Prepared For:Mr. Farid Hossain TalukdarLecturerDepartment of ManagementBangladesh University of Business & Technology
Group Name: PandemoniumPrepared By:Fariha Ahmad----------------------ID-10111101092-----Intake------23rdTarich Khalasi----------------------ID-10112101111-----Intake------24thMonira Kazal-----------------------ID-08092101218------Intake------18thBangladesh University of Business & Technology
LeadershipLeadership Is defined as the art of directing, motivating,influencing people toward the achievement of a commongoal. A leader is a person who performs the activities ofleadership. It involves: (1) Establishing a clear vision (2) Sharing that vision with others so that they will followwillingly (3) Providing the information, knowledge and methods torealize that vision.
Nature of leadership: Studying the nature of leadership is useful because we tend break things into characteristics to make big concepts easier to handle. The nature of leadership is given below: A Good Communicator A good leader asks many questions, considers all options, and leads in the right direction.
Respectful Treating others with respect will ultimately earn respect. Quiet Confidence A leader is sure of him/herself with humble intentions. Open-Minded A strong leader will evaluate the input from all interested parties and work for the betterment of the whole. Delegator A leader will know the talents and interests of people around him/her, thus delegating tasks accordingly.
Leadership and ManagementLeadership is an important part of management.Management involves planning activities, organizingappropriate structures, and controlling resources.Managers hold formal positions, and they achieve resultsby directing activities of others.Leadership involves setting a new direction or vision fora group that they follow. Leaders inspire others toachieve the vision and to stretch themselves beyondtheir normal capabilities.
• The manager focuses on systems and structure; the leader focuses on people.• The manager relies on control; the leader inspires trust.• The manager has a short-range view; the leader has a long-range perspective.• The manager imitates; the leader originates.• The manager accepts the status quo; the leader challenges it.
Leadership BehaviorSuccessful leadership depends more on appropriatebehavior, skills, & actions, & less on personal traits.The three broad types of skills leaders use are technical,human & conceptual.Technical Skill:It refers to a person’s knowledge & ability in any type ofprocess or technique. For example, the skills learned byaccountants, engineers.
Human Skill:It is the ability to work effectively with people and to buildteamwork. It involves a wide range of behaviors-energizing individuals, giving feedback, coaching, care-giving.Conceptual Skill:Conceptual skill deals with ideas, long-range plans,frame-works, broad relationships and higher managerialjobs.
Followership style of leadership: With few exceptions, leaders in organizations are also followers, they nearly always report to someone else. In formal organizations, ability to follow is one of the first requirements for good leadership. Followership includes:• Not competing with the leader to be in the limelight• Being loyal and supportive, a team player.
• Not being a yes person, who automatically agrees• Acting as a devil’s advocate by raising penetrating questions• Constructively confronting the leader’s ideas, values, and actions• Anticipating potential problems and preventing them.
Trait approach of leadership: The trait model of leadership is based on the characteristics of many leaders - both successful and unsuccessful - and is used to predict leadership effectiveness. The resulting lists of traits are then compared to those of potential leaders to assess their likelihood of success or failure. Assumptions:• Leaders are born, not made.• People who make good leaders have the right combination of traits.
Behavioral approach of leadership: Behavioral theories of leadership focus on the study of specific behaviors of a leader. For behavioral theorists, a leader behavior is the best predictor of his leadership influences. Assumptions• Leaders can be made, rather than are born.• Successful leadership is based in definable, learnable behavior.
Ohio State Studies:In 1945, a group of researchers at Ohio state universitybegan extensive investigations of leadership.Initiating Structure:It refers to the extent to which a leader is likely to define& structure his/her role & those of employees for goalattainment.Consideration:It is the extent to which a person is likely to have jobrelationship characterized by mutual trust, respect foremployees’ ideas, & regard for their feeling.
University of Michigan Studies: Leadership studies undertaken at the University ofMichigan’s Survey Research Center came up with twodimensions of leadership. Employee Oriented Leader:This type of leaders emphasize on interpersonalrelationships, personal interest in the employees’ needs,& they accept individual difference among employees. Production Oriented Leader:This type of leaders emphasize on the technical or taskaspect of the job.
Blake & Mouton’s Managerial Grid:Drawing from the Ohio State and Michigan studies,Blake and Mouton proposed a managerial grid, which isa nine-by-nine matrix outlining 81 different leadershipstyles, based on the styles of concern for people andconcern for production, which essentially represent theOhio State dimensions of consideration and initialstructure or The Michigan Dimensions of employeeoriented and production oriented.
Contingency Theories Of Leadership:• Fiedler’s Contingency Model• Cognitive Resource Theory• Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Model• Path-goal Theory
Fiedler’s Contingency Model:The Fiedler Contingency Model was created in the mid-1960s by Fred Fiedler. The model states that there is noone best style of leadership. Instead, a leaderseffectiveness is based on the situation.Leadership Style:Fiedler believed that leadership style is fixed, and it canbe measured using a scale he developed called Least-Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) Scale.
Three factors work together to determine how favorable a situation is to a leader. These are:• Leader-member relations - The degree to which the leaders is trusted and liked by the group members• Task structure - The degree to which the group’s task has been described as structured or unstructured.• Position power - The power of the leader by virtue of the organizational position and the degree to which the leader can exercise authority on group members.
Cognitive Resource Theory:The cognitive resource theory is a leadership theory ofindustrial and organizational psychology developed byFred Fiedler and Joe Garcia in 1987 as areconceptualization of the Fiedler contingency model.The theory focuses on the influence of the leadersintelligence and experience on his or her reaction tostress.
• Leader’s intellectual abilities correlate positively with performance under low stress but negatively under high stress.• Leader’s experience correlates negatively with performance under low stress but positively under high stress.
Hersey& Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Model:Paul Hersey & Ken Blanchard have developed aleadership model that focuses on followers’ readiness. According to Hersey & Blanchard, readiness is theextent to which people have the ability and willingness toaccomplish a specific task. They have identified fourspecific leadership styles. These are: Telling= High directiveness &low supportiveness Selling= High directiveness & high supportiveness Participating= Low directiveness & high supportiveness Delegating= Low directiveness & low supportiveness
Path-Goal Theory:Developed by Robert House, path-goal theory extractselements from the Ohio State leadership research oninitiating structure & consideration & the expectancytheory of motivation.The Theory:According to this theory, is the leader’s job to providefollowers with information, support, or other resourcesnecessary for them to achieve their goals.
Leader Behaviors:House identified four leadership behaviors.• Directive Leader: Lets followers know what is expected of them, schedules work to be done.• Supportive Leader: Is friendly and shows concern for the needs of followers.• Participative Leader: Consults with followers and uses their suggestions before making a decision.• Achievement-oriented Leader: Sets challenging goals and expects to perform at their highest level.
Path-goal theory proposes two classes of contingencyvariables that moderate the leadership behavior-outcome relationship.
Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory:Leader-member exchange theory states that, because oftime pressure, leaders establish a special relationshipwith a small group of followers based on attitude,demographic, and traits similar to the leaders. This groupis called In Group, they receive more attention, reward,greater performance ratings.Out-Group consists other followers who get lessattention, reward, and have leader-follower relationsbased on formal authority interactions
Leader-Participation Theory:The Vroom–Yetton contingency model is a situationalleadership theory. The situational theory argues the beststyle of leadership is contingent to the situation. Thismodel suggests the selection a leadership style for groupdecision making.This model identifies five different styles on the situation& level of involvement. They are:Autocratic Type 1 (AI) :Leader makes own decisionusing information that is readily available to him at thetime.
Autocratic Type 2 (AII): Leader collects requiredinformation from followers, then makes decision alone.Consultative Type 1 (CI): Leader shares problem torelevant followers individually and seeks their ideas andsuggestions and makes decision alone.Consultative Type 2 (CII): Leader shares problem torelevant followers as a group and seeks their ideas andsuggestions and makes decision alone.Group-based Type 2 (GII): Leader discuss problem andsituation with followers as a group and seeks their ideasand suggestions through brainstorming.
Self-leadership:Self-leadership advocated by Charles Manz & HenrySims, is leading one-self to perform naturally motivatingtasks & managing oneself to do work that is required butnot naturally rewarding.Superleadership:Situation where a leader deliberately and gradually turnsover his or her authority, power, and responsibilities to aself managing team.