Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Agriculture, ecology and the multiple bottom line - Martin Wolfe (Organic Research Centre)Martinwolfe wakelyns
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Agriculture, ecology and the multiple bottom line - Martin Wolfe (Organic Research Centre)Martinwolfe wakelyns

1,679
views

Published on

Published in: Technology

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,679
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
27
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • The last word......
  • However, another to introduce a massive amount of variation into a crop, is the production of CCPs or 'Evolutionary Breeding' as Suneson termed it in 1960
  • Transcript

    • 1. Agriculture, ecology and the multiple bottom line Martin Wolfe The Organic Research Centre and Wakelyns Agroforestry,Suffolk
    • 2. Interacting Challenges on Food Production Energy trough Population growth Resources scarcity Climate instability Biodiversity services down - simultaneous solutions are needed!
    • 3. - this is what we survive by - the natural world – or, as it is now frequently termed - Ecosystem Services Provisioning (food and water, materials, energy); Regulating (carbon sequestration, climate regulation, decomposition and detoxification, purification of water and air, pests and diseases, pollination); Supporting (nutrient dispersal and cycling, seed dispersal, primary production); Cultural (spiritual, health and recreational benefits)
    • 4. Monoculture
      • 1) High productivity of few commodities with low labour input; convenience
      • 2) High financial, environmental and social costs
      • 3) Major negative effect on biodiversity through replacement, toxicity etc.
    • 5. Yellow stripe rust of wheat
    • 6. Boosting evolution of the pathogen (- plants, animals, humans)
      • a . P. striiformis evolved as a spore-producing 'factory' – just to survive
      • b. Thus, monoculture encouraged massive population increase in the pathogen (which overcame R vars, fungicides)
      • c. Now globalisation of resistance and monoculture has selected
      • GREATER AGGRESSION AND WIDER CLIMATE TOLERANCE
      • Milus, E.A., Kristensen, K., and Hovmoller, M.S. 2009. Phytopathology 99:89-94.
    • 7. Agroecological solutions
      • 1. Among-crop diversity – in space and time
      • 2. Within-crop diversity – species, variety, genotype levels
      • 3. Induced resistance – one role of weeds
      • 4. For pests – the push-pull approach
      • 5. For animals - the above and low density
      • 6. For humans – all of the above....
    • 8. Does it have to be this way?
      • Need for a paradigm shift in research and development:
      • - to break away from the 'lock-in' to genetic engineering (but not from molecular biology)
      • 'Lock-in' – see Vanloqueren, G and Baret, P V Research Policy 38 (2009) 971–983
      • “ How agricultural research systems shape a technological regime that develops genetic engineering but locks out agroecological innovations”
    • 9. Is organic farming the answer?
      • Crop rotation
      • Complex clover leys
      • Builds-up own crop nutrition
      • No herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, growth regulators
      • More and larger hedges
      • Smaller fields
      • More mixed farms
      • - all help, but a LONG way to go
    • 10. Wheat yield trends at Wakelyns
      • Early 90's – pre- organic
      • 6 – 7 t/ha
      • Late 90's – conversion
      • 5 – 6 t/ha
      • Early- mid 00's
      • 4 – 5 t/ha
      • Late 00's
      • 7 – 8 t/ha
      • Most recent
      • 9 – 10 t/ha
      NO inputs (other than tractor diesel)
    • 11. What can ecology offer? DARWIN, C. (1859) On The Origin Of Species By Means Of Natural Selection “ So in the general economy of any land, the more widely and perfectly the animals and plants are diversified for different habits of life, so will a greater number of individuals be capable of there supporting themselves.”
    • 12. Feed-back systems Linking biodiversity and ecosystems: towards a unifying ecological theory Loreau, M (2010) Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 2010 365, 49-60
    • 13. Unifying concepts in ecology (Loreau 2010)
      • There are positive correlations between:
      • A) DIVERSITY AND STABILITY
      • (e.g. wheat populations)
      • B) DIVERSITY AND PRODUCTIVITY
      • (e.g. large-scale natural grassland projects)
    • 14. Within-crop diversity: wheat populations POSITIVE Capacity : more phenotypic and genotypic variation Complementation : different genotypes complement each other Compensation : if some fail, others take their place Change : evolutionary shifts in response to selection NEGATIVE Competition : may work against the four ‘Cs’ above.
    • 15. Y - 36 crosses; Q – 66 crosses; YQ – 107 crosses (Total crosses – 190 rather than 210 because of Bezostaya) (NB Mixtures have only 9 (Y), 12 (Q) or 20 (YQ) fixed components)‏
    • 16. Resilience Variance in trial performance Populations Mixtures Relative yield difference Postv Postv Negtv Negtv
    • 17. Project 3: SOLIBAM The SOLIBAM diagram (Strategies for Organic and Low-input Integrated Breeding and Management) – an EU project started in March 2010:
    • 18. 'MAGIC' populations at NIAB
      • ELITE
      • Alchemy, Brompton, Claire, Hereward, Rialto, Robigus, Soissons, Xi19
      • DIVERSE
      • Banco, Bersee, Brigadier, Copin, Cordiale, Flamingo, Gladiator, Holdfast, Kloka, Maris Fundin, Robigus, Slejpner, Soissons, Staring, Steadfast, Stetson
    • 19. Diversity and Productivity Natural grassland experiments
    • 20. BIODEPTH project: biomass and diversity at eight European sites
    • 21. Cedar Creek: Biomass and biodiversity improves with time
    • 22. - and the importance of perenniality
    • 23. Advantages of long-term perennial grassland versus annual wheat
      • A. Above Ground
      • Higher N yield, no inputs
      • Perennials dominant, high diversity
      • Pollinators, herbivores, detrivores more, more diverse
      • B. Below Ground
      • Roots longer, deeper
      • Food webs more diverse and structured
      • Soil: more C and N, better structure, less leaching
      • Better water quality (reduced NO3-N load)
      • (Glover et al., 2010)
    • 24. Root biomass below native perennial prairie versus crop land in Kansas (Culman et al. 2010)
    • 25. - leading to the ultimate step AGROFORESTRY - the integration of tree management into agriculture - and the cultivation of woodland edge
    • 26.  
    • 27. Advantages of tree integration
      • Achieves ecosystem intimacy
      • Carbon capture and storage
      • Ammonia abatement
      • Nutrient cycling
      • Produces food, fuel and fibre
      • Biodiversity
      • Crop and animal protection and nutrition
      • Also protects soil, water and air
      • Employment opportunities; pension scheme
      • Inputs needed:
      • Soil, sun, air, water – and some labour
    • 28. Winter wheat and hazel in 2006
    • 29. Clover ley in 2008
    • 30. Potato crop in 2009
    • 31. Hazel coppice recovery on single row (4 months)
    • 32. Wheat populations and diverse hardwood trees

    ×