives
    • Map process as it is now
    • Produce a working document
    • Recognize that real value is in the map’s creation
  • 5. Process Definitions
    • Process : A sequence of steps, tasks, or activities that converts inputs to an output; adds value to the inputs by changing them or using them to produce something new
    • Input : The materials, equipment, information, people, money, or environmental conditions needed to carry out the process
    • Output : The product or service that is created by the process; that which is handed off to the customer
  • 6. Types of Customers
    • External Customer : User of an organization’s overall product or service who is not a member of the organization
    • Internal Customer : User of products or services who is a member of the organization
  • 7. Mapping Levels
    • Level 1—System
    • Level 2—Primary Process
    • Level 3—Function
    • Level 4—Task
  • 8. Level 1: System
    • System Map : Organizational overview showing the first level of supply process and customer
    • How?
      • Interview
    • Who?
      • System owner
    • Why?
      • To get direction and establish boundaries
  • 9. Level 2: Primary Process
    • Primary Process Map : A high level overview of the basic steps of a primary process
    • How
      • Interview
    • Who?
      • Process owner
    • Why?
      • Systems improvement
  • 10. Level 3: Function
    • Function Map : A map which contains more detail and includes the major functions in the process
    • How?
      • SMEs describe functions in detail, usually through structured brainstorming
    • Who?
      • Process owner
      • Direct reports
    • Why?
      • Process improvement
  • 11. Level 4: Task
    • Task Map : A more detailed map including individual tasks or activities which make up the function
    • How?
      • SMEs describe activities in detail, usually through structured brainstorming
    • Why?
      • Drill down to the lowest level of detail for process re-engineering, computer system implementation, etc.
      • May include documents, screen prints, and data
  • 12. Define the Process
    • Output
    • Customer(s)
    • Requirements
    • Process Participants
    • Process Owner
    • Stakeholders
    • Process Boundaries
    • Inputs and their Suppliers
  • 13. Process Definitions
    • Process Participants : People who perform the steps of the process
    • Process Owner : Person responsible for the process and its output; key decision maker who can allot organization resources to the process participants
    • Stakeholder : Someone who is not a supplier, customer, or process owner; but who has an interest in the process and stands to gain or lose based on the results of the process
    • Process Boundaries : The first and last steps of the process; the first thing done in the process and the last thing done before delivery to the customer
    • Primary Process : The basic steps or activities that must occur to produce the output
  • 14. Steps
    • Each step, task, or activity within a flowchart is depicted as a rectangle
    Take out trash Wash dishes Sweep floor
  • 15. Sweep floor Take out trash Wash dishes Put Steps in Sequence
  • 16.
    • Inputs
      • Drawn as parallelograms
      • Linked to the step where they are used
    • Outputs
      • Drawn as a parallelograms
    Mapping Inputs and Outputs
  • 17. Wash dishes Hot water Soap Sponge Broom Bag/can Inputs Process Kitchen cleaned Output Sweep floor Take out trash Map of a of Primary Process
  • 18. Parallel Process
    • Definition
    • A process executed by someone (or something) else that occurs simultaneously (concurrently) with the primary process
    • May or may not be part of the primary process
  • 19. Clear table Map of a of Parallel Process Wash dishes Stack dishes Refrigerate leftovers Sweep floor Take out trash Dry dishes
  • 20. Parallel Process
    • Reduces cycle time
    • Cycle time : The total amount of time required to complete the process, from boundary to boundary; one measure of productivity
  • 21.
    • Brown paper for background
      • Transportable
    • 3x5 stick-on notes or index cards
      • Represent task rectangles
      • Use a different color for input and output parallelograms
      • May use different c o l o r s to represent different departments
      • Easily moved around, re-sequenced, eliminated, or added to
    • Pencil lines
      • Erasable
    Mapping Guidelines
  • 22. Steps in the Mapping Process
    • Brainstorm
      • Brainstorm a list of tasks and activities on a flip chart
      • Write each item “as is” rather than the “should be”
        • Include the boundary steps
      • Have two or three people write the items listed on 3 x 5 stick-on notes or index cards
        • Each task should include a verb and its object
  • 23. Steps in the Mapping Process
    • Sort
      • Find a large, flat surface on which to lay out the notes
      • Read the stick-on notes while moving around the work surface
      • Remove any tasks that have to do with “inspection,” “revision,” “rework,” or “fix”
      • Remove any tasks that may belong to another administrative/management process
  • 24.
    • Sort
      • Examine each remaining task and place it into one of two stacks/categories
        • Tasks which absolutely must occur
        • Tasks which occur sometimes
      • *Team must be unanimous to put a task in the “must occur” pile
      • *“Must occur” pile represents primary process
      • Discard any duplicated tasks
      • If different people, departments, or functions perform some of the tasks, code the stick-on notes with a colored dot coordinated to the individual, department, or function
    Steps in the Mapping Process
  • 25.
    • Select flowchart format
      • Flowcharts may run either vertically or horizontally based on the amount and nature of the available wall space
    Steps in the Mapping Process
  • 26.
    • Prepare work field
      • Attach brown paper firmly in place according to the format chosen and the available working surface
    Steps in the Mapping Process
  • 27.
    • Place primary process notes
      • Place the first step of the process (boundary) at the top of the first page
      • Place the last step (boundary) at the bottom of the last page
      • Draw ovals around the boundary steps with a marker (see below)
      • Place the remaining steps in sequence
      • Leave space between steps for the insertion of things later
      • Do not draw any lines or arrows yet
      • Save the “sometimes occur” notes
    Steps in the Mapping Process (Boundary step)
  • 28.
    • Check for reasonableness
      • Consider each step of your primary process; is it necessary to produce the output?
      • Have any important steps been forgotten? If so, add them
    Steps in the Mapping Process
  • 29. Characteristics of a Truly Useful Map
    • The map must describe
    • The map must allow flexibility
    • The map must build alternative paths, depending on circumstances or personal preference
    • The map must represent the process as it is , not as it ought to be
  • 30. Alternative Path
    • Definition
    • A path through a flowchart comprised of one or more optional tasks off the mandatory primary path
    • Preceded by a decision diamond
  • 31. Decision Diamond
    • Definition
    • Used for a decision leading to an alternative path
    • Depicted by a square stick-on note turned 45 degrees
    • Always poses a question and requires an answer
    • Most often, will lead to yes/no alternatives
  • 32. Pick up son from baseball practice? Drive to playground Drive home no yes Alternative Paths
  • 33. Decision Diamond
    • Each “sometimes occurs” task requires a decision diamond
    • There is usually a three-step thought process for creating and placing a “sometimes occurs” step with its decision diamond
  • 34. Three-Step Process
    • Pair a “sometimes” task with a blank decision diamond
    • Why would you do that optional step? Write it in question form
    • Place the pair (diamond and its task) in its appropriate sequence within the process with the “no” line being connected to the next task box in the primary process
  • 35. Get out of car ? Sometimes Task Get out of car Self- service pump? yes
  • 36. Get out of car Self- service pump? yes no Give order to attendant Alternative Paths
  • 37. Multiple Response Paths
  • 38. Multiple Decisions
  • 39. Decision Questions
    • Should be specific and objective (measurable)
    • Everyone should interpret the question the same way
    • Many of the decisions in the “as is” version may be quite subjective
  • 40. Inspection Point
    • Finds errors before they reach the customer
    • Decision diamond typically requiring a “pass/fail” answer
    • Failures cause the process direction to reverse itself
  • 41. Rework Loop
    • Definition
    • The result of a failed inspection point
    • Adds steps to the process and generally leads back to the inspection diamond
  • 42. Rework Loop
    • Adds to cycle time
    • Adds to cost
    no yes Inspect Pass? Correct
  • 43. Do-Over Loop
    • Definition
    • Another result of a failed inspection point
    • Leads to an earlier step in the process
    • Steps must be repeated
    • Associated with scrap
  • 44. Do-Over Loop Do (Re-do) no yes Inspect Pass? Next step Do (Re-do)
  • 45. Inspection Points
    • Represent standards
    • Should be specific , objective , and measurable
    • If the above criteria are not met, this is an area for improvement
  • 46. Eliminate or Minimize Non-Value-Added Steps
    • This is one of the most important steps of improving a process
    • Look for “approval” and “for-your-information” steps
  • 47. Value-Added Step
    • Definition
    • A step that contributes to customer satisfaction
    • A customer would notice if it were eliminated
  • 48. Customer Requirements
    • Definition
    • The needs, wants, and expectations of your customers, in their words
  • 49.
    • Question your customers about their requirements
    • Ask, “Does this step add value in our customers’ eyes? What would happen to the customer if this step were eliminated?”
    • Brainstorm creative ways to eliminate or shorten particularly time-consuming crucial steps
    Eliminate or Minimize Non-Value-Added Steps
  • 50. Develop and Apply Standards
    • Each inspection point must clearly specify the conditions to “pass”
    • Must have objective, measurable inspection criteria
  • 51. Process Standard
    • Definition
    • Precise, measurable statement of an acceptable level, quantity, or other characteristic
  • 52. Develop and Apply Standards
    • Select an inspection point for which you will begin developing measurable standards/criteria
    • Using the flip chart, brainstorm a list of possible standards
    • Reduce the list using the criteria of criticality , objectivity , measurability , and practicality
    • Agree on standards for each inspection point in the process
  • 53. Move Inspection Points Forward
    • Decide where the process error is likely to occur
    • Create an inspection point as close to the error-producing step as possible
  • 54. Eliminate the Need for Inspection Points
    • Identify the inspection point to be eliminated
    • Brainstorm a number of ideas for elimination
    • Evaluate each idea for its strengths and weaknesses
    • Develop a solution and plan its implementation
    • Try out the solution
    • Continue to monitor for errors (check) to see if your solution has worked
    • Rearrange and redraw affected sections of the map
  • 55. Chart and Evaluate Inputs and Suppliers
    • Select process steps for which there are multiple inputs
    • Brainstorm inputs
    • Fill in the name of the supplier for each input
    • Rate each input as a
      • Needs attention now
      • Postpone for later action
      • No attention needed
    • Develop requirements for inputs rated “1”
    • Judge your inputs against your requirements
    • Share findings with your suppliers and negotiate improved inputs
  • 56. Total Cycle Time
    • Definition
    • The time it takes to complete a process, from boundary to boundary
    • Sometimes called actual cycle time
  • 57. Theoretical Cycle Time
    • Definition
    • The sum of the times required to perform each step in the process
    • Does not account for hand-off or wait times
    • Theoretically, the shortest possible time to complete the process
  • 58. Cycle-Time Studies
    • The difference between total and theoretical cycle times represents the opportunity for improvement
  • 59.
    • Look for bottlenecks and other inefficiencies
    • Develop solutions and try them out
    • Take cycle-time measures of your changed process
    • Adjust and adapt until your changes reliably reduce total cycle time
    Conduct a Cycle-Time Study PDCA
  • 60. Move Steps into Another Process
    • Means of uncluttering a process and minimizing cycle time
    • Move one or more steps to an earlier time, making them part of a different, less time-sensitive process
    • Look for anything that can be done ahead of time
  • 61. Design a Parallel Process
    • Occurs simultaneously with the primary process
    • Reduces cycle time
  • 62. Clear table Wash dishes Stack dishes Refrigerate leftovers Sweep floor Take out trash Dry dishes Design a Parallel Process
  • 63.
    • Identify steps that could be done by someone else, in parallel
    • Map the parallel process so that all can see exactly what would occur
    • Evaluate the idea by thinking of all the pluses and minuses of such a reorganization
    Design a Parallel Process
  • 64. Automate or Mechanize Steps
    • Reduces cycle time, errors, or both
    • Identify steps that could be done by someone (or something) else
    • Map the new process
    • Evaluate the idea by thinking of all the pluses and minuses
  • 65. Sub-process Level 3 Function
    • The smaller steps that comprise one process step; the next level of detail
    • Has all the same characteristics of a primary process, such as decision diamonds, parallel processes, and inspection points
  • 66.
    • Each step in the sub-process can be further broken down into its elements or tasks (sub-sub-process, or Level 4 Task)
    • Map the sub-processes and sub-sub-processes when
      • A primary step has been identified as a potential problem area
      • No further improvement at the primary process level can be found
      • You want to understand your process even better
    Mapping Sub-processes
  • 67.
    • To collaboratively gain an even deeper understanding of how the process works
    • Gain new insights and to understand how your process affects other processes
    Get Feedback on Map
  • 68. Process Mapping Guidelines
    • Use brown paper for background
    • Use stick-on notes or index cards
      • Represent task rectangles
      • Different c o l o r s to represent input/output parallelograms or different departments
      • Turn 45 degrees to represent decision diamonds
  • 69. Process Mapping Guidelines for Teams
    • Boundary steps represented by oval drawn with a marker
    • Connector nodes represented by circle drawn with a marker
    • Process arrow showing direction of flow drawn initially with pencil
  • 70. Process Mapping Symbols
    • Symbols to be used for coding of tasks, activities, documents, etc.
      • Telephone : Conversation
      • Computer 1 : Mainframe
      • Computer 2 : Client/Server
  • 71.
      • Computer 3 : PC
      • Light Bulb : Bright idea
      • Chain : Interface
      • Clouds : Thought, issue, “Don’t forget this”
    Process Mapping Symbols continued
  • 72.
    • Red : Manually generated document
    • Blue : Computer generated report/ document
    • Yellow : Batch record document
    • Orange : Regulatory document
    • Green : Computer print screen
    • Purple : Management report
    Process Mapping Colors
  • 73. Summary
    • A map is a tool for the organization to use
    • Dozens of maps form a detailed system
    • This is true systems thinking