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NUTRITION: AN INTRODUCTIONGeromil J. Lara, RMT, MSMT
FOOD• Provide energy and new molecules  to replace those that the body usesNUTRIENTS• Component of food and drink that  pr...
CALORIES• Measurement of amount of energy  derived from food1000 Cal = 1 kCalRecommended Nutritional Requirements  Per Day...
CALORIES• Measurement of amount of energy  derived from food1000 Cal = 1 kCalRecommended Nutritional Requirements  Per Day...
CALORIESExample: using 2000 calories dietCHO = 2,000 x 0.5 = 1,000 calories     = 1,000 calories / 4 = 250 gramsCHON = 2,0...
CALORIESExample: using 2000 calories dietFats = 2,000 x 0.3 = 600 calories     = 600 calories / 4 = 150 grams  CHO       2...
VITAMIN• is an organic compound required as  a nutrient in tiny amounts by an  organism• Derived from “Vitamine”• 4 Fat-So...
FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINSVITAMIN AOther Name: RetinolFunction:  – Vision  – To heal eye and skin injuriesDeficiency Symptoms an...
FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINSVITAMIN DOther Name: CalciferolFunction:  – Promotes calcium and phosphate    absorption and mobilizat...
FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINSVITAMIN EOther Name: TocopherolFunction:  – AntioxidantDeficiency Symptoms and Diseases:  – In cases o...
FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINSVITAMIN KOther Name: PhylloquinoneFunction:  – Blood clottingDeficiency Symptoms and Diseases:  – Unco...
WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINSVITAMIN B1Other Name: ThiamineFunction:  – Coenzyme in oxidative carboxylation    and in the pentose...
WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINSVITAMIN B2Other Name: RiboflavinFunction:  – Coenzyme of oxidative processesDeficiency Symptoms and ...
WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINSVITAMIN B3: NICOTINIC ACIDOther Name: NiacinFunction:  – Coenzyme of oxidative processesDeficiency S...
WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINSVITAMIN B6Other Name: PyridoxineFunction:  – Coenzyme in transamination  – Heme synthesisDeficiency ...
WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINSVITAMIN B9Other Name: Folic Acid;  Pteroylglutamic AcidFunction:  – Coenzyme in methylation and in D...
WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINSVITAMIN B12Other Name: CyanocobalaminFunction:  – Part of methyl-removing enzyme in    folate metabo...
WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINSVITAMIN B5Other Name: Pantothenic AcidFunction:  – Part of CoA  – Fat and carbohydrate metabolismDef...
WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINSVITAMIN B7Other Name: BiotinFunction:  – Synthesis of fatty acidsDeficiency Symptoms and Diseases:  ...
WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINSVITAMIN COther Name: Ascorbic AcidFunction:  –   Antioxidant  –   Hydroxylation of collagen  –   Wou...
MINERALS•   Potassium    •   Copper•   Sodium       •   Manganese•   Calcium      •   Chromium•   Chloride     •   Molybde...
ProvidesPotassium   membrane             Muscle Weakness            potential Sodium     Osmotic pressure     Electrolyte ...
Chloride    Osmotic pressure    Electrolyte                                 imbalancesPhosphorus   Balancing calcium   Str...
Oxidative Iron    phosphorylation;    Anemia         hemoglobin         synthesis Zinc    Cofactor in         Retarded gro...
Manganese    Bone formation      Retarded growth of                                 hair and nailsChromium     Glucose    ...
Cobalt    Component of     Pernicious anemia           Vitamin B12Selenium   Fat Metabolism   Muscular disorders Iodine   ...
Fluorine   Enamel Formation   Tooth decay
THANK YOU VERY MUCH
Biochem Nutrition
Biochem Nutrition
Biochem Nutrition
Biochem Nutrition
Biochem Nutrition
Biochem Nutrition
Biochem Nutrition
Biochem Nutrition
Biochem Nutrition
Biochem Nutrition
Biochem Nutrition
Biochem Nutrition
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Biochem Nutrition

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Transcript of "Biochem Nutrition"

  1. 1. NUTRITION: AN INTRODUCTIONGeromil J. Lara, RMT, MSMT
  2. 2. FOOD• Provide energy and new molecules to replace those that the body usesNUTRIENTS• Component of food and drink that provide growth, replacement, and energy – Carbohydrates – Lipids – Proteins – Vitamins – Minerals – Water
  3. 3. CALORIES• Measurement of amount of energy derived from food1000 Cal = 1 kCalRecommended Nutritional Requirements Per Day Carbohydrates 45 – 65% Proteins 10 – 35% Lipids 20 – 35%
  4. 4. CALORIES• Measurement of amount of energy derived from food1000 Cal = 1 kCalRecommended Nutritional Requirements Per Day Carbohydrates 45 – 65% Proteins 10 – 35% Lipids 20 – 35% CHO 4 cal/gram CHON 4 cal/gram Lipids 9 cal/gram
  5. 5. CALORIESExample: using 2000 calories dietCHO = 2,000 x 0.5 = 1,000 calories = 1,000 calories / 4 = 250 gramsCHON = 2,000 x 0.2 = 400 calories = 400 calories / 4 = 100 grams
  6. 6. CALORIESExample: using 2000 calories dietFats = 2,000 x 0.3 = 600 calories = 600 calories / 4 = 150 grams CHO 250 grams CHON 100 grams Lipids 150 grams ============ 500 grams/day
  7. 7. VITAMIN• is an organic compound required as a nutrient in tiny amounts by an organism• Derived from “Vitamine”• 4 Fat-Soluble Vitamins• 9 Water-Soluble Vitamins
  8. 8. FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINSVITAMIN AOther Name: RetinolFunction: – Vision – To heal eye and skin injuriesDeficiency Symptoms and Diseases: – Nightblindness/Blindness – Keratinization of epithelium and corneaBest Food Source: – Liver, butter, egg yolk, carrots, spinach, sweet potatoes
  9. 9. FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINSVITAMIN DOther Name: CalciferolFunction: – Promotes calcium and phosphate absorption and mobilizationDeficiency Symptoms and Diseases: – Rickets (children): pliable bones – Osteomalacia (adults): fragile bonesBest Food Source: – Salmon, sardines, cod liver oil, cheese, eggs, milk
  10. 10. FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINSVITAMIN EOther Name: TocopherolFunction: – AntioxidantDeficiency Symptoms and Diseases: – In cases of malabsorption such as cystic fibrosis: anemia – In premature infants: anemiaBest Food Source: – Vegetable oils, nuts, potato chips, spinach
  11. 11. FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINSVITAMIN KOther Name: PhylloquinoneFunction: – Blood clottingDeficiency Symptoms and Diseases: – Uncontrolled bleeding (mostly in newborns)Best Food Source: – Spinach, potatoes, cauliflower, beef liver
  12. 12. WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINSVITAMIN B1Other Name: ThiamineFunction: – Coenzyme in oxidative carboxylation and in the pentose phosphate shuntDeficiency Symptoms and Diseases: – Beriberi – In alcoholics: heart failure – Pulmonary congestionBest Food Source: – Beans, soybeans, cereals, ham, liver
  13. 13. WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINSVITAMIN B2Other Name: RiboflavinFunction: – Coenzyme of oxidative processesDeficiency Symptoms and Diseases: – invasion of cornea by capillaries – Cheilosis – DermatitisBest Food Source: – Kidney, liver, yeast, almonds, mushroo ms, beans
  14. 14. WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINSVITAMIN B3: NICOTINIC ACIDOther Name: NiacinFunction: – Coenzyme of oxidative processesDeficiency Symptoms and Diseases: – PellagraBest Food Source: – Prunes, peaches, avocados, fish, meat, mushrooms, peanuts, bread, rice, bean s, berries
  15. 15. WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINSVITAMIN B6Other Name: PyridoxineFunction: – Coenzyme in transamination – Heme synthesisDeficiency Symptoms and Diseases: – Convulsions – Chronic anemia – Peripheral neuropathyBest Food Source: – Meat, fish, nuts, oats, wheat
  16. 16. WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINSVITAMIN B9Other Name: Folic Acid; Pteroylglutamic AcidFunction: – Coenzyme in methylation and in DNA synthesisDeficiency Symptoms and Diseases: – AnemiaBest Food Source: – Liver, kidneys, eggs, spinach, orange juice
  17. 17. WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINSVITAMIN B12Other Name: CyanocobalaminFunction: – Part of methyl-removing enzyme in folate metabolismDeficiency Symptoms and Diseases: – Pathcy demyelination – Degradation of nerves, spinal cord, and brainBest Food Source: – Oysters, salmon, liver, kidney
  18. 18. WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINSVITAMIN B5Other Name: Pantothenic AcidFunction: – Part of CoA – Fat and carbohydrate metabolismDeficiency Symptoms and Diseases: – Gastrointestinal disturbances – DepressionBest Food Source: – Peanuts, soybeans, liver, kidney, brain, heart
  19. 19. WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINSVITAMIN B7Other Name: BiotinFunction: – Synthesis of fatty acidsDeficiency Symptoms and Diseases: – Dermatitis, nausea, depressionBest Food Source: – Yeast, liver, kidney, nuts, egg yolk
  20. 20. WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINSVITAMIN COther Name: Ascorbic AcidFunction: – Antioxidant – Hydroxylation of collagen – Wound healing – Bond formationDeficiency Symptoms and Diseases: – ScurvyBest Food Source: – Citrus fruits, berries, cabbage, tomatoes
  21. 21. MINERALS• Potassium • Copper• Sodium • Manganese• Calcium • Chromium• Chloride • Molybdenum• Phosphorus • Cobalt• Magnesium • Selenium• Iron • Iodine• Zinc • Fluorine
  22. 22. ProvidesPotassium membrane Muscle Weakness potential Sodium Osmotic pressure Electrolyte imbalances Bone formation; Muscle cramps; Calcium Hormonal function; osteoporosis, Blood coagulation; fragile bones, Muscle contraction coagulopathy
  23. 23. Chloride Osmotic pressure Electrolyte imbalancesPhosphorus Balancing calcium Structural in the diet weakness in bonesMagnesium Cofactor in Hypocalcemia enzymes
  24. 24. Oxidative Iron phosphorylation; Anemia hemoglobin synthesis Zinc Cofactor in Retarded growth; enzymes; insulin enlarged liver Loss of hairCopper Oxidative enzymes pigmentation; cofactor anemia
  25. 25. Manganese Bone formation Retarded growth of hair and nailsChromium Glucose Glucose not metabolism available to cellsMolybdenum Protein synthesis Retarded growth
  26. 26. Cobalt Component of Pernicious anemia Vitamin B12Selenium Fat Metabolism Muscular disorders Iodine Thyroid gland Goiter and function thyroiditis
  27. 27. Fluorine Enamel Formation Tooth decay
  28. 28. THANK YOU VERY MUCH
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