Pakistan’s Gem and Jewelry Industry Analysis
• Gems and Jewelry industry in Pakistan--as old as the history of Indus
• The first commercial jewellery market was set up in Sarafa Bazar in Karachi
• First gemstone mine in Pakistan was discovered in 1951, in Haramosh
Range in Gilgit
• In 1978, Gemstones Corporation of Pakistan (GEMCP) was set up, under
the control of Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Resources
• In 1970, APGMJA(All Pakistan Gems Merchants and Jewellers Association)
was set up
• ALL PAKISTAN COMMERCIAL EXPORTERS ASSOCIATION OF ROUGH &
UNPOLISHED PRECIOUS AND SEMI PRECIOUS STONES” (APCEA)
established in 1988 at Peshawar.
• Given Industry Status in/ after2004
• We are the 8th largest consumer of the world.
• More than 4 million people attached with gem and jewellery industry
• More than 5000 units of Gems and Jewellery employing more than
• Contribution to GDP of gemstones 0.02%
• Global gem stone trade is worth $40 billion, while Pakistan’s share is only
• During July-dec 2009, Gems of $1.5 million were exported
• Primarily gold and silver are used.
• Gold imported from western states and Gulf countries especially
Switzerland and Dubai
• 4 official gold importers; ARY , Al-Rahim , Pardesi and Tessori
• Bullion market is the main market for local supply
• Gold consumption is 100 tonnes while 30 tonnes is imported. Other
comes from unofficial channels
• Platinum and Silver are also imported.
• Jewellery manufactured is:
– 80% in gold,
– 19% in silver and copper
– Less than 1% in platinum.
•No formal survey to identify geological resources of gemstones
•In 2003, total value of gemstones export was US$4 million
•Lack of realization of importance.
•Lack of gem cutting and polishing facilities.
•Corruption and inefficiencies in transporting. (bribery)
•State of the art machinery not used.
•Weather conditions extremely harsh (NWFP, J&K)
•Inhospitable conditions to work such as snow and high elevation mines
•Unavailablity of water
•Smuggling on very low prices as people not aware of value
•Source of income for IDP’s whose villages destroyed by war on
•Mainly mined through blasting, wastes a lot of gems & reduces size
•The government removed duty on diamond and rough gemstones in 2006
• Gems and Jewellery industry attributed as small family oriented industry
with skill and traditional mindset.
• Skilled/semi-skilled labour force is available at relatively lower rates, which
offers a comparative advantage to the country.
• Average qualification is Intermediate.
• Steps to improve labour conditions include training and inclusion of
• Skilled workers (karigars) are paid around Rs.20,000 while unskilled
workers (furnace workers) are paid around Rs. 10,000.
• GJTMCs of PGJDC in 5 cities; Karachi, Lahore, Quetta, Peshawar, Gilgit
• Introduction of Gem Testing Machinery
• Provides services to the retailers
•Domestic population/consumer base of more than 180
•Huge home demand but affected by high gold prices
•Eastern culture. Customary at weddings, dowry and as
presents on other occasions
•Saving a driving factor.
•Rise in savings-based demand, fall in jewellery demand
•Demand for white gold and platinum restricted to urban
•Healing powers of gems and birth stones
•Local demand of gold is of 21 and 22 karat, globally the
demand is of 14 and 18 carat
•Upsurge in gold prices
•Changes in product
•Survey indicates, as
much weights reduced by
% of recycled
•Ratio of recycled gold in
total has increased from
40% to 70%.
towards Silver as base
•International demand for gems
•Continuously rising intl.
demand for diamond jewellery
•International jewellery demand
India, China US largest.
•India and China emerging. U.S.
31%, India 8.3%, China 8.9%
•Jewellery constitutes 1.3% of Pakistan's exports
•FY2010 jewellery exports increased by 35%, $638 million value.
•Export target for 2017 is US $1.5 billion
•Global jewellery sales could touch $230 billion in 2015
•Country Branding Strategy generating demand & sales at
•Major Markets: US, UK, Dubai.
•Export Financing an issue
Contact Person: Adnan Almas, Gemological Instiute of America
• Three grades of diamonds: industrial, near-gems, gems.
•Gems quality used for diamond jewellery here (VVS1)
•Four C’s of Diamonds:
•Cut: Allows maximum light that enters through its top. India global hub
for cutting. World’s 80%. Belgium better cutting.
•Color: Comes in D (colorless) to Z (light yellow).
•Clarity: amount of flaws, or ‘inclusions’ Very Small, VVS
•Carat-Weight: Determines size. Unit measure of gems’ weight. 1 carat=0.2
•Unlike gold no standard international prices.
•Determined by characteristics, local market.
•No certification labs here.
•Higher-end, suitable for stone-studded jewellery
• India uses both near-gems and gems
•Cutting: stringent import criteria
•Shifting use of gold as a base metal to silver.
•Platinum almost non-existent.
•Skilled labour not easily available
• The extraction of raw materials like metal ore and gems are dependant on
the mining industry.
• Gemstones Corporation of Pakistan looks after the interests of stake
holders in gem stone mining and polishing as an official entity.
• Around 170,000 metric tons of copper and 300,000 ounces of gold a year
yet most of the metal (and gems to an extent) are exported.
Fashion & Media
• We have burgeoning fashion industry which is getting international
acclaim. There is also product placement in popular shows.
• Mostly designer wear, jewellery has huge prospects to grow.
• Jewellers were of mixed opinion:
– It is the future 5/5
– It has always been important
– They’ll have to use us as a means.
• Training institutes established under PGJDC in
Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar, Quetta and Islamabad.
• Courses such as Gemstone Identification, Soumak, Stone Setting.
• There are also one year diplomas in jewelry designing and making.
• Beaconhouse National University has the Department of Jewelry &
• It provides a space for highly skilled craftswomen/men, designers and new
entrants who aspire to become professional jewelry makers and accessory
• Jewellery manufacturing and trading carried out in more than thirty major
cities, 300 smaller cities.
• Jewellers operate as single-shop in at least 45,000 villages to meet rural
• Karachi main hub provides 60% of the total demand
• Important centers include Lahore, Rawalpindi, Hyderabad, Faisalabad and
Peshawar for Gems.
• The system first consisted primarily of karigars
• They were the main players of the industry and even well known
manufacturers were dependant on them.
• Technology and mechanization of the industry, their role has been limited
and there is a trend towards mass production.
• Another reason for reduction of their power would also be their
• Production is divided based on size.
Smaller jewelers still acquire from
karigars while larger retailers have
mechanized, bringing in machinery from
Italy. (vertical integration).
Strategy and Rivalry
• Indian gold is imported via Dubai
• Though we have vast reserves of precious and semi precious stones, most
of the gems used come from other countries as it gem cutting are very
• Power generation mainly through generators
• Reduction of Wastage.
• Tax Evasion
• Workers are also exploited with poor working conditions.
• Most new designs are copied from catalogues.
• Products are introduced on a continual basis and not a seasonal basis.
All Pakistan Gem Manufacturer and Jewelry
• Is a registered Trade Organization
• Established in October 1970
• Aim was to look after the interests of Gem and Jewelry Merchants, Miners
and Exporters in Pakistan
• Now has 1000 members & comes under the umbrella of PGJDC
• USAID launched its Pak. Initiative for Strategic Develpoment And
Competitiveness (PISDAC) project in 2004
• PIDGC was formed as a result of one of the recommendations to the govt.
Pakistan Gems and Jewelry Development
• Non for profit, governmental organization
• Formed under the Ministry of Industries and Production
• Formed in June 2006
• Became operational in April 2007
• Vision: 1. Increase competitiveness
• Objectives: 1. Export and production growth 2.
• Action Plan: Improving quality & marketing
» Skill development
» Technology up gradation R&D
• Gems & Jewelry Training & Manufacturing Centers (GJTMCs) in 5
They offer 12
testing, carving, f
• Gem exchange and Gem Bazars in Quetta, Peshawar, Islamabad and
• Assaying and hallmarking centers are being built in Karachi and Lahore
• Mobile Training Units in remote areas
• Mega Gem Bazaars
• E-Marketing through PGJDC’s website
• International Fairs
– Munich Mineral Show
– Dubai International Jewelry Week
– Bangkok Gems and Jewelry Fair
• The Company has become a member of International Colored Gemstones
• Affiliated with UET
• Women Empowerment
– Has trained around 800 women nation-wide
Gold Jewelry and Gemstones Order, 2001:
Policy/Duties: 16% Sales Tax will remain applicable all metals, except Gold
Gold Imports are exempt from normal import tariffs
•Availability of raw materials specially
gems and semi precious stones.
•Comparative advantage in the studded
•Availability of Technical Skill through
•Easy Access to International markets.
•Recognition in the Global market.
•Cut throat competition.
•High rate of labour costs, utility charges and
•Not getting benefits from training Institutes.
•Not utilization of International Markets.
•Having no any affiliation with International
•Non availability of Hallmarking and
•Lukewarm response of Association.
•Law & Order situation
•Globalization and free trade.
•Competition at international level
•Access to new marketing information and
•New and unexplored markets.
•Easy process of affiliation with International
•Free and transparent trade.
•Reduced role of State.
•Globalization and free Trade.
•Competition with international
•Unmatched customer Demand/ satisfaction
•Reduced rate of competencies.
•losing of international buyers.
• Conscious pursuit of long-term plans and strategy.
• Special Economic Zones (SEZ) be promoted
• Gems & jewellery units in SEZs & Export Oriented Units (EOUs) can receive
precious metal, viz, metal prior to exports or post exports equivalent to
value of jewellery exported.
• Export financing
• Better coordination, trust, with stakeholders & government.
• Awareness of marketing, branding advantages.
• Hallmarking & Assaying for quality.
• Testing/Certification labs for gems & metals.
• Curb crime activities
• Promote related industries, greater inter-link