Alavi glossary m

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Alavi glossary m

  1. 1. The glossary of Second Language Acquisition (pages 192-195) Proffessor: Dr. Siros IzadPanah Provided by: Mansooreh Alavi E-mail: alavi_m64@yahoo.com Morpheme: is the smallest grammatical unit in a language. A morpheme is not word identically. If a morpheme can stand alone, it will function as a word (e.g. book, ship, etc). If a morpheme cannot stand alone, it will be part of a word (e.g. –tion in attention). Morphology: is the study of morphemes and the way they are made in language. Motivation: is a psychological quality that helps people to reach a goal. In language, motivation is a need and desire to learn. Multidimensional Model: is an approach to SLA. This approach claims: • Learners acquire certain grammatical structures in a developmental sequence. • Developmental sequences reflect how learners overcome processing limitations. • Language instruction will be successful only if learners mastered the processing operations which are associated to previous stage of acquisition. According to Clahsen “linguistic structures which require a high degree of processing capacity will be acquired late.” Multilingual competence: Those people who grow up in a multilingual environment acquire multilingual competence by using two or more languages from childhood. According to Cook, multilingual competence is: “The compound state of a mind with two or more grammars.” Multilingualism: is the ability to use two or more languages. Naturalistic L₂ learning: is the informal L₂ learning contexts. Natural order: or Universal Sequence raises this question if there is a universal sequence in the grammatical development of language learners. For example, Brown (1973) showed that both L₁ and L₂ learners of English first acquire the progressive –ing and plural –s. Negative evidence: is the explicit and direct correction of inappropriate utterances of learners. Negative transfer: or Interference happens when an L₁ structure or rule is used in L₂ utterances and that use is inappropriate and considered an “error”. Negotiation of meaning: communication requires learners not only listen but also speak as well. In fact, by negotiation of meaning learners collaborate in interaction in order to prevent breakdown of communications. For example, they request for clarification or check the comprehension. Neurolinguistics: is study of language and brain. Neurolinguistics examines the location of language in brain and the way language is represented in brain. It studies how location and organization of language can differ in the heads of monolingual versus multilingual speakers by considering what is added and changed in people brain when they learn another language. In addition, neurolinguistics influenced cognitive perspectives on SLA in 1960. This field of study has been interest of biologists and psychologists since the nineteenth century. Nominalization: is a process in which the whole sentences are transformed into fillers. For example, in English this is achieved by changing sentences into fillers for noun phrase positions. In fact, this
  2. 2. The glossary of Second Language Acquisition (pages 192-195) Proffessor: Dr. Siros IzadPanah Provided by: Mansooreh Alavi E-mail: alavi_m64@yahoo.com process transforms several simple sentences into one sentence. For instance, the sentence “I analyzed the report” changes into “my analysis of the report.” Oral (mode): is a channel of communication which consists of Listening and Speaking. On the other hand, L₂ activities involving language use are classified into oral mode (Listening and Speaking) and written mode (Reading and Writing). Orthography: is the symbolic writing system or the way in which words are spelled. Output: Information processing consists of three stages: Input, Central processing, Output. Output is the production stage. The language that learners produce in speech/sign or in writing forms in SLA. Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP): PDP is a connectionist approach (connectionists focus on the increasing strength of stimulus and responses). PDP states that processing takes place in a network of nodes (units) in the brain. These nodes are connected by pathways. Learners receive repeated patterns of units in input; they extract regularities in patterns, and the associations are strengthened. Parameters: Universal Grammar is a set of principles. These principles contain Parameters. Parameters are limited points or choices of universal principles. Parameters hypothesized to be innate; children are assumed to unconsciously analyze the input they received and construct the appropriate L₁ grammar. Children never select parametric values outside of universal grammar channel. Patterns of activation: In Parallel Distributed Processing of Connectionist approach, learners are exposed to repeated patterns of units in inputs, they extract regularities in the patterns; probabilistic associations are strengthened. Probabilistic associations that develop between nodes in the brain as language learning takes place are named patterns of activation or connection strengths. Performance: or Linguistic Performance is the actual production of learners in different stages of acquisition. Phonemes: are speech sounds that make a difference in meaning. Phonemic coding ability: Carroll introduced four underlying factor of aptitude. One of these factors is phonemic coding ability. Phonemic coding ability is capacity to process auditory input (sound) and organize it into segments which can be stored and retrieved. Phonology: study of sound systems of different languages. Phonotactics: is subcategory of phonology. It is possible sequences of speech sounds(consonants and vowels) in any given language. Plasticity: is the capacity of brain in early childhood which can assume new functions. If one area of brain damaged in childhood, another area of the brain can assume to the functions of the damaged area because it has plasticity capacity. Positive evidence: Actual utterances or the input which is provided from experiencing L₂ in natural use or formal instruction.
  3. 3. The glossary of Second Language Acquisition (pages 192-195) Proffessor: Dr. Siros IzadPanah Provided by: Mansooreh Alavi E-mail: alavi_m64@yahoo.com Positive transfer: When L₁ structure or rule is used in L₂ and that use is appropriate and correct. Positive transfer facilitates L₂ learning. Poverty-of-the-stimulus: This is an argument which states that children can learn beyond what they receive. Children hear a set of incomplete, simple, and only finite sentences but they can produce grammatical, complex sentences. This shows that there must be an innate capacity for L₁ acquisition. Pragmatic competence: In communicative situations we need to convey meaning. For example, in communication we use speech acts such as request for something, apologize, promise, deny, etc. knowing when to use these speech acts are called pragmatic competence. Pragmatic function: When we use language we want to achieve a goal such as conveying information, controlling others behavior, or expressing emotions. These are what we want accomplish with use of language. Pragmatic mode: This term refers to a style. This style expresses the meaning depending on the context. Principles: In Universal Grammar of Chomsky, principles are qualities which all languages in the world have in common. Principles and parameters (model): Universal Grammar is defined as a set of principles which are properties of all languages .some of these principles contain parameters. Knowledge of principles and parameters are considered to be innate. So children never violate principles nor do they select parameters out of Universal Grammar. Private speech: self- talk which children use (in particular) and more mature individuals use to control thought and behavior. In fact, in mature individuals this self-talk leads to inner-talk. Vygostky was interested in private speech. Procedural knowledge: Knowledge which involves how to do something, knowing a procedure for doing something. This kind of knowledge requires practice. For example, if someone knows the grammatical rules s/he has Declarative knowledge, but to speak correctly s/he needs to practice. Processability(theory): is a psychological framework. Its goal is to determine and explain sequences in which processing skills develop in relation to language learning. For example, in order to change a declarative sentence in English to a question, learners use a series of stages. Productive activities: In L₂ learning activities are divided into two types: productive and receptive. Productive activities are L₂ use in order to communicate meaning to others. Speaking and writing are productive activities. Recast: is the indirect correction. Teacher repeats the same thing that learner has said but in fact, s/he corrects the part of language use. Receptive activities: In L₂ learning activities are divided into two types: receptive and productive. Receptive activities are L₂ use in order to interpret the meaning of others. This happens by using listening and reading activities.
  4. 4. The glossary of Second Language Acquisition (pages 192-195) Proffessor: Dr. Siros IzadPanah Provided by: Mansooreh Alavi E-mail: alavi_m64@yahoo.com Reduced form: are the less complex grammatical structures. These structures often observed in informal language. We can observe some of these forms in omission of past tense markers, assimilation and, etc. Reduced function: is smaller range of communicative needs that are accomplished by interlanguage in especially if learner is still in contact with members of L₁ community speech. Registers: are varieties or differences of language that are used in particular situations. These variations are corresponded to formal and informal situations. For example, in academic writing formal registers are used but in everyday language informal registers used. Restructuring: happens in central processing in information processing. For example, inductive grammar learning is connected with central processing and restructuring occurs in central processing. Restructuring makes mental representations more coordinated, integrated, and efficient. Rule-governed behavior: this quality of language is derived from Transformational-generative grammar. It says that ability knowing a language is based on set of underlying rules. Scaffolding: is the verbal guidance of an expert to help the learner do any task or verbal collaboration of peers to perform a task. Scaffolding happens to a learner as an active participant. Schemes: All types of pre-existing knowledge that readers and listeners bring to interpret the meaning. Second language (L₂): Generally, any language that we acquire after first language is L₂. Specifically, learning another language than first language which is socially dominant and needed for education, employment, and other purposes is L₂. Second language acquisition: Learning another language subsequent to first language especially for one who is in childhood and process of this learning is named second language acquisition. Second language learning: Adding another language to ones first or native language. Semantics: In order to analyze language linguists divide language into different levels. One of these levels is semantics which is study of meaning. Sequential multilingualism: Learning additional languages after L₁ is sequential multilingualism. Social psychology: studies language both from psychological and social perspectives. It is subfield of psychology. This study focus on how identity, status, and values affect L₂. Social strategies: strategies for learning which are in development of communicative competence. Sociocultural theory (SCT): This theory belongs to Vygotsky (1962). This theory emphasizes interaction. In this view learning is seen as a social process. Speech acts: Speakers use language to fulfill their goals. In order to accomplish these goals speakers use utterances such as requesting something, apologizing, promising, denying, expressing emotions, etc. These utterances are called speech acts.
  5. 5. The glossary of Second Language Acquisition (pages 192-195) Proffessor: Dr. Siros IzadPanah Provided by: Mansooreh Alavi E-mail: alavi_m64@yahoo.com S-R-R: stimulus-response-reinforcement: are factors which behaviorists applied for learning process. Linguist input is considered stimuli; responses are to those stimuli, and reinforcement can be positive or negative. Stimulus-response theory: This theory introduced by behaviorist. This theory states that children can learn language by imitation. In addition, it studies the relationship between stimuli and response. Structural function: Every element of language plays a role in sentence. For example, subject or object, or an agent or goal is some of these roles. These roles are called structural functions. Structuralism: structuralism was the dominant linguistic model in 1950s. Structuralism (e.g. Bloomfield 1933) divided language into three levels: phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and lexicon. Structural linguists believed in primacy of speech over written language. Subject-predicate structure: Every sentence consists two parts: subject and a predicate. Predicate tells something about subject. Subject is recognized by putting who or what in sentence. In fact, subject-predicate structure involves an amount of grammatical marking because of agreement it requires between sentence elements. Subtractive bilingualism: is when members of minority group are learned the dominant L₂ of majority group and they are more likely to experience some loss of ethnic identity and L₁ skills. Wallace Lambert (1974) differentiates between additive and subtractive bilingualism. Sylvain fissure: is the part of brain which divides the frontal lobes and temporal lobes in both hemispheres. Symbolic mediation: is a link between a person’s current mental state and higher order functions provided by language. This is part of Vygotskyˊs socicultural. Syntactic mode: A style of expressing meaning which relies on formal grammatical elements. Syntax: is linguistic system of grammatical relationships of words within sentences. Systematic linguistics: has been developed by M.A.K. Halliday (1950s). This model analyzes language in terms of interrelated systems of choices. In this view, it is not a system of rules which govern language structure, but rather “meaning potential”. Target language: is language that is the aim of learning. Tone: is a phonological feature. In some languages (e.g. Chinese) changing in tone plays an important role in word identification. Top-down processing: The brain processes information in two ways: top-down processing and bottom-up processing. In top-down processing, past experience or prior knowledge of content in long term memory is used to interpret the meaning. Topic-comment (structure): In linguistics, the topic of a sentence is what is being talked about and comment is what is being said about topic. Unlike subject-predicate structure, the topic-comment structure does not require the agreement.
  6. 6. The glossary of Second Language Acquisition (pages 192-195) Proffessor: Dr. Siros IzadPanah Provided by: Mansooreh Alavi E-mail: alavi_m64@yahoo.com Transactional (purpose): Interpersonal situations subdivided into two: interactional purpose and transactional purpose. The transactional purpose is task-oriented. Transfer: Influence of L₁ on L₂ (using L₁ rules or structures on L₂) is called transfer. Transfer is divided into: positive and negative transfer (or interference). Transformational-generative grammar: is Chomskys internal focus on study of SLA. Chomsky assumed that children acquire language by an innate capacity which is biologically endowed. Transitional competence: This view considers the learners language as a target of analysis which is independent of L₁ and L₂. In addition, the state of learner knowledge is seen as a transitional competence on the path of SLA. Typology: The classification of languages and their features into categories and types are named typology. Ultimate achievement: include what features must be achieved at the end of L₂ study. Universal grammar (UG): UG is a framework introduced by Chomsky. What all languages have in common is universal grammar. Chomsky and his followers claimed that native language can be acquired by innate knowledge that human species endowed genetically. U-shaped development: In u-shaped development, learner first uses correct form such as plural men in English, followed by incorrect mans, finally again appears as men. Utterance structure: is the way learners put their words together. Variable: A characteristic of learner language. Differences in context result in different patterns of language use. Variable features: Multiple linguistic forms that are used by different speakers of a language or by same speakers at different times, with same or similar meaning or function. They occur at every linguistic level: vocabulary, phonology, syntax, etc. For example, native speakers of English may say: I ate dinner or I ate supper (variable vocabulary). Variation theory: studies the systematic differences in learner production which depends on context of use. Vocabulary: The level of language in linguistic which related to words and their meanings. Wernicke’s area: is left frontal lobe of the brain which is involved in the understanding of written and spoken language. Written (mode): Activities involving language use are classified into oral mode and written mode. The written mode includes reading and writing activities. Zone of proximal development (ZPD): Vygotsky believes in this area much of symbolic mediation occurs. This is an area where learners can achieve potential only with assistant. In addition, according to Vygotsky: in ZPD children learn more with support of adults around them. ZISA: The acronym for a research project titled Zweitspracherwerb italienischer und spanischer Arbeiter “ second language development of Italian and Spanish workers.”

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