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NEMATODES (roundworms)Organism Common Distinct Habitat MOT Infective Diagnostic Host Vector Diagnosis Pathogeni Treatment Clinical name Characteristics Stage Stage city Manifestat ionsAscaris Human Largest Small Ingestion of Fertilized ova Unfertilized DH: human Kato technique Ascariasis Albendazolelumbricoide Roundwo nematode; intestine fertilized egg andd (P)s rm presence of (oral-fecal) fertilized ova albuminoid coat in fertilized eggEnterobius Human Colorless, D- Colon Inhalation of Ova Ova DH: human Scotch tape Enterobiasi Mebendazole Pruritus anivermicularis pinworm shaped ova ova; oral- swab s fecalAncylostom Old world 2 pairs of ventral Small Skin Filariform Ova DH: human Ancylostomiasi Culture of Albendazole Ground itcha duodenale hookwor teeth; c-shaped intestine penetration larvae s (Wakana larvae m disease) (P)Necator New 1 pair of cutting Small Skin Filariform Ova DH: human Direct fecal Necatoriasis Albendazole Ground itchamericanus world plated; s-shaped intestine penetration larvae smear/ culture (Uncinariasis hookwor ) m (P)Strongyloid Human Small Skin Filariform Rhabditiform DH: human Direct fecal Strongyloidia Albendazole, Larvaes threadwo intestine penetration larvae larvae (may be smear, sputum sis Ivermectin, currensstercoralis rm dogs and sample Thiabendazole cats)Trichostron Small Ingestion of Filariform Ova DH: cattle, Fecal smear trichostrongy Thiabendazole,gylus spp. intestine filariform larvae sheep, etc liasis Fenbendazole, larvae; skin IN: human Ivermectin, penetration MebendazoleTrichuris Human Barrel/football Colon Oral-fecal Embryonated Embryonated DH: human Zinc sulfate Trichuriasis Albendazole Prolapsed oftrichiura whipwor shaped ova; 2 ova and floatation the rectum m prominent polar unmebryonat plugs ed ovaCapillaria Peanut-shaped Small Ingestion of Embryonated Embryonated DH: human Stool analysis, Capillariasis Albendazole, Initial:philippinens ova; 2 flat polar intestine raw or ova or Fish-eating intestinal Mebendazole borborygmiis plugs undercooked unembryonat birds biopsy and vague fish (bagsic, ed ova IH: Fish abdominal bagsang, (bagsic, pain birut) bagsang, birut)Trichenella porkworm Found in nurse Skeletal Ingestion of Encysted Encysted DH: human Muscle biopsy Trichinosis Thiabendazole, CNS andspiralis cell; smallest muscle raw or larvae larvae RH: pig, Mebendazole heart
nematode tissue undercooked human damage, meat pneumonia, meningits, pleurisy, etcToxocara Dog Small Dogs:transm Embryonated Larvae DH: dogs ELISA/EIA Toxocariasis Dogs: Visceral larvacanis roundwor intestine ammary, ova PH: human Western-Blot Antihelminthics migrans, m transplacenta analysis Humans: Ocular larva l Albendazole migrans Human:Inge stion of embryonated ovaToxocara Feline Small Cats : Embryonated Larvae DH : dogs ELISA/EIA Toxocariasis Cats: Visceral larvacati roundwor intestine transmamma ova PH : Western-Blot Antihelminthics migrans, m ry human analysis Humans: Ocular larva Human : Albendazole migrans Ingestion of embryonated ovaDrancuncul Guinea Triangular mouth Abdomin Drinking of Larvae Adult female DH: human Water Direct Dracunculiasi Stick; no Blisterus worm with sclerotized al tissue; contaminated worm IH: water fleas or observation s antihelminthic formationmedinensis plate lower water (with fleas or copepod treatment limbs infected copepods s copepods)Angiostrong Rat Lacks buccal Brain, Ingestion of L3 L3 DH: rat Snails CT or MRI Angiostrongy Surgical operation Eosinophilicylus lungworm capsule; adult CSF, undercooked IH: snails SCAN, liasis meningitiscantonensis female show red eyes infected IncH: IMMUNO-PCR digestive organ snails and human fish and PH: prawn, infected crab vegetables; ingestion of rat fecesAngiostrong Oral opening Mesente Ingestion of L3 L3 DH: rat snails X-RAY Angiostrongy Surgical operationylus surrounded by 3 ric undercooked IH: snail liasiscostaricensi small lips arteries infected IncH:s in snails; human ileocecal ingestion of PH: prawn, region rat feces crabGnathostom Bulbous head with Ingestion of L3 L3 DH: pig, ELISA, Gnathostomi Surgical removal Painfula a pair of lateral infected raw cat, dog Intradermal asis pruriticspinigerum lips surrounding or IH: cyclops, test swellings
the mouth undercooked snails seafood and IncH: meat humanAnisakis Herring Body cavity is gastroint Ingestion of L3 L3 DH: fish, Gastroscopic Anisakiasis Surgical removalsimplex worm reduced to a estinal infected raw squid examination narrow seafood IH: cyclops during which pseudocoel; IncH: the 2 cm larvae are Mouth is human visualized and surrounded by removed projections used in feeding and sensationPhocanema Cod/seal Ingestion of L3 L3 DH: fish, Histopathologic Anisakiasis Surgical removaldecipens worm infected raw squid examination of(Pseudoterr seafood IH: cyclops tissueanova IncH:decipiens) humanWuchereria Bancrofti’ Adult: no nuclei at Lymphat Skin L3 Microfilaria DH: human mosquit Giemsa- Bancroftian Diethylcarbamazin Elephantiasibancrofti s filarial tail tip; sheathed ic inoculation IH: o– stained filariasis, e (DEC) s – lower worm microfilaria system by a mosquito – culex, blood,X- Lymphatic limbs mosquito culex, anophel ray,Membrane- filariasis filtration anopheles, es, method, aedes aedes Ultrasonograph yBrugia Malayan Adult: 2 discrete Lymphat Skin L3 Microfilaria DH: human mosquit Thick smear, Brugian diethylcarbamazin Elephantiasimalayi filarial nuclei at the tail ic inoculation IH: o– knott test, filariasis e citrate (DEC), s – upper worm tip; sheathed system by a mosquito – mansoni antibody Ivermectin limbs microfilaria mosquito mansonia, a, detection technique, anopheles, anophel ultrasound aedes es, aedesLoa loa African No lips, 8 pairs of Subcuta Skin L3 Microfilaria DH: Deerfly Visual Loiasis Diethylcarbamazin Calabar eyeworm pappillae, neous inoculation definitive observation e (DEC) swellings sheathed tissue by deerfly IH: deerfly microfilariaOnchocerca Unsheathed Subcuta Skin L3 Microfilaria DH: human Blackfly Skin Onchocercias Surgical removal of Changes involvulus microfilaria; neous inoculation IH: blackfly snips,Palpating is, River nematode from skin different nuclear tissue by blackfly , Slit Lamp blindness, eye; pigmentatio arrangement; (Simulium) Exam, Onchocerco chemotherapy. n; Nodulectomy mas coiled in SQ dermatitis;b nodules lindness; true
elephatiasisMansonella Ozzardi’s cylindrical and Body Skin L3 Mircofilatia DH: human Biting thick film or Mansonelliasi Diethylcarbamazin Cold legs;ozzardi filarial bilaterally cavities, inoculation IH: biting midge Knott s ozzardi , e (DEC) Itchy red worm; symmetrical mesente by a biting midge technique Ozzard’s spots; new worm; ry, midge filariasis, Inguinal Eosinophilia; world pseudocoel, or a visceral serous cavity adenitis filaria false body cavity; fat filariasis unsheathedMansonella Formerly Cylindrical; tail is body Skin L3 Microfilaria DH: human Culicoide thick film or Perstans doxycycline ocular andperstans Diptalone half a coil in females cavities: inoculation IH: midge s Midges Knott filariasis abdominal ma and a full coil in peritone by midge technique pruritus, perstans males; unsheathed, al cavity, and have a blunt tail, pleural abdominal and nuclei extend to the end of the tail; cavity, pain ability to elongate and contractMansonella Formerly dermis Skin L3 Microfilaria DH: human Culicoide skin biopsy Streptocercia Diethylcarbamazin Patches ofstreptocerc Diptalone of inoculation IH: midge s Midges and sis; e (DEC) reduceda ma the by midge histopathologic Subcutaneo skin streptocer upp examination us Filariasis pigmentatio ca er n; Itchy trun skin; k, Thickened shou areas of lders skin; Skin , bumps; and Enlarged arm lymph node s.Dirofilaria Dog Curled tail; No Right side Skin L3 microfilaria DH: Mosquit finding Dirofilariasi Immiticide Fever;immitis heartwor sheath; Nuclei of the inoculation human, o microfilariae s Cough; m extend to tail tip heart and by mosquito dog, fox, in a blood Chest pain; pulmonar etc. smear/ ELISA Coughing y artery IH: up blood; of dogs and other mosquito Lung mammals nodule
CESTODES (tapeworms)Organis Common Distinct Habitat MOT Infective Diagnostic Host Vector Diagnosis Pathogeni Treatment Clinicalm name Characteristics Stage Stage city manifestat ionsDihyllobot fish Longest Small Ingestion of Plerocercoid Ova DH: human Endoscopy Diphyllobothr Praziquantel megaloblasthrium tapeworm tapeworm; intestine infected larva IH: iasis ic anemialatum broad operculated ova raw/undercoo crustacean, tapeworm at one end and a ked fish small fish knob at the other endDipylidiu Dog 2 reproductive Small Fecal-oral; Cysticercoid Proglottid DH: dog Fleas; Direct fecal Dypilidiasis, Niclosamide Abdominalm tapeworm system; 8 egg intestine ingestion of larva and cat dog lice smear dog , pain;caninum Cucumber packet vector OH: human tapeworm Prazinquant Diarrhea; tapeworm infection el Itchy anus; Double- Urticaria pored tapewormHymenole Dwarf or Segments are Small Fecal oral; Embryonated Ova DH: Fleas, Fecal smear Hymenolepi Prazinquant inducepis nana human wider than long; intestine ingestion of ova human, beetles asis el, enteritis tapeworm Genital pores are vector mice niclosamide with nausea unilateral, and IH: grain and each mature beetle vomiting, segment diarrhea, contains three abdominal testes; ova with pain, and fibers dizzinessHymenole Rat Ova: striated Small Ingestion of Cysticercoid Ova DH: beetle, Direct Fecal Hymenolepi Prazinquant inducepis tapeworm outer membrane intestine vector larva human, rat caproph smear asis el, enteritisdiminuta and a thin inner IH: beetle, ilic with nausea membrane; ova caprophilic arthropo and w/o fibers arthropods ds vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and
dizzinessTaenia Pork 7-13 uterine Small Fecal-oral Cysticercoid Ova, gravid DH: human Fecal smear Cysticercosi Prazinquant Seizure,solium tapeworm lateral branches intestine larva & proglottid IH: pig s el, abdominal embryonated niclosamide pain, blurry ova vision, eosinophiliaTaenia Beef 15-30 uterine Small Fecal oral Cysticercoid Gravid DH: human Scotch tape TAENIASIS Niclosamide proglottidssaginata tapeworm lateral branches intestine larva proglottid IH: beef swab, ELISA SAGINATA , Quinacrine may also hydrochlori also crawl de , out of the Bithionol, anus Mebendazol e, Prazinquant elMulticeps Coenurus Pear-shaped Small Ingestion of Ova, Ova, DH: dogs, Gross coenurosis Prazinquant Presence ofmulticeps tapeworm intestine proglottid proglottid proglottid fox examination el, painless IH: sheep of proglottid, Epsiprantel, nodules PH: human fecal Febendazol floatation e method, necroscopy