Agriculture, ecology and the multiple bottom line - Martin Wolfe (Organic Research Centre)Martinwolfe wakelyns

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  • The last word......
  • However, another to introduce a massive amount of variation into a crop, is the production of CCPs or 'Evolutionary Breeding' as Suneson termed it in 1960

Transcript

  • 1. Agriculture, ecology and the multiple bottom line Martin Wolfe The Organic Research Centre and Wakelyns Agroforestry,Suffolk
  • 2. Interacting Challenges on Food Production Energy trough Population growth Resources scarcity Climate instability Biodiversity services down - simultaneous solutions are needed!
  • 3. - this is what we survive by - the natural world – or, as it is now frequently termed - Ecosystem Services Provisioning (food and water, materials, energy); Regulating (carbon sequestration, climate regulation, decomposition and detoxification, purification of water and air, pests and diseases, pollination); Supporting (nutrient dispersal and cycling, seed dispersal, primary production); Cultural (spiritual, health and recreational benefits)
  • 4. Monoculture
    • 1) High productivity of few commodities with low labour input; convenience
    • 2) High financial, environmental and social costs
    • 3) Major negative effect on biodiversity through replacement, toxicity etc.
  • 5. Yellow stripe rust of wheat
  • 6. Boosting evolution of the pathogen (- plants, animals, humans)
    • a . P. striiformis evolved as a spore-producing 'factory' – just to survive
    • b. Thus, monoculture encouraged massive population increase in the pathogen (which overcame R vars, fungicides)
    • c. Now globalisation of resistance and monoculture has selected
    • GREATER AGGRESSION AND WIDER CLIMATE TOLERANCE
    • Milus, E.A., Kristensen, K., and Hovmoller, M.S. 2009. Phytopathology 99:89-94.
  • 7. Agroecological solutions
    • 1. Among-crop diversity – in space and time
    • 2. Within-crop diversity – species, variety, genotype levels
    • 3. Induced resistance – one role of weeds
    • 4. For pests – the push-pull approach
    • 5. For animals - the above and low density
    • 6. For humans – all of the above....
  • 8. Does it have to be this way?
    • Need for a paradigm shift in research and development:
    • - to break away from the 'lock-in' to genetic engineering (but not from molecular biology)
    • 'Lock-in' – see Vanloqueren, G and Baret, P V Research Policy 38 (2009) 971–983
    • “ How agricultural research systems shape a technological regime that develops genetic engineering but locks out agroecological innovations”
  • 9. Is organic farming the answer?
    • Crop rotation
    • Complex clover leys
    • Builds-up own crop nutrition
    • No herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, growth regulators
    • More and larger hedges
    • Smaller fields
    • More mixed farms
    • - all help, but a LONG way to go
  • 10. Wheat yield trends at Wakelyns
    • Early 90's – pre- organic
    • 6 – 7 t/ha
    • Late 90's – conversion
    • 5 – 6 t/ha
    • Early- mid 00's
    • 4 – 5 t/ha
    • Late 00's
    • 7 – 8 t/ha
    • Most recent
    • 9 – 10 t/ha
    NO inputs (other than tractor diesel)
  • 11. What can ecology offer? DARWIN, C. (1859) On The Origin Of Species By Means Of Natural Selection “ So in the general economy of any land, the more widely and perfectly the animals and plants are diversified for different habits of life, so will a greater number of individuals be capable of there supporting themselves.”
  • 12. Feed-back systems Linking biodiversity and ecosystems: towards a unifying ecological theory Loreau, M (2010) Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 2010 365, 49-60
  • 13. Unifying concepts in ecology (Loreau 2010)
    • There are positive correlations between:
    • A) DIVERSITY AND STABILITY
    • (e.g. wheat populations)
    • B) DIVERSITY AND PRODUCTIVITY
    • (e.g. large-scale natural grassland projects)
  • 14. Within-crop diversity: wheat populations POSITIVE Capacity : more phenotypic and genotypic variation Complementation : different genotypes complement each other Compensation : if some fail, others take their place Change : evolutionary shifts in response to selection NEGATIVE Competition : may work against the four ‘Cs’ above.
  • 15. Y - 36 crosses; Q – 66 crosses; YQ – 107 crosses (Total crosses – 190 rather than 210 because of Bezostaya) (NB Mixtures have only 9 (Y), 12 (Q) or 20 (YQ) fixed components)‏
  • 16. Resilience Variance in trial performance Populations Mixtures Relative yield difference Postv Postv Negtv Negtv
  • 17. Project 3: SOLIBAM The SOLIBAM diagram (Strategies for Organic and Low-input Integrated Breeding and Management) – an EU project started in March 2010:
  • 18. 'MAGIC' populations at NIAB
    • ELITE
    • Alchemy, Brompton, Claire, Hereward, Rialto, Robigus, Soissons, Xi19
    • DIVERSE
    • Banco, Bersee, Brigadier, Copin, Cordiale, Flamingo, Gladiator, Holdfast, Kloka, Maris Fundin, Robigus, Slejpner, Soissons, Staring, Steadfast, Stetson
  • 19. Diversity and Productivity Natural grassland experiments
  • 20. BIODEPTH project: biomass and diversity at eight European sites
  • 21. Cedar Creek: Biomass and biodiversity improves with time
  • 22. - and the importance of perenniality
  • 23. Advantages of long-term perennial grassland versus annual wheat
    • A. Above Ground
    • Higher N yield, no inputs
    • Perennials dominant, high diversity
    • Pollinators, herbivores, detrivores more, more diverse
    • B. Below Ground
    • Roots longer, deeper
    • Food webs more diverse and structured
    • Soil: more C and N, better structure, less leaching
    • Better water quality (reduced NO3-N load)
    • (Glover et al., 2010)
  • 24. Root biomass below native perennial prairie versus crop land in Kansas (Culman et al. 2010)
  • 25. - leading to the ultimate step AGROFORESTRY - the integration of tree management into agriculture - and the cultivation of woodland edge
  • 26.  
  • 27. Advantages of tree integration
    • Achieves ecosystem intimacy
    • Carbon capture and storage
    • Ammonia abatement
    • Nutrient cycling
    • Produces food, fuel and fibre
    • Biodiversity
    • Crop and animal protection and nutrition
    • Also protects soil, water and air
    • Employment opportunities; pension scheme
    • Inputs needed:
    • Soil, sun, air, water – and some labour
  • 28. Winter wheat and hazel in 2006
  • 29. Clover ley in 2008
  • 30. Potato crop in 2009
  • 31. Hazel coppice recovery on single row (4 months)
  • 32. Wheat populations and diverse hardwood trees