Solar PV Systems (Engineering, wiring & grid connection) - Martin Cotterell (Sundog Energy)
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Solar PV Systems (Engineering, wiring & grid connection) - Martin Cotterell (Sundog Energy)



Presentation on getting solar PV installed on your farm

Presentation on getting solar PV installed on your farm



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    Solar PV Systems (Engineering, wiring & grid connection) - Martin Cotterell (Sundog Energy) Solar PV Systems (Engineering, wiring & grid connection) - Martin Cotterell (Sundog Energy) Presentation Transcript

    • Solar photovoltaic systemsEngineering, wiring & grid connection
    • PV array options
      Siting & design considerations
      Component selection
      Grid connection
      MCS & installer selection
    • Sundog Energy
       Installing systems since 1995
      • Installed hundreds of systems across the UK
      • Installations on houses, schools, offices, community centres, churches, village halls, libraries, museums, farms, railway stations and more.
      Sundogs (or parhelia) are brilliant spots of light sometimes seen around a solar halo
    • Sundog Energy current live projects
      Kings Cross Station
      Client – Kier / Network Rail
      Project size – 240kWp / £1.3M
      Technology – Bespoke PV glazing
      Ferrier Point
      Client – Rydon / Newham Council
      Project size – 50kWp / £200K
      Technology – PV facade
    • PV module
      Semiconductor devices that convert sunlight directly into electricity
      • No moving parts
      • PV modules typically offer a 25 years performance warranty (life expectancy ~50 years)
    • Grid connected PV systems
      • Solar array – generates DC electricity
      • Inverter – converts DC to AC
      • Connected to Fuse Box / Distribution Board
      • Electricity used in property and/or exported
    • Array options
      Above roof systems
      • Cost effective solution
      • Comprise standard framed modules, fixed to a mounting assembly just above the existing roof.
      • Robust and weather-tight fixings are available for almost all roof types (slates, tiles, metal sheet etc).
    • Pitched roof - Integrated systems
      • Directly replaces conventional roofing materials
      • Various products available Selection depends on tile type and the visual effect desired. Small format PV tiles are typically more costly than larger format solutions
      • Typically installed on new roofs or as part of re-roofing schemes.
    • Flat roof systems
      • Can be installed to a fixed frame or to a ballasted mount
      • Ballasted systems are the simplest (rely on the weight of the ballast to resist wind loads); require no roof penetrations; simple to move for any subsequent roofing works.
      • Fixed frames are typically new build / re-roofing solution
    • PV glazing systems
      • Can replace glass in roofs, skylights and facades
      • Cell layout, cell spacing, single / double glazing and desired light transmission all variable
      • As a bespoke product is a more expensive option - typically of interest for commercial or high value projects
    • PV facades
      • PV modules and PV glazing can be used within building façades
      • Often use bespoke modules or laminates, but standard modules can be used in some circumstances
      • Wind loading issues to be considered on large facades
    • Ground mounted
      • Huge variety of locations and structures will accept PV array
      • Ground mounting often very cost effective & practical option
      • Structures such as pergolas, shelters and canopies can be created or adapted to take PV
      • Tracking devices can boost performance by 20% or more
    • Siting considerations
      Orientation and pitch
      Ideal site is one that faces south with a slope of around 30-40 °.
      Other orientations and pitches may also be viable with relatively little drop in performance
    • Other factors
      Shade - Any shade, such as from trees or neighbouring buildings, can make a large impact on performance
      To work effectively, the whole PV array needs to be free from shade for the majority of the day
      Size - a 1kWp PV array will occupy at least 8m² of roof. Positioning an array too close to the edges of a roof may compromise the aesthetics of the installation and has implications on wind loading.
      Rule of thumb: 1kWp array per year …
      • Generate approx 800kWh (units) of electricity
      • Save approx 0.4 tonnes of CO2
      Not a sundog site!
    • Field array
      Land usage rules of thumb
      • Dense layout ~ 4acres / MWp
      • Open layout ~ 5acres / MWp
      Site shape, slope and shade factors all influence capacity
    • System performance modelling
      Software models such as PVSyst can estimate can estimate likely performance
    • System Monitoring
      • Optimising yield
      • Ensuring performance
      • Rapid fault detection
    • System selection - Key components
      to main
      distribution board
      FIT meter
      PV array
      • Bankable?
      • Reliable?
      • Warranties
    • Site dependant components
      to main
      distribution board
      FIT meter
      PV array
      Mounting frame
      Grid connection
    • Commercial and agricultural roofs
      Key considerations
      • Size
      • Aspect
      • Pitch
      • Shading
      • Structural strength
      • Wind loads
      • Fixing type
      • Roof material (asbestos)
      • Access (fragile roofs)
      • Caustic environment?
    • Ground mounted systems
      • Size
      • Aspect
      • Slope
      • Shading
      • Ground conditions
      • Wind loads
      • Land usage
      • Access
      Array design
      • Mutual shading (density)
      • Ground clearance
      • Maximum height (planning)
      • Speed of installation
      • Fixed / adjustable / tracking
    • Grid connection
    • Small systems
      • System <16A / phase
      • Type tested inverter to G83/1
      • Installed in accordance with G83/1
      Single installations
      • Install and commission system
      • Notify DNO within 30 days and
      provide commissioning info
      Multiple installations
      • Discuss scheme with DNO
      • Install & commission as agreed
    • Connection variations – larger systems
    • DNO connection process
      Project planning phase
      Initial system design – ensuring compliance to standards
      Information phase ( Information exchange with DNO)
      System design, protection arrangements, peak and fault current, harmonics, earthing etc. Network issues
      Design phase (Formal submission of design to DNO)
      Where new infrastructure required >>> DNO prepares connection design and issues a connection offer
      Construction phase
      Construction of plant. Installation of grid connection infrastructure (DNO and/or ICP)
      Testing and commissioning phase
      G59/2 commissioning (witnessed?).
    • “to evaluate microgeneration products and installers against robust criteria, providing greater protection for consumers”
    • MCS Mark
      MCS mark owned by UK GovernmentMark licensed to scheme administrator (Gemserve)Mark sub-licensed to Certification bodiesCertification bodies issue mark to product suppliers & installersInstaller provides customer with MCS certificate for systemMCS certificate enables FIT payments
      Scope: Up to 50kWp (relevant for larger schemes?)
    • MCS – Key PV documents
      MCS001 Installer certification scheme requirements
      MCS3002 Rrequirements for contractors undertaking the supply, design, installation, set to work, commissioning and handover of solar photovoltaic (PV) microgeneration systems
      MCS005Product Certification Scheme Requirements: Solar PV
      MCS011 Test and acceptance criteria
      MCS010 Generic Factory Production Control (FPC) requirements.
    • MIS3002
      BS7671 Requirements for Electrical Installations
      Photovoltaics in buildings - Guide to the installation of PV systems
    • What MCS does NOT do …
      Important to recognise exactly what MCS covers
      • MCS accreditation process does not particularly scrutinise H&S
      A recent photo from the UK press
      ... spot the scaffolding & PPE?
    • Relevant experience …
      • MCS accreditation process does not particularly differentiate in terms of scale, complexity & experience
      … PV installations obviously vary!
    • MCS scope up to 50kWp …. But client must evaluate if experience relevant