How to Landscape with Native Plants at Home - James River Association, Virginia
How to Landscape withNative Plants at Home
What are Native Plants?Native or indigenous plants naturally occur in the region in which they evolved. They areadapted to local soil, rainfall and temperature conditions, and have developed naturaldefenses to many insects and diseases. Because of these traits, native plants will grow withminimal use of water, fertilizers, and pesticides. Wildlife species evolve with plants; therefore,they use native plant communities as their habitat. Using native plants helps preserve thebalance and beauty of natural ecosystems. Credit: Heidi Natura, Conservation Research Institute The roots of Kentucky Blue Grass (far left) are much shallower than the native perennials.Create a Native Plant LandscapeKnow Your SiteCheck the sun exposure, soil moisture, and soil type where you plan to plant, and chooseplants that will grow and thrive in those conditions. It is also important to know whichphysiographic region that your home is in so that you can select plants that are native to thatregion. For example, plants that grow well in coastal areas may not do well in the mountains.Have a PlanThe plan for your home will be unique and will depend on the site conditions and your visionfor the planting. Do you want to create a specific habitat like a woodland, meadow, or abutterfly garden? Or are you just wanting to use native plants for foundation planting? A lowbudget option is to slowly replace existing non-native plants with native plants as the existingplants die out. With any of these options you will still need to develop a plan, create a plantlist with quantities, and purchase and install the plants.
Invasive PlantsAlien plants also known as exotic, non-native, or non-indigenous plants, are speciesintentionally or accidentally introduced by human activity into a region in which they did notevolve. Alien species, whether plant or animal, often do not become established outside ofcultivation and, if they do, they usually have few impacts on natural communities. Invasivealien plants, however, escape cultivation and become agricultural pests, infest lawns as weeds,displace native plant species, reduce wildlife habitat, and alter ecosystem processes. Acrossthe country and around the world, invasive alien plants and animals have become one of themost serious threats to native species, natural communities, and ecosystem processes.Before making decisions and taking action, land managers must first evaluate the extent of theproblem. What is the conservation value of the site and the species it supports? Are rarespecies and/or natural communities threatened by an invasive alien plant infestation? Areimportant ecosystem processes or cultural resources threatened? These and otherconsiderations should be addressed to clearly define site goals and help determineappropriate management actions.Strategies for managing invasive species fall into three broadcategories: prevention, restoration, and control. Thesecategories may overlap to varying degrees and are mosteffective if applied in combination.• Prevention: Avoid planting known invasives and reduce soil disturbance.• Restoration: Restore ecological processes, such as succession, fire, hydrology, or grazing. Planting and/or seeding of native species can establish a natural community.• Control: Mechanical control includes hand-pulling, use of power tools, mowing, and rototilling. Chemical control includes using herbicides and should be used cautiously. English Ivy, one of the most common invasive species.For a list of invasive plant species in Virginia, please see the link for Invasive Alien Plant Speciesin Virginia at http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/documents/invlist.pdf
PLANTS NATIVE TO VIRGINIASoil Moisture Sunlight Flower ColorW = wet Fu = full sun B=brown R=red O=orange Eg=evergreenM = moist Ps= part shade W=white P=pink G=greenD = Dry Fs = full shade Y=yellow Pe=purple Bl=blue Scientific Name Common Name W M D Fu Ps Fs COLORFERN/ FERN ALLYAdiantum pedatum Maidenhair Fern X XAsplenium platyneuron Ebony Spleenwort X X X EgAthyrium asplenioides Southern Lady Fern X X XBotrychium virginianum Rattlesnake Fern X X X XDennstaedtia punctilobula Hay-Scented Fern X X X XOnoclea sensibilis Sensitive Fern X X X XOsmunda cinnamomea Cinnamon Fern X X X X XOsmunda regalis Royal Fern X X X XPolystichum acrostichoides Christmas Fern X X X EgThelypteris noveboracensis New York Fern X X X XThelypteris palustris Marsh Fern X X X X XWoodwardia areolata Netted Chain Fern X X XWoodwardia virginica Virginia Chain Fern X X X XGRASS / GRASSLIKEAndropogon virginicus Broomsedge X X XCarex glaucodea or Blue Wood Sedge X X X B-RC. flaccospermaCarex pensylvanica Sedge X X X R-WCarex stricta Tussock Sedge X X X XChasmanthium latifolium Wild Oats, River Oats X XElymus canadensis Canada Wild Rye X X XElymus hystrix Bottlebrush Grass X X X X X(Hystrix patula)Elymus virginicus Virginia Wild Rye X X X XPanicum amarum Coastal Panic Grass X XPanicum virgatum Virginia Switchgrass X X XSchizachyrium Little Bluestem X X XscopariumSorghastrum nutans Indiangrass X X XTripsacum dactyloides Gama Grass X X X X
Scientific Name Common Name W M D Fu Ps Fs COLORGROUNDCOVERAsarum canadense Wild Ginger X X X BCarex glaucodea or Blue Wood Sedge X X X B-RC. flaccospermaCarex pensylvanica Sedge X X X R--WChimaphila maculata Striped Wintergreen X X X WChrysogonum Green-and-Gold X X X YvirginianumGaultheria procumbens Wintergreen X X X X W,PHepatica americana Round-lobed Hepatica X X X X WOpuntia humifusa Eastern Prickly-pear X X Y(O. compressa) CactusMaianthemum Canada Mayflower X X X WcanadenseMitchella repens Partridgeberry X X X X WSedum ternatum Mountain Stonecrop X X X G-WUvularia sessilifolia Straw Lily X X X X YHERBACEOUSArisaema triphyllum Jack-in-the-Pulpit X X X X STRIPEDAsclepias incarnata Swamp Milkweed X X X PAsclepias syriaca Common Milkweed X PeAsclepias tuberosa Butterflyweed X X X X OAster laevis Smooth Blue Aster X X Bl,PeAster novae-angliae New England Aster X X X X PeAster novi-belgii New York Aster X X X Bl,PeAster pilosus White Heath Aster X X X WBaptisia tinctoria Wild Indigo X X YCaltha palustris Marsh Marigold X X X YChelone glabra White Turtlehead X X X WChrysogonum Green-and-Gold X X X YvirginianumChrysopsis mariana Maryland Golden Aster X X X YCimicifuga racemosa Black Snakeroot X X WCoreopsis tinctoria Tickseed Sunflower X X X YDesmodium paniculatum Panicled Tick-Trefoil X X X PeEupatorium dubium Joe-Pye Weed X X X X PeEupatorium fistulosum Joe-Pye Weed X X X PEupatorium Hyssop-Leaved X X X X X Whyssopifolium Thoroughwort
Scientific Name Common Name W M D Fu Ps Fs COLOREupatorium perfoliatum Common Boneset X X X X WEupatorium purpureum Green-Stemmed Joe - X X X P Pye WeedEupatorium rugosum White Snakeroot X X X WHelenium autumnale Yellow Sneezeweed X X X X YHelianthus angustifolius Swamp Sunflower X X X YHoustonia caerulea Bluet, Innocence X X X Bl, Pe,WLiatris graminifolia Grass-Leaf Blazingstar X X X X PeLiatris spicata Gayfeather, Blazingstar X X X PeLilium superbum Turk’s Cap Lily X X X X Y, O, RLobelia cardinalis Cardinal Flower X X X X RMonarda fistulosa Wild Bergamot X X X X P, PeMonarda punctata Horsemint X X Y-PeOenothera fruticosa Narrow-Leaved X X X Y SundropsOpuntia humifusa Eastern Prickly-Pear X X Y(O. compressa) CactusPodophyllum peltatum Mayapple X X X WPolygonatum biflorum Solomon’s Seal X X X X WRudbeckia hirta Black-Eyed Susan X X X X YRudbeckia laciniata Tall or Green-Headed X X X Y ConeflowerSenna marilandica Maryland Wild Senna X X Y(Cassia marilandica)Silene caroliniana Wild Pink X X X X W, P, EgSisyrinchium atlanticum Coastal Blue-Eyed X X X Bl, Pe GrassSisyrinchium graminoides Blue-Eyed Grass X X X X Bl, PeSmilacina racemosa False Solomon’s Seal X X X WSolidago caesia Blue-Stemmed X X X X Y GoldenrodSolidago juncea Early Goldenrod X X X YSolidago nemoralis Gray Goldenrod X X X YSolidago rugosa Wrinkle Leaf Goldenrod X X X YSolidago sempervirens Seaside Goldenrod X X X Y, EgSymplocarpus foetidus Skunk Cabbage X XThalictrum dioicum Early Meadow Rue X X G, PeThalictrum polygamum Tall Meadow Rue X X X X WTiarella cordifolia Foamflower X X X X W
Scientific Name Common Name W M D Fu Ps Fs COLORTradescantia virginiana Virginia Spiderwort X X X X Bl, PeTrillium grandiflorum White Trillium X X WVerbena hastata Blue Vervain X X X X Bl, PeVernonia New York Ironweed X X PenoveboracensisViola pedata Bird’s Foot Violet X X X PeYucca filamentosa Adam’s Needle X X WHERBACEOUS EMERGENTAcorus calamus Sweet Flag X X X X Y, WHibiscus moscheutos Rose Mallow X X X X W, PIris versicolor Blue Flag X X X X Bl, PeJuncus canadensis Canada Rush X X X XJuncus effuses Soft Rush X X XKosteletskya virginica Seashore Mallow X X PNuphar luteum Spatterdock, X X X Y(Nuphar advena) Yellow Water LilyNymphaea odorata Fragrant Water Lily X X WOsmunda regalis Royal Fern X X X X XPeltandra virginica Arrow Arum X X X G-WPontederia cordata Pickerelweed X X X PeSagittaria latifolia Duck Potato X X WSaururus cernuus Lizard’s Tail X X X WScirpus cyperinus Woolgrass X X X XScirpus pungens Common Three-Square X X(S. americanus)Spartina alterniflora Salt Marsh Cordgrass X X X or Smooth CordgrassSpartina patens Salt Meadow Hay X X XTypha angustifolia Narrow-Leaved Cattail X X XTypha latifolia Broad-Leaved Cattail X X XZizania aquatica Wild Rice X X XSHRUB (low)Comptonia peregrina Sweet Fern X X X GEuonymus americanus Strawberry Bush, Hearts- X X G a-Bustin’Gaylussacia baccata Black Huckleberry X X X X W,PGaylussacia frondosa Dangleberry X X X X X G, PeHypericum densiflorum St. Johns Wort X X X X Y
Scientific Name Common Name W M D Fu Ps Fs COLORKalmia angustifolia Sheep Laurel X X X X X W, P, Pe, EgLyonia mariana Stagger-Bush X X X W, PPrunus maritima Beach Plum X X X WRhododendro atlanticum Dwarf or Coast Azalea X X X WRosa carolina Pasture Rose X X X X PVaccinium vacillans (V. Early Low Bush Blueberry X X X W, Ppallidum)Viburnum acerifolium Maple-Leaved X X X X W, P ArrowwoodSHRUB (medium)Aronia arbutifolia Red Chokeberry X X X X WBaccharis halimifolia High-Tide Bush, X X X W Groundsel TreeCallicarpa americana American Beautyberry X X X PeCephalanthus occidentalis Buttonbush X X X WClethra alnifolia Sweet Pepperbush X X X X W, PCornus amomum Silky Dogwood X X X WHamamelis virginiana Witch Hazel X X X X YIlex glabra Inkberry X X X W, EgIlex laevigata Winterberry X X X WItea virginica Virginia Sweetspire X X X X WLeucothoe racemosa Fetterbush X X X W, PLindera benzoin Spicebush X X X YLyonia ligustrina Male-Berry X X X WMyrica cerifera Wax Myrtle, X X X X G, Eg Southern BayberryMyrica pensylvanica Northern Bayberry X X X X GRhododendron Pink Azalea, X X X P, Wpericlymenoides PinxterbloomRhododendron viscosum Swamp Azalea X X X W, PRhus glabra Sweet or Smooth Sumac X X X GRosa palustris Swamp Rose X X X X PSambucus canadensis Common Elderberry X X X X X WVaccinium corymbosum Highbush Blueberry X X X X W, PVaccinium stamineum Deerberry X X X W, PeViburnum dentatum (V. Southern Arrowwood X X X X Wrecognitum)Viburnum nudum Naked Witherod X X X W
Scientific Name Common Name W M D Fu Ps Fs COLORSHRUB (tall)Alnus serrulata Smooth Alder X X XAralia spinosa Devil’s Walking Stick X X X WIlex decidua Possom Haw X X X X WKalmia latifolia Mountain Laurel X X X X X W, P, EgRhus copallina Shining or Winged X X X G-Y SumacRhus typhina Staghorn Sumac X XViburnum prunifolium Black Haw X X X X WTREE (small/ medium)Amelanchier canadensis Serviceberry, X X X X W ShadbushAsimina triloba Paw Paw X X Y,RCastanea pumila Chinquapin X X YCercis canadensis Eastern Redbud X X X X P, PeChionanthus virginicus White Fringetree X X X X X WCornus florida Flowering Dogwood X X X X WCrataegus crus-galli Cockspur Hawthorn X X X X WCrataegus viridis Southern Thorn X X X X WIlex opaca American Holly X X X W, EgJuniperus virginiana Eastern Red Cedar X X X EgMagnolia virginiana Sweetbay Magnolia X X X X X WOstrya virginiana Eastern Hop - X X X R, B Hornbeam, IronwoodPyrus (Malus) angustifolia Southern Crabapple X X XPyrus (Malus) coronaria Sweet Crabapple X X PSassafras albidum Sassafras X X X Y, GVINEBignonia capreolata Crossvine X X X X O, R, Y, EgCampsis radicans Trumpet Creeper X X OCelastrus scandens American Bittersweet X X X X GClematis virginiana Virgin’s Bower X X WLonicera sempervirens Coral Honeysuckle X X R, EgParthenocissus Virginia Creeper X X X X X G, Wquinquefolia
Native Plant Resources Nursery Name & Contact Info. Specialty Plant Source or Origin Other Info.Against the Wind Liners, Plugs & More Natives & Wetland VA, MD, NY, NC, SC, FL. WHOLESALE ONLY.P.O.Box 780 Atlantic, VA 23303 herbaceous & Call for appointments(757) 894-5346 woody plants for visits.www.againstthewindliners.comBeech Tree Farm Native Seedling or liner nurseries RETAIL ONLY. Sales at1350 Richmond Road Amissville, VA Virginia shrubs & flower and plant20106 trees shows. Sales on farm(800) 329-2524 by firstname.lastname@example.orgBlue Ridge Wildflower Society Plant Sale, Sale held theVirginia Native Plant Society second Saturday ofwww.vnps.org May in the morning at Virginia Western Community College.Botanique Pitcher plants, 100% nursery WHOLESALE W/387 Pitcher Plant Lane Calopogon orchids, propagated herbaceous pla RETAIL. VisitsStandardsville, VA 22973 sundews nts by appointment only.(434) 985-3060www.pitcherplant.comHill House Farm and Nursery Herbaceous & Local self -collected RETAIL W/631 Scrabble Road woody seeds and plugs/cuttings WHOLESALE. Open byCastleton, VA 22716 plants including from wholesalers. appointment or(540) 937-1798 grasses, Asters & chance. Landscape4cgardeners@copper.net shade perennials. design & consultation services available.Jefferson Chapter Plant Over Sale held the lastSale Virginia Native Plant Society 1000 plants with Sunday of April at Ivywww.vnps.org emphasis on spring Creek Natural Area ephemerals on the north side of Charlottesville, VA. Additional information available at www.ivycreekfoundat ion.orgJohn Clayton Chapter Plant Plants propagated Sale held the lastSale Virginia Native Plant Society by members from Saturday of April atwww.vnps.org responsibly collected local the Williamsburg seeds Community Building, Williamsburg, VA.Meadowview Biological Research Station Wetland Bog Herbaceous & woody plants WHOLESALE W/8390 Fredericksburg Tnpk. Plants such as Pitc from seeds and cuttings. RETAIL.Woodford, VA 22580 her plants, bog Open by appointment(804) 633-4336 orchids & ericads. . Catalog is onlywww.pitcherplant.org available on-line.
Nursery Name & Contact Info. Specialty Plant Source or Origin Other Info.Nature By Design Herbaceous & Responsible seed collection RETAIL W/300 Calvert Avenue woody native & cuttings of local ecotypes. WHOLESALE. RegularAlexandria, VA 22301 plants for all Finished stock from retail(703) 683-GROW (4769) environments wholesalers in hours in season;www.nature-by-design.com southern Chesapeake Bay open by appointment watershed. only during the holidays and into mid--January.Northern Neck Chapter Plant Sale held theSale Virginia Native Plant Society Saturday followingwww.vnps.org Labor Day in Wicomico Church, VA.Pinelands Nursery Native woody& 95% from WHOLESALE W/Toano, VA herbaceous plants, responsible seed collection RETAIL in Toano, VAwww.pinelandsnursery.com wetland plants & near Pinelands farms in only.Headwuarters in NJ. erosion control Columbus, NJ, Toano, VA & WHOLESALE ONLY at products Gloversville, NY headquarters in Columbus, NJ.Potowmack Chapter Plant Seed collected from Sale held the thirdSale Virginia Native Plant Society propagation beds & Saturday of May&www.vnps.org donated bymembers. Some September at Green purchased from Spring Gardens nursery usinglocallycollecte in Alexandria, VA d seed. (www.greenspring.or g)Sandys Plants Rare and Unusual WHOLESALE W/8011 Bell Creek Road Perennials RETAIL.Mechanicsville, VA 23111(804) 746-7092www.sandysplants.comSassafras Farm Herbaceous plants grown WHOLESALE W/7029 Bray Road from seed, about 70% RETAIL. Open byHayes, VA 23072 collected locally appointment.(804) 642-0923 Catalog is on CD; email@example.com send upon receiving self addresses, stamped CD mailer. Also offers landscape design and consultation services.Saunders Landscapes Herbaceous plants from WHOLESALE ONLY.732 Freshwater Cove Lane miscellaneous vendors and Open by appointmentLovingston, VA 22949 propagation. only.(434) firstname.lastname@example.org
Nursery Name & Contact Info. Specialty Plant Source or Origin Other Info.Shenandoah Chapter Plant Sale Sale held the lastVirginia Native Plant Society weekend of April inwww.vnps.org Waynesboro, VA at the Farmers market as part of Riverfest. Follow-up sale at Staunton Farmers market the followingSouth Hampton Roads Chapter Plant Sale Over 200 species Two sales held. OneVirginia Native Plant Society for woodland, is held the lastwww.vnps.org wetland, seaside Saturday of March at and flowering the Francis Land gardens House, Gathering of the Guilds, 3131 Virginia Beach Blvd, Virginia Beach, VA. Other is held the second Saturday of May at the NorfolkTidewater Growers Upland & wetland Cutting propagaion form WHOLESALE ONLY.P.O. Box 354 woody plants & nursery stock. Seed By appontment only.Keller, VA 23401 seeds. Restoration collected from nersery Call or email for(757) 787-0479 of Atlantic White stock or wild provided email@example.com Cedar. population is stable.Upper James River Chapter Plant Sale Education about Plant sale held 2ndVirginia Native Plant Society plant purchases Saturday in May atwww.vnps.org Waddell Elementary School in Lexington,Wild Plant Nuresery of Earth Sangha Herbaceous & Collect own seeds from WHOLESALE W/10123 Commonwealth Blvd. woody seedlings local, wild populations. RETAIL.Fairfax, VA 22032 that are genetically Representative of full(703) 764-4839 diverse, locally spectrum of native flora.www.earthsangha.org adaptedWild Woods Farm Coastal natives and Nursery propagated on WHOLESALE W/P.O. Box 61413 includes wetland provate property in natural RETAIL. Free catalogVirginia Beach, VA 23466 plants, trees, environment - 16 acre listing of plants. Callwww.ecoimages-us.com shrubs, herbaceous woodland certified by the (757) 421-3929 for Dept. of Agriculture. appointment and
For More Information... Slattery, Britt E., Kathryn Reshetiloff, and Susan M. Zwicker. 2003, 2005. Native Plantsfor Wildlife Habitat and Conservation Landscaping: Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Document canalso be found online at: www.nps.gov/plants/pubs/chesapeake/ U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Chesapeake Bay Field Office (2009). Bayscapes. http://www.fws.gov/ChesapeakeBay/bayscapes.htm Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation (VDCR) (2009). Invasive AlienPlant Species of Virginia. http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/documents/invlist.pdf Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation (VDCR) (1998). Managing InvasiveAlien Plants in Natural Areas, Parks, and Small Woodlands. http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/documents/mnginv.pdf Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation (VDCR) (2006). Native Plants forConservation, Restoration, and Landscaping. http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/nativeplants.shtml
Protecting America’s Founding River The mission of the James River Association is to be guardian of the James River. We provide a voice for the river and take action to promote conservation and responsible stewardship of its natural resources. James River Association 9 South 12th Street, 4th Floor Richmond, Virginia 23219 (804) 788-8811 www.jamesriverassociation.org Funding for this publication was generously provided by Dominion and Altria. We appreciate their financial support that helps protect the health of the James River. The text of this document was inspired by a series of publications created by City of PortlandEnvironmental Services. For more information, visit www.portlandonline.com/bes/index.cfm?c=50090.Illustrations by J. Bachman, 2009 July 2010