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Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
Biochem Introduction
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Biochem Introduction

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  • Biochemistry has become the foundation for understanding all biological processes. It has provided explanations for the causes of many diseases in humans, animals and plants."
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    • 1. Biochemistry has become the foundation for understanding all biological processes.It has provided explanations for the causes of many diseases in humans, animals and plants 1
    • 2. What is Biochemistry ? Biochemistry is the application of chemistry to the study of biological processes at the cellular and molecular level. It emerged as a distinct discipline around the beginning of the 20th century when scientists combined chemistry, physiology and biology to investigate the chemistry of living systems by: A. Studying the structure and behavior of the complex molecules found in biological material and C. the ways these molecules interact to form cells, tissues and whole organism 2
    • 3. Principles of Biochemistry Cells (basic structural units of living organisms) are highly organized and constant source of energy is required to maintain the ordered state. Living processes contain thousands of chemical pathways. Precise regulation and integration of these pathways are required to maintain life Certain important pathways e.g. Glycolysis is found in almost all organisms. All organisms use the same type of molecules: carbohydrates, proteins, lipids & nucleic acids. Instructions for growth, reproduction and developments for each organism is encoded in their DNA 3
    • 4. Cells Basic building blocks of life Smallest living unit of an organism Grow, reproduce, use energy, adapt, respond to their environment Many cannot be seen with the naked eye A cell may be an entire organism or it may be one of billions of cells that make up the organism Basis Types of Cells 4
    • 5. Nucleoid region contains the DNA Contain 3 basic cell structures:•Cell membrane & cell wall • Nucleus• Contain ribosomes (no membrane) • Cell Membraneto make proteins in • Cytoplasm with organellestheir cytoplasm 5
    • 6. Two Main Types of Eukaryotic Cells 6
    • 7. Characteristic Bio-membranes and Organelles Plasma Membrane A lipid/protein/carbohydrate complex, providing a barrier and containing transport and signaling systems. Nucleus Double membrane surrounding the chromosomes and the nucleolus. Pores allow specific communication with the cytoplasm. The nucleolus is a site for synthesis of RNA making up the ribosome Mitochondrion Surrounded by a double membrane with a series of folds called cristae. Functions in energy production through metabolism. Contains its own DNA, and is believed to have originated as a captured bacterium.Chloroplasts (plastids)Surrounded by a double membrane, containing stacked thylakoidmembranes. Responsible for photosynthesis, the trapping of lightenergy for the synthesis of sugars. Contains DNA, and likemitochondria is believed to have originated as a capturedbacterium. 7
    • 8. . Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) A network of interconnected membranes forming channels within the cell. Covered with ribosomes (causing the "rough" appearance) which are in the process of synthesizing proteins for secretion or localization in membranes. Ribosomes Protein and RNA complex responsible for protein synthesis Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) A network of interconnected membranes forming channels within the cell. A site for synthesis and metabolism of lipids. Also contains enzymes for detoxifying chemicals including drugs and pesticides. Golgi apparatus A series of stacked membranes. Vesicles (small membrane surrounded bags) carry materials from the RER to the Golgi apparatus. Vesicles move between the stacks while the proteins are "processed" to a mature form. Vesicles then carry newly formed membrane and secreted proteins to their final destinations including secretion or membrane localization. Lysosymes A membrane bound organelle that is responsible for degrading proteins and membranes in the cell, and also helps degrade materials ingested by the cell. 8
    • 9. Vacuoles Membrane surrounded "bags" that contain water and storage materials in plants. Peroxisomes or Microbodies Produce and degrade hydrogen peroxide, a toxic compound that can be produced during metabolism. Cell wall Plants have a rigid cell wall in addition to their cell membranes Cytoplasm enclosed by the plasma membrane, liquid portion called cytosol and it houses the membranous organelles. Cytoskeleton Arrays of protein filaments in the cytosol. Gives the cell its shape and provides basis for movement. E.g. microtubules and microfilaments.http://www.biology.arizona.edu copyright © 1997 - 2004.. 9
    • 10. Biolog. NanostructuresBiochemistry 10
    • 11. How did organic complex molecules evolved frommore simple molecules? CH4, H2O, NH3, HCN ?Biochemical Evolution 11
    • 12. How did organic complex molecules evolved from more simple molecules?• Urea was synthesized by heating the inorganic compound ammonium cyanate (1828)• This showed that compounds found exclusively in living organisms could be synthesized from common inorganic substances 12
    • 13. The Urey-Miller experiment (1950) Some amino acids could be produced: 13
    • 14. Many Important Biomoleculesare Polymers • Biopolymers - macromolecules created by joining many smaller organic molecules (monomers) • Condensation reactions join monomers (H2O is removed in the process) • Residue - each monomer in a chain 14
    • 15. 15
    • 16. Molecular Organisation of a cell 16
    • 17. WaterAbout 60-90 percentof an organism is waterWater is used inmost reactions inthe bodyWater is calledthe universalsolvent 17
    • 18. Bio-molecules Just like cells are building blocks of tissues likewise molecules are building blocks of cells. Animal and plant cells contain approximately 10, 000 kinds of molecules (bio-molecules) Water constitutes 50-95% of cells content by weight. Ions like Na+, K+ and Ca+ may account for another 1% Almost all other kinds of bio-molecules are organic (C, H, N, O, P, S) Infinite variety of molecules contain C. Most bio-molecules considered to be derived from hydrocarbons. The chemical properties of organic bio-molecules are determined by their functional groups. Most bio-molecules have more than one. 18
    • 19. Biomolecules – Structure Anabolic Building block  Macromolecule Simple sugar  Polysaccharide Amino acid  Protein (peptide) Nucleotide  RNA or DNA Fatty acid  Lipid Catabolic 19
    • 20. Linking MonomersCells link monomers by a process called dehydration synthesis (removing a molecule of water) Remove H H2O Forms Remove OH This process joins two sugar monomers to make a double sugar 20
    • 21. Breaking Down Polymers Cells break down macromolecules by a process called hydrolysis (adding a molecule of water) Water added to split a double sugar 21
    • 22. Sugars Carbohydrates most abundant organic molecule found in nature. Initially synthesized in plants from a complex series of reactions involving photosynthesis. Basic unit is monosaccharides. Monosaccharides can form larger molecules e.g. glycogen, plant starch or cellulose.Functions Store energy in the form of starch (photosynthesis in plants) or glycogen (in animals and humans). Provide energy through metabolism pathways and cycles. Supply carbon for synthesis of other compounds. Form structural components in cells and tissues. Intercellular communications 22
    • 23. Monosaccharides -Polysaccharides Glucose - Cellulose Glycosidic bonds connecting glucose residues are in red 23
    • 24. Fatty acids - Lipids Are monocarboxylic acid contains even number C atoms Two types: saturated (C-C sb) and unsaturated (C-C db) Fatty acids are components of several lipid molecules. E,g. of lipids are triacylglycerol, steriods (cholestrol, sex hormones), fat soluble vitamins.Functions Storage of energy in the form of fat Membrane structures Insulation (thermal blanket) Synthesis of hormones 24
    • 25. TriglycerideGlycerol Fatty Acid Chains 25
    • 26. Structure of a biological membrane • A lipid bilayer with associated proteins 26
    • 27. SteroidsThe carbon skeleton ofsteroids is bent to form4 fused rings CholesterolCholesterol is the“base steroid” fromwhich your body Estrogenproduces other TestosteronesteroidsEstrogen &testosterone are alsosteroids Synthetic Anabolic Steroids are variants of testosterone 27
    • 28. Nucleic AcidsStore hereditary informationContain information for making all thebody’s proteins Two types exist --- DNA & RNA 28
    • 29. Amino acids - Proteins: Amino acids: • Building blocks of proteins. • R Group (side chains) determines the chemical properties of each amino acids. • Also determines how the protein folds and its biological function. • Functions as transport proteins, structural proteins, enzymes, antibodies, cell receptors. 29
    • 30. Proteins as Enzymes  Many proteins act as biological catalysts or enzymesThousands of different enzymes exist in the bodyEnzymes control the rate of chemical reactions byweakening bonds, thus lowering the amount ofactivation energy needed for the reaction ->Catalysator-> No not interfere with the equilibrium of reaction-> Enzymes are reusable !!!! 30
    • 31. Enzymes:• Active site - a cleft or groove in an enzyme that binds the substrates of a reaction The nature and arrangement of amino acids in the active site make it specific for only one type of substrate. (accepts just one enaniomer)Egg white lysozyme 31
    • 32. Macromolecules 32
    • 33. Macromolecules 33
    • 34. Concepts of Life Life is characterized by Biological diversity: lichen, microbes, jellyfish, sequoias, hummingbirds, manta rays, gila monsters, & you Chemical unity: living systems (on earth) obey the rules of physical and organic chemistry – there are no new principles 34
    • 35. Life needs 3 things:(1) ENERGY, which it mustknow how to:  Extract  Transform  Utilize 35
    • 36. The Energetics of Life• Photosynthetic organisms capture sunlight energy and use it to synthesize organic compounds• Organic compounds provide energy for all organisms 36
    • 37. Using toxic O2 to generate energy 2 H2O  O2 + 4e- + 4H+ (photosynthesis) Glucose + 6O2  6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy 37
    • 38. Glycolysis: the preferred way for theformation of ATP 38
    • 39. Life needs (2) SIMPLE MOLECULES,which it must know how to:  Convert  Polymerize  Degrade 39
    • 40. Life needs (3) CHEMICALMECHANISMS, to: Harness energy Drive sequential chemical reactions Synthesize & degrade macromolecules Maintain a dynamic steady state Self-assemble complex structures Replicate accurately & efficiently Maintain biochemical “order” vs outside 40
    • 41. Trick #1: Life uses chemical coupling todrive otherwise unfavorable reactions 41
    • 42. Trick #2: Life uses enzymes to speed upotherwise slow reactions 42
    • 43. How does an enzyme do it,thermodynamically? 43
    • 44. How does an enzyme do it,mechanistically? 44
    • 45. Chemical reaction types encountered in biochemical processes1. Nucleophilic Substitution One atom of group substituted for another2. Elimination Reactions Double bond is formed when atoms in a molecule is removed3. Addition Reactions: Two molecules combine to form a single product. A. Hydration Reactions Water added to alkene > alcohol (common addition pathway) 45
    • 46. 4. Isomerization Reactions. Involve intramolecular shift of atoms or groups5. Oxidation-Reduction (redox) Reactions Occur when there is a transfer of e- from a donor to an electron acceptor6. Hydrolysis reactions Cleavage of double bond by water. 46
    • 47. 47
    • 48. Biochemical Reactions Metabolism: total sum of the chemical reaction happening in a living organism (highly coordinated and purposeful activity) a. Anabolism- energy requiring biosynthetic pathways b. Catabolism- degradation of fuel molecules and the production of energy for cellular function All reactions are catalyzed by enzymes The primary functions of metabolism are: a. acquisition & utilization of energy b. Synthesis of molecules needed for cell structure and functioning (i.e. proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, & CHO c. Removal of waste products 48
    • 49. Even though thousands of pathways sound very large and complex in a tiny cell: The types of pathways are small Mechanisms of biochemical pathways are simple Reactions of central importance (for energy production & synthesis and degradation of major cell components) are relatively few in number 49
    • 50. Energy for Cells Living cells are inherently unstable. Constant flow of energy prevents them from becoming disorganized. Cells obtains energy mainly by the oxidation of bio- molecules (e- transferred from 1 molecule to another and in doing so they lose energy) This energy captured by cells & used to maintain highly organized cellular structure and functions 50
    • 51. 51

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