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Living with livestock; How can livestock help us create a resilient, sustainable farming and food system? Tara Garnett (FCRN)
Living with livestock; How can livestock help us create a resilient, sustainable farming and food system? Tara Garnett (FCRN)
Living with livestock; How can livestock help us create a resilient, sustainable farming and food system? Tara Garnett (FCRN)
Living with livestock; How can livestock help us create a resilient, sustainable farming and food system? Tara Garnett (FCRN)
Living with livestock; How can livestock help us create a resilient, sustainable farming and food system? Tara Garnett (FCRN)
Living with livestock; How can livestock help us create a resilient, sustainable farming and food system? Tara Garnett (FCRN)
Living with livestock; How can livestock help us create a resilient, sustainable farming and food system? Tara Garnett (FCRN)
Living with livestock; How can livestock help us create a resilient, sustainable farming and food system? Tara Garnett (FCRN)
Living with livestock; How can livestock help us create a resilient, sustainable farming and food system? Tara Garnett (FCRN)
Living with livestock; How can livestock help us create a resilient, sustainable farming and food system? Tara Garnett (FCRN)
Living with livestock; How can livestock help us create a resilient, sustainable farming and food system? Tara Garnett (FCRN)
Living with livestock; How can livestock help us create a resilient, sustainable farming and food system? Tara Garnett (FCRN)
Living with livestock; How can livestock help us create a resilient, sustainable farming and food system? Tara Garnett (FCRN)
Living with livestock; How can livestock help us create a resilient, sustainable farming and food system? Tara Garnett (FCRN)
Living with livestock; How can livestock help us create a resilient, sustainable farming and food system? Tara Garnett (FCRN)
Living with livestock; How can livestock help us create a resilient, sustainable farming and food system? Tara Garnett (FCRN)
Living with livestock; How can livestock help us create a resilient, sustainable farming and food system? Tara Garnett (FCRN)
Living with livestock; How can livestock help us create a resilient, sustainable farming and food system? Tara Garnett (FCRN)
Living with livestock; How can livestock help us create a resilient, sustainable farming and food system? Tara Garnett (FCRN)
Living with livestock; How can livestock help us create a resilient, sustainable farming and food system? Tara Garnett (FCRN)
Living with livestock; How can livestock help us create a resilient, sustainable farming and food system? Tara Garnett (FCRN)
Living with livestock; How can livestock help us create a resilient, sustainable farming and food system? Tara Garnett (FCRN)
Living with livestock; How can livestock help us create a resilient, sustainable farming and food system? Tara Garnett (FCRN)
Living with livestock; How can livestock help us create a resilient, sustainable farming and food system? Tara Garnett (FCRN)
Living with livestock; How can livestock help us create a resilient, sustainable farming and food system? Tara Garnett (FCRN)
Living with livestock; How can livestock help us create a resilient, sustainable farming and food system? Tara Garnett (FCRN)
Living with livestock; How can livestock help us create a resilient, sustainable farming and food system? Tara Garnett (FCRN)
Living with livestock; How can livestock help us create a resilient, sustainable farming and food system? Tara Garnett (FCRN)
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Living with livestock; How can livestock help us create a resilient, sustainable farming and food system? Tara Garnett (FCRN)

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This presentation forms part of the Farming Futures workshop 'Making livestock farming fit for the future' …

This presentation forms part of the Farming Futures workshop 'Making livestock farming fit for the future'

9th December 2009

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  • 1. Living with livestock How can livestock help us create a resilient, sustainable  farming and food system? Tara Garnett  Food Climate Research Network ‐ University of Surrey 9 December 2009
  • 2. This presentation • Livestock and GHGs: what contribution? • Two key issues for livestock and their impacts: – Land  – Demand  • Livestock in the global context  – Why is this relevant? • How do these factors affect whether livestock  are a burden, or a blessing? • Livestock: some possible futures
  • 3. Why livestock? Some things we know about meat and dairy • Most GHG intensive food category (on the whole) ‐ as  measured using a range of functional units. • Most  of its impacts occur at the farm stage  • UK meat and dairy consumption (incl imports excl  exports) accounts for 8% UK emissions (incl imports  excl exports) • EBLEX report finds UK beef and sheep production  direct emissions = 2.7% UK emissions.  
  • 4. Is 2.7% a lot? • Compare car travel by purpose as % UK GHG  emissions(ie. the problem of disaggregating  problems to nothing...)
  • 5. And the growing problem of land use  change • Research commissioned by FCRN & WWF‐UK finds that  land use change (LUC) adds another 50% on top of UK  emissions. • In total LUC accounts for 40% of (now higher) food GHG  footprint • More than ¾ is attributable to livestock. • Source: An assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from the UK food system  and the scope for reduction by 2050: How low can we go? Produced by  Cranfield University, Ecometrica and Murphy‐Bokern Associates.  FORTHCOMING • NB: report also confirms that both tech and dietary  change are needed
  • 6. What does LCA tell us about  different types of livestock? • On the face of it – white meat is ‘better’ than  red meat.  Why? • Feed conversion efficiency: Pigs and poultry  convert feed into edible meat/eggs more  efficiency (energy not lost as methane) • Methane: No methane (except pig manure) • Land: less land is needed to produce a given  volume of white meat than red • BUT ...
  • 7. ... this is too simplistic • We need also to consider: • Not just how much but what kind of land is  being used to feed and rear the animals • What we do about demand and how demand  trajectories influence the conclusions
  • 8. Land use and pigs & poultry  • Intensive pigs and poultry systems  use less land overall  than ruminants BUT • The land they do use is prime arable land – for cereal  and soy production • This land is also needed for to grow grains for human  consumption  • In a resource constrained world – is using prime  agricultural land to grow grains to feed to pigs the most  sensible thing to do? • Demand for agricultural land is growing and will lead to  LUC = CO2 release
  • 9. Land use & intensive ruminant production Intensive systems:  • Depend on grains and oilseeds – land / grains  could be used to feed humans – same issues as  for pigs and poultry  • Use more land per unit edible output than pigs  and poultry • Feed conversion lower than pigs & poultry • A triple whammy  (although methane is lower  than extensive ruminant systems)
  • 10. Land use & extensive systems:  Properly managed  • Make use of land unsuited to crop production (resource  efficiency) • Can help store carbon in soil • Sustain ecosystem services (water, biodiversity, soil,  aesthetic value)  • Consume byproducts from other food & agricultural  sectors (resource efficiency) • Give us something for nothing – meat , wool, leather – all  from agricultural waste and poor quality land • Higher methane per kg needs to be seen in this context
  • 11. But ‐ land use & extensive systems:  poorly managed  • Cause soil degradation and carbon losses • Cause deforestation (eg. Amazon) & CO2 release • Reduce biodiversity and water storage capacities • Yield little meat for much climate change and  other damage
  • 12. Demand trajectories are key Global trends in demand are  unsustainable
  • 13. Meat & dairy set to nearly double Production in developing world already higher – most of growth in demand set to come from developing world
  • 14. BUT inequality continues per cap meat to 2050 Source: FAO 2006
  • 15. Ditto for milk ‐ per cap. to 2050
  • 16. Is it really all China’s fault? Meat  kg / per capita / yr Milk  kg / per capita / yr UK 83 242 China 54 16 India 5 67 Kenya 15 98
  • 17. The ‘Which livestock and in what system?  question depends on what you  do about demand • If demand is seen as inevitable & unconstrainable then: – Pigs and poultry are the least bad option – Extensive ruminants are the worst option • But in a world where limits are placed on demand then we  can ask: “How do livestock best make use of the land we  have available while contributing to multiple ecosystem  benefits?” – Extensive ruminants may be the best option – Industrial pig & poultry have nothing to offer
  • 18. Which future? What if things were different? • How do the GHG impacts of different livestock  systems and consumption practices look when  we adopt differing definitions of: – An acceptable diet: nutritional needs vs demand – Role and value of different land uses and  aesthetics? – Animal welfare – Biodiversity – Freedom (to buy)?
  • 19. 4 scenarios – different variables  • Demand versus needs – Emissions per kg product wanted vs emissions per nutritional need fulfilled • Land efficiency versus land reconnection – Land use /emissions per kg product vs matching agriculture to land availabilty by type and appropriateness of use • Absolute versus relative ethics: – Meat and dairy foods:  Physical supply versus equitable distribution – Animal welfare: Intrinsic value versus extrinsic utility – Biodiversity: Agroecology vs biodiversity havens ‐ and differences in how we  assign value to diversity – Freedom:  To choose versus freedom from hunger • For each scenario: What are the implications for GHG emissions and  how would you need to define and deal with the above?
  • 20. How do you reduce demand? I don’t know ‐ but...
  • 21. We need to work it out • We cannot achieve a global 50% cut in agricultural GHGs (with a pop  of 9bn) unless we tackle demand • The developed world must lead the way (this is central to the  Copenhagen negotiations) • If the developed world is to achieve an 80‐90% cut in GHG emissions  there are lots of things we need to do that sound uncomfortable • We need approaches that combine fiscal measures; regulation;  voluntary agreements; availability of alternatives; awareness raising  & information • Production & consumption measures must go together • Farmers mustn’t lose out •
  • 22. Thank you Tara Garnett  Food Climate Research Network taragarnett@blueyonder.co.uk

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