Solar PV Systems (Engineering, wiring & grid connection) - Martin Cotterell (Sundog Energy)
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Solar PV Systems (Engineering, wiring & grid connection) - Martin Cotterell (Sundog Energy)

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Presentation on getting solar PV installed on your farm

Presentation on getting solar PV installed on your farm

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  • 1. Solar photovoltaic systemsEngineering, wiring & grid connection
  • 2. PV array options
    Siting & design considerations
    Component selection
    Grid connection
    MCS & installer selection
  • 3. Sundog Energy
     Installing systems since 1995
    • Installed hundreds of systems across the UK
    • 4. Installations on houses, schools, offices, community centres, churches, village halls, libraries, museums, farms, railway stations and more.
    Sundogs (or parhelia) are brilliant spots of light sometimes seen around a solar halo
  • 5. Sundog Energy current live projects
    Kings Cross Station
    Client – Kier / Network Rail
    Project size – 240kWp / £1.3M
    Technology – Bespoke PV glazing
    Ferrier Point
    Client – Rydon / Newham Council
    Project size – 50kWp / £200K
    Technology – PV facade
  • 6. PV module
    Semiconductor devices that convert sunlight directly into electricity
    • No moving parts
    • 7. PV modules typically offer a 25 years performance warranty (life expectancy ~50 years)
  • Grid connected PV systems
    • Solar array – generates DC electricity
    • 8. Inverter – converts DC to AC
    • 9. Connected to Fuse Box / Distribution Board
    • 10. Electricity used in property and/or exported
  • Array options
    Above roof systems
    • Cost effective solution
    • 11. Comprise standard framed modules, fixed to a mounting assembly just above the existing roof.
    • 12. Robust and weather-tight fixings are available for almost all roof types (slates, tiles, metal sheet etc).
  • Pitched roof - Integrated systems
    • Directly replaces conventional roofing materials
    • 13. Various products available Selection depends on tile type and the visual effect desired. Small format PV tiles are typically more costly than larger format solutions
    • 14. Typically installed on new roofs or as part of re-roofing schemes.
     
  • 15. Flat roof systems
    • Can be installed to a fixed frame or to a ballasted mount
    • 16. Ballasted systems are the simplest (rely on the weight of the ballast to resist wind loads); require no roof penetrations; simple to move for any subsequent roofing works.
    • 17. Fixed frames are typically new build / re-roofing solution
     
     
  • 18. PV glazing systems
    • Can replace glass in roofs, skylights and facades
    • 19. Cell layout, cell spacing, single / double glazing and desired light transmission all variable
    • 20. As a bespoke product is a more expensive option - typically of interest for commercial or high value projects
     
     
     
  • 21. PV facades
    • PV modules and PV glazing can be used within building façades
    • 22. Often use bespoke modules or laminates, but standard modules can be used in some circumstances
    • 23. Wind loading issues to be considered on large facades
     
     
  • 24. Ground mounted
    • Huge variety of locations and structures will accept PV array
    • 25. Ground mounting often very cost effective & practical option
    • 26. Structures such as pergolas, shelters and canopies can be created or adapted to take PV
    • 27. Tracking devices can boost performance by 20% or more
     
     
     
  • 28. Siting considerations
    Orientation and pitch
    Ideal site is one that faces south with a slope of around 30-40 °.
    Other orientations and pitches may also be viable with relatively little drop in performance
     
  • 29. Other factors
    Shade - Any shade, such as from trees or neighbouring buildings, can make a large impact on performance
    To work effectively, the whole PV array needs to be free from shade for the majority of the day
    Size - a 1kWp PV array will occupy at least 8m² of roof. Positioning an array too close to the edges of a roof may compromise the aesthetics of the installation and has implications on wind loading.
    Rule of thumb: 1kWp array per year …
     
    • Generate approx 800kWh (units) of electricity
    • 30. Save approx 0.4 tonnes of CO2
     
     
     
    Not a sundog site!
  • 31. Field array
    Land usage rules of thumb
    • Dense layout ~ 4acres / MWp
    • 32. Open layout ~ 5acres / MWp
    Site shape, slope and shade factors all influence capacity
  • 33. System performance modelling
    Software models such as PVSyst can estimate can estimate likely performance
  • 34. System Monitoring
    • Optimising yield
    • 35. Ensuring performance
    • 36. Rapid fault detection
  • System selection - Key components
    Site
    connection
    to main
    distribution board
    FIT meter
    PV array
    Inverter
  • Site dependant components
    Site
    connection
    to main
    distribution board
    FIT meter
    PV array
    Inverter
    Mounting frame
    Grid connection
  • 39. Commercial and agricultural roofs
    Key considerations
  • Ground mounted systems
    Site
    Array design
    • Mutual shading (density)
    • 56. Ground clearance
    • 57. Maximum height (planning)
    • 58. Speed of installation
    • 59. Fixed / adjustable / tracking
  • Grid connection
  • 60. Small systems
    • System <16A / phase
    • 61. Type tested inverter to G83/1
    • 62. Installed in accordance with G83/1
    Single installations
    • Install and commission system
    • 63. Notify DNO within 30 days and
    provide commissioning info
    Multiple installations
    • Discuss scheme with DNO
    • 64. Install & commission as agreed
  • Connection variations – larger systems
  • 65. DNO connection process
    Project planning phase
    Initial system design – ensuring compliance to standards
    Information phase ( Information exchange with DNO)
    System design, protection arrangements, peak and fault current, harmonics, earthing etc. Network issues
    Design phase (Formal submission of design to DNO)
    Where new infrastructure required >>> DNO prepares connection design and issues a connection offer
    Construction phase
    Construction of plant. Installation of grid connection infrastructure (DNO and/or ICP)
    Testing and commissioning phase
    G59/2 commissioning (witnessed?).
  • 66. “to evaluate microgeneration products and installers against robust criteria, providing greater protection for consumers”
  • 67. MCS Mark
    MCS mark owned by UK GovernmentMark licensed to scheme administrator (Gemserve)Mark sub-licensed to Certification bodiesCertification bodies issue mark to product suppliers & installersInstaller provides customer with MCS certificate for systemMCS certificate enables FIT payments
    Scope: Up to 50kWp (relevant for larger schemes?)
  • 68. MCS – Key PV documents
    Installer
    MCS001 Installer certification scheme requirements
    MCS3002 Rrequirements for contractors undertaking the supply, design, installation, set to work, commissioning and handover of solar photovoltaic (PV) microgeneration systems
    Product
    MCS005Product Certification Scheme Requirements: Solar PV
    MCS011 Test and acceptance criteria
    MCS010 Generic Factory Production Control (FPC) requirements.
  • 69. MIS3002
    BS7671 Requirements for Electrical Installations
    Photovoltaics in buildings - Guide to the installation of PV systems
  • 70. What MCS does NOT do …
    Important to recognise exactly what MCS covers
    • MCS accreditation process does not particularly scrutinise H&S
    A recent photo from the UK press
    ... spot the scaffolding & PPE?
  • 71. Relevant experience …
    • MCS accreditation process does not particularly differentiate in terms of scale, complexity & experience
    … PV installations obviously vary!
  • 72. MCS scope up to 50kWp …. But client must evaluate if experience relevant
  • 73. www.sundog-energy.co.uk