INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY         What is Biochemistry?Biochemistry -is the study of life on a          molecular level.
Biochemistry can be divided into three areas  of study Conformational-structure and three-  dimensional arrangements of b...
   Biochemistry seeks to describe the structure,    organization, and function of living organisms in    molecular terms...
Biochemistry is a Research       Discipline Applicable to Real                   World   Medicine –Clinical        Diagn...
   Protein Diseases   Agriculture        •Herbicides   and Pesticides   Transgenic crops   Industry       -Synthesis ...
CHAPTER 1- THE LIVING CELLThe cell -is the structural and functional unit of all known living organisms. - smallest unit o...
History OF THE CELL: 1632 – 1723: Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 1665: Robert Hooke 1839: Theodor Schwann and  Matthias Jakob ...
GENERAL CLASSIFICATION OF THE CELL:1. Eukaryotic cell    -with true nucleus    -contain membrane-bound    compartments in ...
Diagram of a prokaryotic cell
Diagram of a typical eukaryotic cell
Basis          Prokaryotic cell    Eukaryotic cellTypical        bacteria, archaea   protists, fungi, plants, animalsorgan...
TYPES OF EUKARYOTIC CELLBasis:             Animal Cell    Plant cell1.Nucleus               +             +2. Mitochondria...
Biological composition of the cell
BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELLOrganelles                     FUNCTIONSNucleus          Control center; genetic informa...
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE LIVING                 CELLH, O, C and N make up 99+% of atoms in the human body              ...
Biological Macromolecules of the living cells4. Nucleic Acids-that store and transmit   genetic information5. Proteins- Tr...
Biological Micromolecules Nucleotide (RNA/DNA)- Nucleic Acids Amino acid- Protein Simple sugars-Carbohydrates Fatty ac...
Organelles    Biochemical SystemsNucleus       - Nucleic acids, Protein and LipidsRibosomes     - RNA and ProteinsLysosome...
PHYSICAL BIOCHEMICAL METHODS              (ORGANELLES)4. EXTRACTION5. HOMOGENIZATION6. CENTRIFUGATION
What is Biochemistry?
What is Biochemistry?
What is Biochemistry?
What is Biochemistry?
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What is Biochemistry?

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What is Biochemistry?

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY What is Biochemistry?Biochemistry -is the study of life on a molecular level.
  2. 2. Biochemistry can be divided into three areas of study Conformational-structure and three- dimensional arrangements of biomolecules. Metabolism–energy production and utilization Informational-language for communication inside and between cells
  3. 3.  Biochemistry seeks to describe the structure, organization, and function of living organisms in molecular terms In order to understand the life on the molecular level, you mustfirst have a:  •Knowledge of the chemical structures of the biological molecules  •Understanding of the biological function of the molecules •Understanding of bioenergetics –the study of energy flow in cells
  4. 4. Biochemistry is a Research Discipline Applicable to Real World Medicine –Clinical  Diagnose and monitor diseases * Scurvy, Phenylketonuria,Kwashiorkor, Diabetes, Cholera* Designer Drugs  –New and Improved antibiotics  –New and Improved chemotherapy agents
  5. 5.  Protein Diseases Agriculture  •Herbicides and Pesticides Transgenic crops Industry -Synthesis -Detoxification
  6. 6. CHAPTER 1- THE LIVING CELLThe cell -is the structural and functional unit of all known living organisms. - smallest unit of an organism that is classified as living, and is often called the building bricks of life .*ORIGIN OF THE CELL
  7. 7. History OF THE CELL: 1632 – 1723: Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 1665: Robert Hooke 1839: Theodor Schwann and Matthias Jakob Schleiden 1855: Rudolph Virchow (omnis cellula ex cellula). 1953: Watson and Crick made their first announcement on the double-helix structure for DNA on February 28.
  8. 8. GENERAL CLASSIFICATION OF THE CELL:1. Eukaryotic cell -with true nucleus -contain membrane-bound compartments in which specific metabolic activities take place.2. Prokaryotic cell - no defined-nucleus -simpler than the nucleus
  9. 9. Diagram of a prokaryotic cell
  10. 10. Diagram of a typical eukaryotic cell
  11. 11. Basis Prokaryotic cell Eukaryotic cellTypical bacteria, archaea protists, fungi, plants, animalsorganismsTypical size 1-10 µm 10-100 µm (sperm cells, apart from the tail, are smaller)Cytoplasmatic very few structures highly structured bystructure endomembranes and a cytoskeletonCell movement flagella made of flagella and cilia containing flagellin microtubulesMitochondria None one to several thousandBinary fission (simple division) Mitosis (fission or budding) Meiosis
  12. 12. TYPES OF EUKARYOTIC CELLBasis: Animal Cell Plant cell1.Nucleus + +2. Mitochondria + +3. ER + +4. GA + +5.Cytoplasm + +6. Membrane Plasma Cell wall membrane7.Lysosomes + +8. Centrioles + +9. Chloroplast - +10.Vacuole + +
  13. 13. Biological composition of the cell
  14. 14. BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELLOrganelles FUNCTIONSNucleus Control center; genetic informationMitochondria Produces ATP thru cellular respirationRibosomes Site for protein synthesisER SER-lipids synthesis; RER-CHON synthesisVacuoles Storage and ExcretionMembrane Regulation and TranportationCilia/Flagella MovementLysosomes Cellular digestion
  15. 15. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE LIVING CELLH, O, C and N make up 99+% of atoms in the human body ELEMENT PERCENTAGE Oxygen- 63 Hydrogen -25.2 Carbon- 9.5 Nitrogen -1.4 •Hydrogen, Carbon, Oxygen and Nitrogen comprise over 99% of the mass in most cells •These elements are the backbone of biomoleculesbecause they are capable of forming strong covalent bonds *Chemical Reactions that occur inside the cell are the same that occur outside the cell*
  16. 16. Biological Macromolecules of the living cells4. Nucleic Acids-that store and transmit genetic information5. Proteins- Transportation; Storage; Defense mechanisms6. Polysaccharides-Insulation and Regulation of heat
  17. 17. Biological Micromolecules Nucleotide (RNA/DNA)- Nucleic Acids Amino acid- Protein Simple sugars-Carbohydrates Fatty acids, Glycerol etc.- Lipids
  18. 18. Organelles Biochemical SystemsNucleus - Nucleic acids, Protein and LipidsRibosomes - RNA and ProteinsLysosomes -Proteins (enzymes)Membranes Lipids, Protein, CarbohydratesGolgi Protein, lipids, carbohydratesApparatusMitochondria Proteins, lipids, Carbohydrates, nucleic acids
  19. 19. PHYSICAL BIOCHEMICAL METHODS (ORGANELLES)4. EXTRACTION5. HOMOGENIZATION6. CENTRIFUGATION
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