Biochem Metabolism I

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(c) Geromil J. Lara, RMT, MSMT

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Biochem Metabolism I

  1. 1. BIOENERGETICSHOW THE BODY CONVERTS FOOD TO ENERGYGeromil J. Lara, RMT, MSMT
  2. 2. METABOLISM• Is the sum total of all the chemical reactions involved in maintaining the dynamic state of the cell – Metabolic Reactions • Those in which molecules are broken down to provide the energy needed by cells – catabolism • Those that synthesize the compounds needed by cells – anabolism
  3. 3. METABOLISM• Biochemical Pathway – Is a series of consecutive biochemical reactions • Carbohydrates • Lipids • Proteins • Common Catabolic Pathway – To convert the chemical energy in food to molecules of ATP
  4. 4. METABOLISM• Principal Compounds of the Common Catabolic Pathway – Common Catabolic Pathway • Citric Acid Cycle • Oxidative Phosphorylation Pathway – Electron Transport Chain – Phosphorylation
  5. 5. METABOLISM• Principal Compounds of the Common Catabolic Pathway – Agents for Storage of Energy and Transfer of Phosphate Groups • Adenosine Monophosphate (AMP) • Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) • Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
  6. 6. METABOLISM• Principal Compounds of the Common Catabolic Pathway – Agents for Transfer of Electrons in Biological Oxidation-Reduction Reactions • Coenzymes – NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) – FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide) » Contain and ADP core
  7. 7. METABOLISM• Principal Compounds of the Common Catabolic Pathway – Agent for Transfer of Acetyl Groups • Coenzyme A – Final principal compound – Acetyl (CCH3CO–)-transporting molecule – Contains ADP
  8. 8. CATABOLISM• Stage I: Hydrolysis of Dietary Macromolecules into Small Subunits – To degrade large food molecules into their component subunits • Simple sugars, amino acids, fatty acids, and glycerol • Digestive processes
  9. 9. CATABOLISM• Stage II: Conversion of Monomers into a Form that can be Completely Oxidized – Monosaccharides, amino acids, and glycerol are assimilated into the pathways of energy metabolism • Glycolysis • Citric Acid Cycle (Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle or Kreb’s Cycle)
  10. 10. CATABOLISM• Stage II: Conversion of Monomers into a Form that can be Completely Oxidized – Sugars – usually enter the glycolysis pathway in the form of glucose or fructose – Eventually converted to acetyl- CoA, which can be completely oxidized in the citric acid cycle
  11. 11. CATABOLISM• Stage II: Conversion of Monomers into a Form that can be Completely Oxidized – Amino groups – are removed from amino acids – Remaining carbon skeletons enter the catabolic processes at many steps of the citric acid cycle
  12. 12. CATABOLISM• Stage II: Conversion of Monomers into a Form that can be Completely Oxidized – Fatty acids – are converted to acetyl- CoA and enter the citric acid cycle in that form
  13. 13. CATABOLISM• Stage II: Conversion of Monomers into a Form that can be Completely Oxidized – Glycerol – produced by the hydrolysis of fats – Converted to glyceraldehyde-3- phosphate (one of the intermediates of glycolysis) – Enters energy metabolism
  14. 14. CATABOLISM• Stage III: The Complete Oxidation of Nutrients and the Production of ATP – Acetyl CoA – carries 2-carbon remnants of the nutrients, acetyl groups, to the citric acid cycle – Electrons and hydrogen atoms are harvested during the complete oxidation of the acetyl group to CO2 • Used in the process of oxidative phosphorylation to produce ATP
  15. 15. (1) GLYCOLYSIS• Also known as the Embden-Meyerhof Pathway• A pathway for carbohydrate catabolism that begins with the substrate D-glucose – Anaerobic process – 10 steps – 3 Major Products • ATP – chemical energy • NADH – chemical energy • 2 three-carbon pyruvate
  16. 16. GoodnessGracious,Franklin Did GoBy PickingPumpkins (to)Prepare Pies
  17. 17. ENZYME MNEMONICS High Profile People Act Too Glamorous, Picture Posing Every Place
  18. 18. PENTOSE PHOSPHATE PATHWAY• An alternative pathway for glucose oxidation• It provides the cell with energy in the form of reducing power for biosynthesis – NADPH is produced in the oxidative stage • Reducing agent required for many biosynthetic pathways• Provides sugar phosphates that are required for biosynthesis• Most active in tissues involved in cholesterol and fatty acid biosynthesis

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