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Nematodes And Cestodes Outline
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Nematodes And Cestodes Outline

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  • 1. NEMATODES (roundworms)Organism Common Distinct Habitat MOT Infective Diagnostic Host Vector Diagnosis Pathogeni Treatment Clinical name Characteristics Stage Stage city Manifestat ionsAscaris Human Largest Small Ingestion of Fertilized ova Unfertilized DH: human Kato technique Ascariasis Albendazolelumbricoide Roundwo nematode; intestine fertilized egg andd (P)s rm presence of (oral-fecal) fertilized ova albuminoid coat in fertilized eggEnterobius Human Colorless, D- Colon Inhalation of Ova Ova DH: human Scotch tape Enterobiasi Mebendazole Pruritus anivermicularis pinworm shaped ova ova; oral- swab s fecalAncylostom Old world 2 pairs of ventral Small Skin Filariform Ova DH: human Ancylostomiasi Culture of Albendazole Ground itcha duodenale hookwor teeth; c-shaped intestine penetration larvae s (Wakana larvae m disease) (P)Necator New 1 pair of cutting Small Skin Filariform Ova DH: human Direct fecal Necatoriasis Albendazole Ground itchamericanus world plated; s-shaped intestine penetration larvae smear/ culture (Uncinariasis hookwor ) m (P)Strongyloid Human Small Skin Filariform Rhabditiform DH: human Direct fecal Strongyloidia Albendazole, Larvaes threadwo intestine penetration larvae larvae (may be smear, sputum sis Ivermectin, currensstercoralis rm dogs and sample Thiabendazole cats)Trichostron Small Ingestion of Filariform Ova DH: cattle, Fecal smear trichostrongy Thiabendazole,gylus spp. intestine filariform larvae sheep, etc liasis Fenbendazole, larvae; skin IN: human Ivermectin, penetration MebendazoleTrichuris Human Barrel/football Colon Oral-fecal Embryonated Embryonated DH: human Zinc sulfate Trichuriasis Albendazole Prolapsed oftrichiura whipwor shaped ova; 2 ova and floatation the rectum m prominent polar unmebryonat plugs ed ovaCapillaria Peanut-shaped Small Ingestion of Embryonated Embryonated DH: human Stool analysis, Capillariasis Albendazole, Initial:philippinens ova; 2 flat polar intestine raw or ova or Fish-eating intestinal Mebendazole borborygmiis plugs undercooked unembryonat birds biopsy and vague fish (bagsic, ed ova IH: Fish abdominal bagsang, (bagsic, pain birut) bagsang, birut)Trichenella porkworm Found in nurse Skeletal Ingestion of Encysted Encysted DH: human Muscle biopsy Trichinosis Thiabendazole, CNS andspiralis cell; smallest muscle raw or larvae larvae RH: pig, Mebendazole heart
  • 2. nematode tissue undercooked human damage, meat pneumonia, meningits, pleurisy, etcToxocara Dog Small Dogs:transm Embryonated Larvae DH: dogs ELISA/EIA Toxocariasis Dogs: Visceral larvacanis roundwor intestine ammary, ova PH: human Western-Blot Antihelminthics migrans, m transplacenta analysis Humans: Ocular larva l Albendazole migrans Human:Inge stion of embryonated ovaToxocara Feline Small Cats : Embryonated Larvae DH : dogs ELISA/EIA Toxocariasis Cats: Visceral larvacati roundwor intestine transmamma ova PH : Western-Blot Antihelminthics migrans, m ry human analysis Humans: Ocular larva Human : Albendazole migrans Ingestion of embryonated ovaDrancuncul Guinea Triangular mouth Abdomin Drinking of Larvae Adult female DH: human Water Direct Dracunculiasi Stick; no Blisterus worm with sclerotized al tissue; contaminated worm IH: water fleas or observation s antihelminthic formationmedinensis plate lower water (with fleas or copepod treatment limbs infected copepods s copepods)Angiostrong Rat Lacks buccal Brain, Ingestion of L3 L3 DH: rat Snails CT or MRI Angiostrongy Surgical operation Eosinophilicylus lungworm capsule; adult CSF, undercooked IH: snails SCAN, liasis meningitiscantonensis female show red eyes infected IncH: IMMUNO-PCR digestive organ snails and human fish and PH: prawn, infected crab vegetables; ingestion of rat fecesAngiostrong Oral opening Mesente Ingestion of L3 L3 DH: rat snails X-RAY Angiostrongy Surgical operationylus surrounded by 3 ric undercooked IH: snail liasiscostaricensi small lips arteries infected IncH:s in snails; human ileocecal ingestion of PH: prawn, region rat feces crabGnathostom Bulbous head with Ingestion of L3 L3 DH: pig, ELISA, Gnathostomi Surgical removal Painfula a pair of lateral infected raw cat, dog Intradermal asis pruriticspinigerum lips surrounding or IH: cyclops, test swellings
  • 3. the mouth undercooked snails seafood and IncH: meat humanAnisakis Herring Body cavity is gastroint Ingestion of L3 L3 DH: fish, Gastroscopic Anisakiasis Surgical removalsimplex worm reduced to a estinal infected raw squid examination narrow seafood IH: cyclops during which pseudocoel; IncH: the 2 cm larvae are Mouth is human visualized and surrounded by removed projections used in feeding and sensationPhocanema Cod/seal Ingestion of L3 L3 DH: fish, Histopathologic Anisakiasis Surgical removaldecipens worm infected raw squid examination of(Pseudoterr seafood IH: cyclops tissueanova IncH:decipiens) humanWuchereria Bancrofti’ Adult: no nuclei at Lymphat Skin L3 Microfilaria DH: human mosquit Giemsa- Bancroftian Diethylcarbamazin Elephantiasibancrofti s filarial tail tip; sheathed ic inoculation IH: o– stained filariasis, e (DEC) s – lower worm microfilaria system by a mosquito – culex, blood,X- Lymphatic limbs mosquito culex, anophel ray,Membrane- filariasis filtration anopheles, es, method, aedes aedes Ultrasonograph yBrugia Malayan Adult: 2 discrete Lymphat Skin L3 Microfilaria DH: human mosquit Thick smear, Brugian diethylcarbamazin Elephantiasimalayi filarial nuclei at the tail ic inoculation IH: o– knott test, filariasis e citrate (DEC), s – upper worm tip; sheathed system by a mosquito – mansoni antibody Ivermectin limbs microfilaria mosquito mansonia, a, detection technique, anopheles, anophel ultrasound aedes es, aedesLoa loa African No lips, 8 pairs of Subcuta Skin L3 Microfilaria DH: Deerfly Visual Loiasis Diethylcarbamazin Calabar eyeworm pappillae, neous inoculation definitive observation e (DEC) swellings sheathed tissue by deerfly IH: deerfly microfilariaOnchocerca Unsheathed Subcuta Skin L3 Microfilaria DH: human Blackfly Skin Onchocercias Surgical removal of Changes involvulus microfilaria; neous inoculation IH: blackfly snips,Palpating is, River nematode from skin different nuclear tissue by blackfly , Slit Lamp blindness, eye; pigmentatio arrangement; (Simulium) Exam, Onchocerco chemotherapy. n; Nodulectomy mas coiled in SQ dermatitis;b nodules lindness; true
  • 4. elephatiasisMansonella Ozzardi’s cylindrical and Body Skin L3 Mircofilatia DH: human Biting thick film or Mansonelliasi Diethylcarbamazin Cold legs;ozzardi filarial bilaterally cavities, inoculation IH: biting midge Knott s ozzardi , e (DEC) Itchy red worm; symmetrical mesente by a biting midge technique Ozzard’s spots; new worm; ry, midge filariasis, Inguinal Eosinophilia; world pseudocoel, or a visceral serous cavity adenitis filaria false body cavity; fat filariasis unsheathedMansonella Formerly Cylindrical; tail is body Skin L3 Microfilaria DH: human Culicoide thick film or Perstans doxycycline ocular andperstans Diptalone half a coil in females cavities: inoculation IH: midge s Midges Knott filariasis abdominal ma and a full coil in peritone by midge technique pruritus, perstans males; unsheathed, al cavity, and have a blunt tail, pleural abdominal and nuclei extend to the end of the tail; cavity, pain ability to elongate and contractMansonella Formerly dermis Skin L3 Microfilaria DH: human Culicoide skin biopsy Streptocercia Diethylcarbamazin Patches ofstreptocerc Diptalone of inoculation IH: midge s Midges and sis; e (DEC) reduceda ma the by midge histopathologic Subcutaneo skin streptocer upp examination us Filariasis pigmentatio ca er n; Itchy trun skin; k, Thickened shou areas of lders skin; Skin , bumps; and Enlarged arm lymph node s.Dirofilaria Dog Curled tail; No Right side Skin L3 microfilaria DH: Mosquit finding Dirofilariasi Immiticide Fever;immitis heartwor sheath; Nuclei of the inoculation human, o microfilariae s Cough; m extend to tail tip heart and by mosquito dog, fox, in a blood Chest pain; pulmonar etc. smear/ ELISA Coughing y artery IH: up blood; of dogs and other mosquito Lung mammals nodule
  • 5. CESTODES (tapeworms)Organis Common Distinct Habitat MOT Infective Diagnostic Host Vector Diagnosis Pathogeni Treatment Clinicalm name Characteristics Stage Stage city manifestat ionsDihyllobot fish Longest Small Ingestion of Plerocercoid Ova DH: human Endoscopy Diphyllobothr Praziquantel megaloblasthrium tapeworm tapeworm; intestine infected larva IH: iasis ic anemialatum broad operculated ova raw/undercoo crustacean, tapeworm at one end and a ked fish small fish knob at the other endDipylidiu Dog 2 reproductive Small Fecal-oral; Cysticercoid Proglottid DH: dog Fleas; Direct fecal Dypilidiasis, Niclosamide Abdominalm tapeworm system; 8 egg intestine ingestion of larva and cat dog lice smear dog , pain;caninum Cucumber packet vector OH: human tapeworm Prazinquant Diarrhea; tapeworm infection el Itchy anus; Double- Urticaria pored tapewormHymenole Dwarf or Segments are Small Fecal oral; Embryonated Ova DH: Fleas, Fecal smear Hymenolepi Prazinquant inducepis nana human wider than long; intestine ingestion of ova human, beetles asis el, enteritis tapeworm Genital pores are vector mice niclosamide with nausea unilateral, and IH: grain and each mature beetle vomiting, segment diarrhea, contains three abdominal testes; ova with pain, and fibers dizzinessHymenole Rat Ova: striated Small Ingestion of Cysticercoid Ova DH: beetle, Direct Fecal Hymenolepi Prazinquant inducepis tapeworm outer membrane intestine vector larva human, rat caproph smear asis el, enteritisdiminuta and a thin inner IH: beetle, ilic with nausea membrane; ova caprophilic arthropo and w/o fibers arthropods ds vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and
  • 6. dizzinessTaenia Pork 7-13 uterine Small Fecal-oral Cysticercoid Ova, gravid DH: human Fecal smear Cysticercosi Prazinquant Seizure,solium tapeworm lateral branches intestine larva & proglottid IH: pig s el, abdominal embryonated niclosamide pain, blurry ova vision, eosinophiliaTaenia Beef 15-30 uterine Small Fecal oral Cysticercoid Gravid DH: human Scotch tape TAENIASIS Niclosamide proglottidssaginata tapeworm lateral branches intestine larva proglottid IH: beef swab, ELISA SAGINATA , Quinacrine may also hydrochlori also crawl de , out of the Bithionol, anus Mebendazol e, Prazinquant elMulticeps Coenurus Pear-shaped Small Ingestion of Ova, Ova, DH: dogs, Gross coenurosis Prazinquant Presence ofmulticeps tapeworm intestine proglottid proglottid proglottid fox examination el, painless IH: sheep of proglottid, Epsiprantel, nodules PH: human fecal Febendazol floatation e method, necroscopy