Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Assessing and addressing the impact of warmer autumns on the success of grain cooling - Dean Cook (FERA)
Assessing and addressing the impact of warmer autumns on the success of grain cooling - Dean Cook (FERA)
Assessing and addressing the impact of warmer autumns on the success of grain cooling - Dean Cook (FERA)
Assessing and addressing the impact of warmer autumns on the success of grain cooling - Dean Cook (FERA)
Assessing and addressing the impact of warmer autumns on the success of grain cooling - Dean Cook (FERA)
Assessing and addressing the impact of warmer autumns on the success of grain cooling - Dean Cook (FERA)
Assessing and addressing the impact of warmer autumns on the success of grain cooling - Dean Cook (FERA)
Assessing and addressing the impact of warmer autumns on the success of grain cooling - Dean Cook (FERA)
Assessing and addressing the impact of warmer autumns on the success of grain cooling - Dean Cook (FERA)
Assessing and addressing the impact of warmer autumns on the success of grain cooling - Dean Cook (FERA)
Assessing and addressing the impact of warmer autumns on the success of grain cooling - Dean Cook (FERA)
Assessing and addressing the impact of warmer autumns on the success of grain cooling - Dean Cook (FERA)
Assessing and addressing the impact of warmer autumns on the success of grain cooling - Dean Cook (FERA)
Assessing and addressing the impact of warmer autumns on the success of grain cooling - Dean Cook (FERA)
Assessing and addressing the impact of warmer autumns on the success of grain cooling - Dean Cook (FERA)
Assessing and addressing the impact of warmer autumns on the success of grain cooling - Dean Cook (FERA)
Assessing and addressing the impact of warmer autumns on the success of grain cooling - Dean Cook (FERA)
Assessing and addressing the impact of warmer autumns on the success of grain cooling - Dean Cook (FERA)
Assessing and addressing the impact of warmer autumns on the success of grain cooling - Dean Cook (FERA)
Assessing and addressing the impact of warmer autumns on the success of grain cooling - Dean Cook (FERA)
Assessing and addressing the impact of warmer autumns on the success of grain cooling - Dean Cook (FERA)
Assessing and addressing the impact of warmer autumns on the success of grain cooling - Dean Cook (FERA)
Assessing and addressing the impact of warmer autumns on the success of grain cooling - Dean Cook (FERA)
Assessing and addressing the impact of warmer autumns on the success of grain cooling - Dean Cook (FERA)
Assessing and addressing the impact of warmer autumns on the success of grain cooling - Dean Cook (FERA)
Assessing and addressing the impact of warmer autumns on the success of grain cooling - Dean Cook (FERA)
Assessing and addressing the impact of warmer autumns on the success of grain cooling - Dean Cook (FERA)
Assessing and addressing the impact of warmer autumns on the success of grain cooling - Dean Cook (FERA)
Assessing and addressing the impact of warmer autumns on the success of grain cooling - Dean Cook (FERA)
Assessing and addressing the impact of warmer autumns on the success of grain cooling - Dean Cook (FERA)
Assessing and addressing the impact of warmer autumns on the success of grain cooling - Dean Cook (FERA)
Assessing and addressing the impact of warmer autumns on the success of grain cooling - Dean Cook (FERA)
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Assessing and addressing the impact of warmer autumns on the success of grain cooling - Dean Cook (FERA)

551

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
551
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Assessing and addressing the impact of warmer autumns on the success of grain cooling Dean Cook Science Strategy team
  • 2. Grain Cooling • Grain is ventilated at low-volume rate of 10m3 /h/t • Cooling must be – – fast enough to prevent insects breeding; and temperature as low as to cause death – Part of an integrated grain storage strategy in conjunction with drying, hygiene measures and monitoring
  • 3. As a rule of thumb……. • Cool to below 15°C within 2 weeks to prevent the saw-toothed grain beetle breeding; • to below 10°C within a further 2 months to prevent the grain weevil breeding; • to below 5°C by winter (xmas) to prevent mites breeding and kill insects.
  • 4. Cooling targets for UK stores using low volume aeration at 10 m3 /tonne/hr Cooling starts on 1 Jul 1 Aug 1 Sep 1 Oct Latest 15°C 16 Jul 17 Aug 12 Sep 8 Oct date to 10°C 29 Sep 9 Oct 14 Oct 9 Nov cool to 5°C 8 Dec 8 Dec 9 Dec 1 Jan (After – Armitage et al., 1991)
  • 5. Has cooling become more difficult? – climate change • Climate change will bring;  Earlier, hotter harvests  Shorter milder winters  Extreme weather events • Issues for cooling?  High harvested temperatures  Fewer “windows” of cold night time air available  Challenge to meet targets; speed and temperature achieved
  • 6. Comparison of mean monthly temperatures from 1961 to the present day. 0 5 10 15 20 25 J F M A M J J A S O N D 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 1961/90 (Source: Manley, 1974; Parker et al., 1992 – updated by the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Met. Office, Berkshire, UK.)
  • 7. Minimum temperatures for the period immediately after harvest. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 J A S O 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Target 1. Target 2. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 J A S O 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Target 1. Target 2. Target 1. Target 2. (Source: Manley, 1974; Parker et al., 1992 – updated by the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Met. Office, Berkshire, UK.)
  • 8. Adaptation to climate change – demonstration project Objectives – “How well are we doing?” “How can we do things better?” • Measure on-farm cooling profiles in grain stores on 15 farms distributed throughout the UK from harvest 2007 • To compare the performance of automated differential fan control with manual control at 3 sites using identical paired stores • To illustrate potential problems and “best practice”
  • 9. Part 1. Efficient control – using differential thermostats
  • 10. Differential thermostats Temperature probe inserted into grain Temperature sensor at ambient Feedback to fan control Temperature probe inserted into grain Temperature sensor at ambient Feedback to fan control
  • 11. Advantages of differential thermostats; trials work, East Lincolnshire 1991. 0 5 10 15 20 25 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 Weeks storage Temperature°C Ambient Automated store Manually controlled store SEPTEMBER DECEMBER [Auto-control using a 4°C differential in conjunction with time clock (20.00-07.30, night time only) Vs manual control.]
  • 12. Trial detail – differential thermostats vs manual control. Focusing on 2 sites - Site 1 - • Farm site, Darlington • 700t bulk of wheat at 14.5%mc • Cooled with pedestals at recommended spacing etc. • Bulk divided into virtual halves half bulk controlled by 2°C differential half bulk controlled by manual operation of fans
  • 13. Darlington trial setup 4.5 – 6 m spacing between pedestals Small pedestal/fan to deal with corner Door Leading edge of heap PC running STORECHECK Single fan between 2 – manual control Single fan between 2 – auto control = pedestals = sensors °C 1 2 3 4 5 6 2 1 3 4 5 6 Zone 1Zone 2 4.5 – 6 m spacing between pedestals Small pedestal/fan to deal with corner Door Leading edge of heap PC running STORECHECK Single fan between 2 – manual control Single fan between 2 – auto control = pedestals = sensors °C 1 2 3 4 5 6 2 1 3 4 5 6 Zone 1Zone 2
  • 14. Site 1 – Results; Temperatures at Darlington site and progress against cooling targets 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 7-Sep 17-Sep 27-Sep 7-Oct 17-Oct 27-Oct 6-Nov 16-Nov 26-Nov 6-Dec 16-Dec Date Temperature°C Auto (mean) Manual (mean) Ambient (minimum) 15°C Target due 18-Sep 5°C Target due 15-Dec 10°C Target due 20-Oct
  • 15. Site 1 – Results; Cumulative fan hours run 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 15-Sep 25-Sep 05-Oct 15-Oct 25-Oct 04-Nov 14-Nov 24-Nov 04-Dec 14-Dec Date No.ofhoursblown Manual Auto Up to 40% energy saving!
  • 16. Comparison of insect control costs PROCESS COST FUNCTIONS Fumigation 150-200p/t - Disinfests Bulk insecticide admixture 50-75p/t - Prevents and disinfests Cooling (manually) 50 p/t - Prevents mc Cooling (automatic) 29 p/t movement - Prevents infestation - Preserves quality - Disinfests over a season
  • 17. Trial detail – differential thermostats vs manual control. Focusing on 2 sites - Site 2 - • Co-operative store, Cambridgeshire • Two 6000t silos of wheat at 14-15%mc • Cooled with upward aeration system One silo controlled by 4°C differential One silo controlled by manual operation of fans
  • 18. Site 2 – Results; Temperatures at Cambridgeshire site and progress against cooling targets Site 2 – Results; Daily spot temperatures (8am) at Cambridge site -5 0 5 10 15 20 05-Oct 20-Oct 04-Nov 19-Nov 04-Dec 19-Dec 03-Jan Date Temperature°C Ambient auto bin (D2) manual bin (D4) 1 2 Hours run 1. (2-Nov) Auto; 98 Manual; 83 2. (4-Dec) Auto; 142 Manual; 155 3. (7-Jan) Auto; 156 Manual; 236 3 10°C Target due 14-Oct 5°C Target due 9-Dec Site 2 – Results; Daily spot temperatures (8am) at Cambridge site -5 0 5 10 15 20 05-Oct 20-Oct 04-Nov 19-Nov 04-Dec 19-Dec 03-Jan Date Temperature°C Ambient auto bin (D2) manual bin (D4) 1 2 Hours run 1. (2-Nov) Auto; 98 Manual; 83 2. (4-Dec) Auto; 142 Manual; 155 3. (7-Jan) Auto; 156 Manual; 236 3 10°C Target due 14-Oct 5°C Target due 9-Dec
  • 19. Part 2. Monitoring exercise – how well are growers doing?
  • 20. Monitoring exercise overview iButtons monitoring ambient and fan temperature
  • 21. Results – monitoring 12 sites across the country Location Air flow P=Pedestal U=Under-floor Differential Target (o C) Target met Best performing Berwickshire ~10m3 /t/h P No 15 10 5 On time 1 week early 1 week early Worst performing Suffolk ~10m3 /t/h U No 15 10 5 10 weeks late Not met Not met • Only 1 site achieved the 15°C target on time • 3 sites achieved the 10°C target on time • 3 sites achieved the target of 5°C on time • 11 stores cooled to 10°C • Only 4 stores cooled to 5°C and below
  • 22. Five day running mean of ambient temperatures at monitoring locations
  • 23. Oxfordshire – why stop cooling?
  • 24. Leicestershire – only cooled on 2 occasions
  • 25. Lincolnshire – the importance of the correct differential
  • 26. Part 3. What about the future? David Bruce Consulting Ltd
  • 27. Weather data – UKCP09 Weather Generator of UKCP09 hourly weather Assumptions • Time into future, in 30yr windows. 2020-2049 • Emissions scenario. High • ‘Percentile’ is probability of change being as large as embodied in the data: – 90% (‘very likely’) – 50% (‘as likely as not’) • Control ‘historical’ data. 1960-1989 • Location: Odiham, Hants
  • 28. Cooling parameters • Strategy - diffstat control set at 4o C • Sensor at 0.5m depth • 4m bed, 14.5% mc, 25o C, 10 m3 /h.t, start 20 Aug • Target temperature 5o C by end December • Also cooled to end February with the same target of 5o C
  • 29. Summary of climate change results 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Control (historic) 90% likely 50% likely Climate change scenario Temperature,o C Target temperature for cooling 88% 61% 38%
  • 30. Conclusions • Not all storekeepers are hitting their cooling targets • Need to continue to improve operator practice • Differential thermostats can help you achieve cooling targets and can save up to 40% energy-use and running costs • Future climate change may impact on cooling targets but……will still be able to control insect pests
  • 31. We would like to thank……. Participating stores and in particular, Stuart Vernon (Grower, Country Durham), Andrew Ruff and Philip Darke (Camgrain) who took part in the differential control trials. The work was funded by – Warwick HRI's Defra-funded Innovation network for adapting agriculture to climate change. Defra through the Sustainable Arable LINK programme
  • 32. Thank you for listening!

×