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EES44Landscaping to Conserve Energy: AnnotatedBibliography1A.W. Meerow and R.J. Black2 In the last few decades, the ability of Landscaping for Energy Conservation, Floridalandscaping features to improve the energy efficiency (material produced in, or largely restricted inof residential, business and public buildings has application to that state); Landscaping for Energygarnered increasing attention, both in the scientific Conservation, Outside Florida (material relevant toand professional communities. Unfortunately, the other areas of the country or general in application);amount of attention paid to this subject tends to and Microclimate, Human Comfort, and Modellingfluctuate with the price of the oil which fuels most of (material with indirect application to low energyour energy needs. As petroleum prices begin a landscaping, including theoretical research gearedrenewed upswing, interest in this subject has also primarily to a scientific audience). Within each ofbeen reawakened. Surprisingly, some literature on the these three categories, material is further grouped bysubject predates widescale public awareness of type of publication: Research and Refereed Journalenergy related issues, particularly articles in the Articles; Cooperative Extension and Governmentpopular home and gardening press concerning the use Publications; General Articles; and Books,of vegetation for microclimate modification. Monographs and Reports. This bibliography is an attempt to create a It should be kept in mind that university andclearing house for a great deal of the literature government publications may go out of print after arelating to energy conservative landscaping which has few years. Consequently, some of this class ofbeen promulgated through extension programs, publication listed below may only be available fromprofessional journals, books, and popular periodicals. large institutional libraries.Each citation is accompanied by a short commentaryabout its content, emphasis, and/or target audience.The literature is presented in three main categories:1. This document is EES44, one of a series of the Environmental Horticulture Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Original publication date December 1991. Reviewed October 2003. Visit the EDIS Web Site at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.2. A.W. Meerow, Assistant Professor, REC-Ft. Lauderdale; R.J. Black, Associate Professor, Department of Ornamental Hotriculture, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville FL 32611.The Florida Energy Extension Service receives funding from the Florida Energy Office, Department of Community Affairs and is operated by the University of Floridas Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences through the Cooperative Extension Service. The information contained herein is the product of the Florida Energy Extension Service and does not necessarily reflect the views of the Florida Energy Office.The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information andother services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex,sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service,University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A. & M. University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. LarryArrington, Dean
Landscaping to Conserve Energy: Annotated Bibliography 2 LANDSCAPING FOR ENERGY elements in passive cooling in warm, humid CONSERVATION, FLORIDA environments. Pp. 365-368 in Proc. Intl. Passive and Hybrid Cooling Conf, Miami, FL. (*) = currently being revised Analyzes and compares the effects of trees, Research and Refereed Journal Articles shrubs, and vines on the space cooling requirements of a building in a warm humid environment. Parker, Buffington, D.E. 1978. Value of landscaping for J.H. 1982. Landscape elements and climateconserving energy in residences. Proc. Fla. State parameters in energy conservation design. Pp.Hort. Soc. 91:92-96. 364-368 in Proc. Soc. Am. For. 1981. Computer simulation of the effectiveness of Fitting the planting of landscape vegetation toshading, wall and roof color, and building orientation local climate regimes to maximize energy savings.in reducing home energy consumption. Buffington, Parker, J.H. 1982. An energy and ecological analysisD.E. 1979. Economics of landscaping features for of alternate residential landscapes. J. Environ. Sys.conserving energy in residences. Proc. Fla. State 11:271-288.Hort. Soc. 92:216-220. Energy flow analysis of three different Economic analysis of the effectiveness of various residential landscapes, including energy consumedlandscaping and structural features for reducing for installation and maintenance, with indications ofenergy expenditures for heating and cooling which designs minimize fuel consumption andresidential buildings in each of 9 areas in Florida. negative environmental impacts. Parker, J.H. 1982.Buffington, D.E. 1980. Passive opportunities for Do energy conserving landscapes work? Landscapeconserving energy in buildings. Proceedings of Architecture 72:89-90.Alternative Energy Sources for Florida, Gainesville. A report on experimental research documenting Explores economic effectiveness of 1) shading of the value of landscaping in reducing air conditioningwalls and roofs, 2) applying varying exterior colors on costs in south Florida. Parker, J.H. 1983.walls and roofs, and 3) considering building Landscaping to reduce energy used in coolingorientation as it relates to energy conservation. buildings. J. Forestry 81:82-84, 105.Buffington, D.E. and R.J. Black. 1981. Life cyclecosting of plant materials for residential energy How precision landscaping design conceptsconservation. Proc. Fla. Hort. Soc. 94:205-208. can optimize energy savings, particularly during peak demand periods. Parker, J.H. 1983. The effectiveness Engineering economic analysis for the life cycle of vegetation on residential cooling. Passive Solarcosting of plant materials for energy conservation in Journ. 2:123-132.Florida, presented as effective annual returns oninvestment. Parker, J.H. 1978. Precision landscaping An experimental study on the effectiveness offor energy conservation. Proceedings of National landscaping in reducing air conditioning costs for aConference on Technology for Energy Conservation. double wide mobile home in Miami is documented.Tucson, Arizona. Parker, D.S. and J.H. Parker. 1979. Energy conservation landscaping as a passive solar system. Precise guidelines for using plants to minimize Proceedings of the National Passive Solarenergy inputs for home cooling in hot humid areas, Conference. Newark, Delaware.particularly during peak load hours, taking intoconsideration whether the residence will be primarily A report on the benefits of vegetation for passiveair conditioned or passively cooled. Energy and energy conservation using mobile homes under variedfinancial costs of maintaining the plantings are Florida conditions as the model system. Shlachtman,comprehensively analyzed. Parker, J.H. 1981. A P.J. and J.H. Parker. 1985. The effect of vegetativecomparative analysis of the role of various landscape landscaping on the time dynamics of residential heat
Landscaping to Conserve Energy: Annotated Bibliography 3gain in warm humid climates. Proc. of the 10th Home Landscapes. Univ. Florida CooperativePassive Solar Conf. Extension Ornamental Horticulture Fact Sheet OH-25. An experimental study to determine the effect oflandscape plantings on the time dynamics of heat Annotated list of horticulturally useful Floridatransfer, interior comfort conditions, and cooling native plants for low maintenance landscaping.energy requirements for a residential building in the Black, R.J. and J. Midcap. (no date). Conservingsoutheastern United States. water in the home landscape. Florida Cooperative Extension Water Resources Council Circular Cooperative Extension and Government WRC-11. Publications Limiting water use in the home landscape with Barrick, W.E. 1980. Landscape design for conservative irrigation practices, mulches, soilenergy conservation. Proceedings of Alternative improvement, and drought tolerant plants.Energy Sources for Florida (1979), Univ. Florida Buffington, D.E. 1982. Economics of residentialCooperative Extension Service, Center for landscaping features in Florida: Orlando and vicinity,Environmental and Natural Resources Program, Jacksonville and vicinity, Panama City and vicinity,Gainesville. Pensacola and vicinity, Miami and vicinity, Tallahassee and vicinity, Tampa and vicinity, West Explores the means by which plants can be used Palm Beach and vicinity, Daytona Beach and vicinity.in conjunction with structural features of the home to University of Florida Cooperative Extension Servicereduce energy consumption in Florida, including Circulars No. 517-525.planning recommendations for new subdivisions.Research to date is summarized. *Barrick, W.E., R.J. Economic analysis of the effectiveness of variousBlack, and M. Niederhofer. (no date). Landscape landscaping and structural features for reducingDesigns to Save Energy at Home: Microclimate energy expenditures for heating and coolingModification. Univ. Florida Energy Extension residential buildings in each of nine areas in Florida.Service Bulletin EES-4. *Buffington, D.E., S.K. Sastry and R.J. Black. 1980. Factors for determining shading patterns in Florida: Low cost methods of using plants to significantly Orlando and vicinity, Jacksonville and vicinity,reduce cooling costs in summer and heating costs in Panama City and vicinity, Pensacola and vicinity,winter. A few design aspects of new homeconstruction are discussed as well. *Barrick, W.E., Fort Myers and vicinity, Miami and vicinity, Tallahassee and vicinity, Tampa and vicinity, WestR.J. Black, and M. Niederhofer. (no date). Palm Beach and vicinity, Daytona Beach and vicinity,Landscaping to save energy at home: Trees for Gainesville and vicinity. Univ. Florida Coop. Ext.Northern, Southern, and Central Florida. Univ. Serv. Circulars 505, 507-516.Florida Energy Ext. Serv. Bulls. EES-1,2 and 3. Each of these 11 publications provides tables of Annotated lists of trees suitable as shade azimuth angles and shade factors for the coveredelements and/or wind barriers for each of three area, as well as instructions on using this data toFlorida climate zones. Shape, shade density, ultimate determine effective position and optimum height ofheight, growth rate, and leaf persistence are given for shade trees and shade structures. Flinchum, D.M. (noeach species. Black, R.J. 1980. Landscaping to date). A guide to selecting existing vegetation for lowconserve energy. Energy conservation fact sheet 17, energy landscapes. Univ. Florida Coop. Ext. Serv.University of Florida, Gainesville. Circ. 489. Basics of using landscape plants effectively forenergy conservation around the home. Black, R.J. and Guidelines for selecting components of existing vegetation on a home site for low energy, lowD.F. Hamilton. (no date). Native Florida Plants for maintenance landscaping. Hamilton, D.F. and R.J.
Landscaping to Conserve Energy: Annotated Bibliography 4Black. (no date). Low maintenance landscapes. Univ. for energy conservation Part II. Lists. The GardenFlorida Coop. Ext. Ser. Orn. Hort. Fact Sheet 24. (Bull. Fairchild Trop. Gard., Miami) 36(3):6-14. Guidelines for reducing upkeep and energy Annotated list of native plant materials suitablerequirements (water, fertilizer) of the home for use in south Florida low energy landscapes.landscape. Parker, J.H. 1981. Uses of Landscaping Langewiesche, W. Your house in Florida. Housefor Energy Conservation. Report for Florida Beautiful 92:70-81.Governors Energy Office. Designing the Florida home to maximize passive State report detailing the effective use of cooling. Parker, J.H. 1983. Landscaping: A key tolandscape vegetation for reducing residential energy energy conservation in Florida. Florida Nurserymanconsumption in the state of Florida. Parker, J.H. 30:12-15.1981. Energy Conservation Landscape Designs forMobile Homes in South Florida. Report for Florida Guidelines for microclimate modification toGovernors Energy Office. reduce cooling energy in Florida with landscape plants. Parker, J.H. 1986. Energy Efficient State report detailing the proper use of landscape Landscaping. South Florida Home and Gardenvegetation for reducing energy consumption in 3:64-65, 84-85.mobile home units in south Florida. Parker, J.H. 1982.The Implementation of Energy Conservation How to use landscaping to reduce energyLandscaping through Local Ordinances. Report to consumption in the south Florida home.FAU-FIU Joint Center for Environmental and Urban BooksProblems. Parker, J.H. 1986. Landscaping: Energy Creating and enforcing municipal and county Conservation in the Air Conditioned House. Miamilevel regulations which mandate standards of Dade Community College Press, Miami, FL.landscaping for energy conservation in urban andsuburban developments. *Pivorunas, D.J., R.J. Black Addresses the unique strategies for energyand D. Burch. 1982-83. Ground covers for Energy effective landscaping around homes which will beConservation... North, Central and South Florida, primarily cooled by air conditioning. Workman, R.W.Univ. Florida Cooperative Extension Service Energy 1980. Growing Native: Native Plants for LandscapeInformation Fact Sheets EI-51, 52, 53. Use in Coastal South Florida. Sanibel Captiva Conservation Foundation. Sanibel, FL. Annotated lists of plant materials suitable for useas ground covers in North, Central and South Guidelines for obtaining and utilizing nativeFlorida. Height, cultural requirements, color, plants for energy conserving landscapes.landscape uses, and other information are suppliedfor all species listed. General guidelines are given for LANDSCAPING FOR ENERGYusing ground covers as energy saving alternatives to CONSERVATION, OUTSIDEturf or solid surfaces in the home landscape. FLORIDA General Articles Research and Refereed Journal Articles Gann, J. 1981. Landscaping for energy Bates, C.G. 1956. The value of shelter belts onconservation: plants are not just pretty, Part I. The house heating. J. Forestry 54:399-400.Garden (Bull. Fairchild Trop. Gard., Miami)36(2):10-20. Lowering heating costs with windbreaks. Deering, R.B. 1956. Effect of living shade on house A practical guide for the south Florida temperatures. J. Forestry 54:399-400.homeowner to implementing energy conservativelandscaping principles. Gann, J. 1981. Landscaping
Landscaping to Conserve Energy: Annotated Bibliography 5 A demonstration of the effectiveness of shade A review of studies to date on the effects of treestrees in reducing temperatures in the home. DeWalle. on human thermal and auditory comfort, and energyD.R. 1978. Manipulating urban vegetation for conservation in urban areas. Heisler, G.M. 1982.residential energy conservation. Proc. Natl. Urban Reductions of solar radiation by tree crowns. TheForestry Conf., Washington, D.C. Renewable Challenge (Progress in Solar Energy, vol. 5), G.E. Franta, K. Haggard, B.H. Glenn, W.A. Maximizing the benefits of city landscaping to Kolar, and J.R. Howell (eds.). American Solar Energyreduce winter heat consumption and increase passive Society, New York.summer cooling. DeWalle. D.R. 1982. Energyconservation through urban forestry (Landscape An empirical review of the shade effects of treevegetation), pages 119-123 in D.G. Gangloff and canopies. Heisler, G.M. 1985. Measurements of solarG.H. Moeller (eds.), Proceedings of the 2nd National radiation on vertical surfaces in the shade ofUrban Forestry Conference, American Forestry individual trees. The Forest Atmosphere Interaction:Association, Washington, D.C. Proceedings of the Forest Environmental Measurements Conference., B.A. Hutchison and B.B. Using trees to ameliorate extremes of climate in Hicks (eds.). D. Reidel Publ. Co., Utrecht.urban areas; guidelines for the professional planner.DeWalle, D.R. and G.M. Heisler. 1983. Windbreak Studies of the amount of sunlight transmitted to aeffects on air infiltration and space heating in a vertical structure through the canopy of various trees.mobile home. Energy and Buildings 5:279-288. Heisler, G.M. 1986. Effects of individual trees on the solar radiation climate of small buildings. Urban How windbreak trees reduce cold air infiltration Ecol. 9:337-359.and increase the efficiency of space heaters in amobile home. DeWalle, D.R., G.M. Heisler and R.E. Experimental study of the irradiance reductionJacobs. 1983. Forest home sites influence heating and capabilities of several tree species at different timescooling energy. J. Forestry 82:84. of the year and at different exposures of a small structure. Holmes, W.W. 1979. A comprehensive Heating and cooling expenditures of homes categorization for passive cooling techniques.situated on heavily forested sites. Federer, C.A. 1976. Proceedings of the 4th National Passive SolarTrees modify the urban microclimate. J. Conference. Newark, Delaware.Arboriculture 2:121-127. Structure and design adjustments to be made in How trees contribute to the energy balance of order to facilitate passive cooling. Techniques involveurban areas, and their ameliorative effects on local location and type of structure, earthwork, andenvironment. Gardener, T.J. and T.D. Sydnor. 1984. effective placement of vegetation. Self explanatoryInterception of summer and winter insulation by five diagrams are included. Hoyano, A. 1984. Effects ofshade tree species. J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 109:448-450. rooftop turf planting layers upon building thermal environment. Mem. Fac. Engineering, Kyushu Univ., Experimental study in which the amount of Higashiku, Fukuoka, Japan.sunlight penetrating the canopy of five shade treeswas measured in both winter and summer as a means Experimental study investigating the insulativeto determine the optimal choices for year round properties of turf grass when installed on a buildingenergy savings. Heisler, G.M. 1974. Trees and human rooftop. Hoyano, A. 1985. Solar control by vinecomfort in urban areas. J. Forestry 72:466-469. sunscreen and its passive cooling effects. Pp. 271-276 in Proc. Intl. Symposium on Thermal Applications of How trees contribute to the energy budget of Solar Energy, Tokyo, Japan.urban areas and substantially raise human comfortlevels. Heisler, G.M. 1975. How trees modify Experimental study of the shading and passivemetropolitan climate and noise. Soc. Am. For. Proc. cooling effects of an ivy sunscreen covering a west1974:103-112. facing wall, and a dishcloth gourd sunscreen on a
Landscaping to Conserve Energy: Annotated Bibliography 6veranda. Hoyano, A. 1985. Climatological uses of Miami Intl. Conf. Alternative Energy Sources, Miamiplants and the sun control effects. Proc. Fifth Intl. Beach, FL.PLEA Conf., PECS, Hungary. Curtailing both energy consumption and demand A review of the uses and mediative effects on during peak load hours with vegetation and otherlocal climate of landscape plants. Hutchison, B.A. passive means. Thayer, R.L., Jr., J.A. Zanetto and B.and F.G. Taylor. 1983. Energy conservation Maeda. 1983. Modeling the effects of deciduous treesmechanisms and potentials of landscape design to on thermal performance of solar and conventionalameliorate building microclimates. Landscape J. houses in Sacramento, Ca. Landscape Journal2:19-39. 2:155168. A guide for the landscape professional on A model for determining the degree to whichincorporating energy conserving plantings into site deciduous trees affect the heat budgets of various typedesigns. Mattingly, G.E. and E.F. Peters. 1977. Wind of residential structures with either solar orand trees: air infiltration effects on energy in housing. conventional heating systems. Wagar, J.A. 1984.J. Industrial Aerodynamics 2:1-19. Using vegetation to control sunlight and shade on windows. Landscape Journal 3:2435. Discusses how air infiltration reduces the heatingand cooling efficiency of buildings, and the modifying Guidelines for shading windows. Wagar, J.A. andeffects of vegetation on air infiltration. Mattingly, G.M. Heisler. 1986. Rating winter crown density ofG.E., D. Harrje, and G. Heisler. 1979. The deciduous trees. Landscape Journal 5:9-18.effectiveness of an evergreen windbreak for reducingresidential energy consumption. ASHRAE Trans. 85. A photographic procedure to accurately determine the degree to which various deciduous How windbreaks diminish the negative effects of trees block incoming, winter solar radiation duringair movement on heating and cooling efficiency. their leafless period. White, R. 1955. LandscapeMcPherson, E.G. 1981. Effects of orientation and development and natural ventilation. Landscapeshading from trees on the inside and outside Architecture 45:72-81.temperatures of model homes. Pp. 369 in Proc. Intl.Passive and Hybrid Cooling Conf., Miami, FL. The effect of moving air on buildings and adjacent areas, and air flow tests of various plant The positive effects of shade trees on ambient windbreak combinations. Youngberg, R.J. 1983.temperatures around the home. Parker, J.H. 1981. Shading effects of deciduous trees. J. ArboricultureLandscaping to conserve cooling energy. Proc. 9:295-297.Southeastern Electric Exchange Conf., New Orleans. A study monitoring the amount of solar radiation Discusses the ways that vegetative landscaping penetrating the canopy of six deciduous trees both incan be used to reduce both energy consumption and winter and summer over a two year period. Zaneto, J.demand associated with space cooling needs. Parker, 1978. The location and selection of trees for solarJ.H. and S. Panzer. 1986. A model energy neighborhoods. Landscape Architecture 68:514-519.conservation landscape ordinance for reducingcooling requirements. Proc. 11th Natl. Passive Solar Balancing shading requirements with solarConference. Boulder, CO. energy collection. Proposal for a municipal landscaping ordinance Cooperative Extension and Governmentthat would set specific standards for energy Publicationsconservation. Includes an energy conservation Anonymous. 1976. Solar Dwelling Designanalysis of 34 operating ordinances in the United Concepts. U.S. Dept. of Housing and UrbanStates. Shlachtman, P. and J.H. Parker. 1981. Peak Development. Office of Policy Development andload energy conservation. Pp. 19-29 in Proc. 4th Research.
Landscaping to Conserve Energy: Annotated Bibliography 7 Efficient design guidelines for homes outfitted for NE. INF. U.S. Forest Serv., Northeast For. Exp. Stn.,solar collection. Anonymous. 1977. Design Your Upper Darby, CT.Landscape to Conserve Energy. Extension BulletinE-1122. Cooperative Extension Service, Michigan Implementation of energy conserving programsState University. using trees in the urban environment Anonymous. (no date). Climate Control. Cooperative Extension Basic ideas for landscape planning to modify Service Bulletin, University of Georgia College ofclimatic extremes, and reduce landscape related Agriculture, Athens.energy consumption. Anonymous. 1978. Energyconservation with landscaping. Connecticut Energy Briefly illustrates a few basics of energy nservingExtension Service Bulletin 78-48. landscape practices. Anonymous. (no date). Landscape to Save Energy. Cooperative Extension Using plants as energy conserving landscape Service Bulletin, New York State College, Albany.elements. Anonymous. 1978. Landscaping to Cut FuelCosts. USDA Fact Sheet 2-3-5. Using plants as wind barriers and for shade. Anonymous. (no date). Regional Guidelines for Tips on planting for wind control and shade in a Building Passive Energy Conserving Homes. U.S.temperate climate. Anonymous. 1978. Energy Dept. of Housing and Urban Developmentconservation in the rural home: Landscaping to cut Publication. Office of Policy Development andfuel costs. Tex. Agric. Ext. Serv. of Texas A & M Research.Univ., College Station. Detailed guidelines for energy efficient homes in Cutting residential energy costs with windbreaks, 16 different areas of the United States. Climaticshelterbelts, and shade. Anonymous. 1978. Options summaries, design priorities, and recommendationsfor passive energy conservation in site design. U.S. are given for each reference city. Equally geared toDept. of Energy, Division of Buildings and professionals and homeowners. Anonymous. (noCommunity Systems Publ. TID-28520. date). Site Planning for Solar Access. A Guide for Residential Developers and Site Planners. U.S. Dept. A compendium of site design options that of Housing and Urban Development. Office of Policymaximize low energy climate control. General Development and Research.principles are first considered, followed by regionalguidelines for coo/, temperate, hot humid, and hot Determining layout and configuration ofarid areas. Information is professionally oriented, but residential developments that will be using both activeaccessible to the interested layperson. Includes useful and passive solar heating technology, including abibliography. Anonymous. 1979. Energy chapter on trees and other landscaping. Oriented forconservation in the rural home: Landscaping to cut the professional developer and planner. DeWalle.fuel costs. Windbreaks. Coop. Ext. Serv. Coll. Agric. D.R. 1978. Mobile home energy costs conserved withWash. State Univ. Pullman. shade trees. Penn. Agr. Exp. Sta. Sci. Agric. 26:16. Using windbreaks to reduce home heating Saving mobile home heating and cooling costs byexpenditures. Anonymous. 1981. Landscaping. Ohio judicious use of shade trees. Hoeven, G.A. van der.State University Agricultural Extension Service. 1982. Energy efficient landscaping. Kansas StateAvailable from: Agricultural Extension Service University, Manhattan.Office of Information, 2120 Pyffe Road, Columbus,Ohio 43210. Discusses using plant material in combination with other home design principles to help you design This publication discusses planting trees around an energy efficient home and landscape. Howell, E.the home to reduce heating and cooling costs. 1980. Landscaping for energy conservation. Publ.Anonymous. 1985. Using trees to reduce urban Coop. Ext. Programs Univ. Wisc. Ext., Madison.energy consumption: transferring technology to users.
Landscaping to Conserve Energy: Annotated Bibliography 8 Basic guidelines and a planting design for Interactions of vegetation and air movement.shading and channelling winds around the home.Kunze, R.J. 1977. Energy conservation through better General Articlesirrigation practices for homeowners. Michigan State Anonymous. 1949. Good site planning canUniversity Extension Bulletin E-1142. double your outdoor living. House Beautiful Limiting water use in the garden. Leonard, R.E. 91:172-174.1972. Making our lives more pleasant — plants as Home site planning and landscaping pointers forclimate changers, pp. 5-9 in Landscape for living, passive climate control. Anonymous. 1950. GoodU.S.D.A. Yearbook. lawns keep you cooler. House Beautiful 92:108-109. How plants modify microclimate. Little, S. and The benefits of lawns for lowering ambientJ.H. Noyes (eds.). 1971. Trees and forests in an temperatures in the home environment. Fizzell, J.A.urbanizing environment. Univ. Mass. Coop. Ext. 1983. Landscape designers must put energyServ., Amherst. conservation in their plans. Am. Nurseryman The benefits of green space and well designed 157:65-71.residential tree plantings in passively increasing The author calls on the landscape designhuman comfort levels in the urban environment. industry to adopt basic principles of passive energyNiedenthal, A. 1985. Landscape design to conserve conservation in new residence planning, and offers aenergy. Purdue Univ. Coop. Ext. Serv., West few recommendations for site evaluation andLafayette, Ind. microclimate considerations. Flemer, W. 1974. The Using plants to decrease home energy role of plants in todays energy conservation. Am.expenditures. Niering, W.A. and R.H. Goodwin. Nurseryman 139:10, 59.1975. Energy conservation on the home grounds: The The benefits of trees, shrubs, and vines usedrole of naturalistic landscaping. Bull. Conn. Arbor. properly to reduce winter heat consumption andConn. Coil. 21. increase passive summer cooling. Flemer, W. 1982. Alternatives to energy intensive lawns using Why and how to use plants for energy conservationnative plants in low maintenance, naturally stable (Wind barriers). Am. Nurseryman 155:89-101.landscapes. Pope, T.E. 1980. Landscaping for energy Constructing windbreaks and shelter belts.conservation. Louisiana Coop. Ext. Serv. Flemer, W. (no date). How to save energy and money How to effectively landscape the home for with natures growing gifts. American Association ofreduced heating and cooling costs. Putnam, B. and Nurserymen Bulletin.C.H. Sacamano. 1984. Effective shading with A brief guide to using plants for microclimatelandscape trees. Coop. Ext. Serv. Univ. Ariz. Coll. modification. Hamilton, D.F. 1982. Landscape designAgric. for energy conservation. Am. Nurseryman 156:93-95. Using trees properly to maximize their shading Understanding site and local climatic conditionspotential. Welch, W.C. 1979. Landscaping for energy to promote landscape designs that maximize energyconservation. Tex. Agric. Ext. Serv. of Texas A & M conservation. Iwata, L.B. 1987. Step by step designUniv., College Station. plan for ecologically sound landscapes. Am. Low energy landscaping in Texas, including a list Nurseryman 165:174-185.of recommended trees. White, R. 1954. Effects of A guide to matching landscape designs with locallandscape development on the natural ventilation of ecological parameters, geared primarily to waterbuildings and their adjacent areas. Research report conservation concerns, but including discussion of45, Texas Eng. Exp. Station, College Station, TX. wind control and heat load reduction. Langewiesche,
Landscaping to Conserve Energy: Annotated Bibliography 9W. 1949. How to pick your climate. House Beautiful G. 1958. The Weather Conditioned House. Reinhold,91:146-217. New York. Choosing a home site on the basis of Home design and retrofitting in harmony withmicroclimatatic considerations. Langewiesche, W. local climate. Foster, F.S. 1978. Guide to1949. How to fix your private climate. House Landscaping That Saves Energy Dollars. DavidBeautiful 91:151-204. McKay Co. Retrofitting the home to manipulate its A basic guide for the homeowner on reducingmicroclimate, using landscape plants as well as energy costs with landscaping materials. McClendon,structural modifications. Moffat, A. 1979. C. and G.0. Robinette. 1977. Landscape Planning forLandscaping to Conserve Energy. Horticulture Energy Conservation. Environmental Design Press,57:54-56. Reston, VA. Some basic ideas for the home gardener on using A detailed, professional level guide toplants to ameliorate local climate. Nelson, W.R. maximizing energy conservation with intelligent1979. Landscaping for energy conservation. landscape design, including careful site selection andNurserymans Digest 13:101-103. planning. Detailed case histories are presented for differing climates in the United States. McPherson, Basic principles for most effectively using plants E.G. 1980. The use of plant materials for solarto conserve energy use. Niering, W.A. and R.H. control. MS Thesis. Utah State University, Logan.Godwin. 1975. Naturalistic landscaping and energyconservation. Plants and Gardens 31:24-28. Mitigating the effects of sunlight with proper use of landscape materials; site design and plant Alternatives to energy intensive lawns using selection. McPherson, E.G., ed. 1984. Energynative plants in low maintenance, naturally stable Conserving Site Design. American Association oflandscapes. Rich, S. 1973. Trees and urban climate. Landscape Architects, Washington, D.C.Nat. Hist. 82:70. A guidebook for landscape architects on How trees modify the metropolitan microclimate. maximizing the energy efficiency of landscapeTinga, J.H. and R. Bray. 1984. Place trees property designs. Moffat, A.S. and M. Schiler. 1981.for a cooler house. Am. Nurseryman 159:155-157. Landscape Design That Saves Energy. William Morrow and Co., New York. Using trees to lower air conditioning costs.Wright, H. 1949. How to put a harness on the sun. Oriented for the homeowner, this book providesHouse Beautiful 91:158-160. simple, energy conservative landscape designs and plant selection guides for temperate, cool, hot arid, Balancing sun and shade in the home throughout and hot humid climates of North America. Olgyay, V.the year. Yoklic, M.R. 1982. Landscaping for energy 1963. Design with Climate: Bioclimatic Approach toconservation. Desert Plants 3:119-123. Architectural Regionalism. Princeton Univ. Press, Energy conservative landscaping in and regions. Princeton, N.J. Books, Monographs and Theses Classic text on architectural design in harmony with regional climate, covering both structural and Anonymous. 1977. Microclimate, Architecture, landscape elements. Robinette, G.0. 1972.and Landscaping Relationships in an Arid Region: Plants/People/and Environmental Quality. U.S. Dept.Phoenix, AZ. Center for Environmental Studies, of Interior, National Park Service Publications.Arizona State University. A well documented and illustrated overview of Structural and landscape design parameters for how plants interact with the human environment,microclimate modification in and regions. Conklin, including — but not limited to — their use for
Landscaping to Conserve Energy: Annotated Bibliography 10climatological control. The chapter on microclimate Association of urban temperature with land use andmodification offers many practical design surface materials. Landscape and Urban Planningconsiderations for wind, heat and precipitation 14:21-29.control. Robinette, G.0. 1985. Home Landscaping toSave Energy. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. Thermal effects of various surface covers and land use patterns in the urban environment A homeowners guide to using landscape plants Herrington, L.P., G.E. Bertolin, and R.E. Leonard.to reduce seasonal heating and cooling costs in the 1972. Microclimate of a suburban park. Pp. 43-44 inhome. Westergaard, C.J. 1982. The relative ability of Am. Meteorol. Soc. Preprints of Conf. on Urbanvarious shade trees to block or filter direct solar Environ. and 2nd Conf. on Biometeorol., Boston.radiation in the winter. MLA thesis. CornellUniversity, Ithaca, NY. A study of microclimatic regimes within a suburban green space. Hoyano, A. 1984. Analysis of the degree of sunlight penetration Relationships between the type of residential areathrough the canopies various landscape trees during and the aspects of surface temperature and solarthe winter, when passive solar heating is desirable. reflectance. Energy and Buildings 7:159-173.MICROCLIMATE, HUMAN COMFORT, Explores the interaction between structural MODELLING features of various residential areas and patterns of reflection and reradiation of sunlight. Marotz, G.A. Research and Refereed Journal Articles and J.C. Coiner. 1973. Acquisition and characterization of surface material data for urban Aceituno, P. 1979.. Statistical formula to climatological studies. J. Appl. Meterol. 12:919-923.estimate heating or cooling degree days. Agr.Meteorology 20:227-232. A method for analyzing the relative amounts of varying surface materials in an urban environment An expression to estimate heating or cooling (i.e., asphalt, concrete, vegetation), for use indegree days accumulated on the average above or modeling studies of urban microclimate andbelow a given temperature and for a given period of meteorology. Morgan, D.L. and R.L. Baskett. 1972.time. Akbari, H., H. Taja, J. Huang and A. Rosenfeld. Energy balance model of mans physiologic comfort1986. Undoing uncomfortable summer heat islands with application to an urban environment. Pp.can save gigawatts of peak power. Proc. 1986 289-294 in Am. Meteorol. Soc. Preprints of Conf. onSummer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Urban Environ. and 2nd Conf. on Biometeorol.,Santa Cruz, CA. Boston. How to reduce pockets of heat accumulation in A model of human comfort levels in relation tourban areas, and the sizable energy savings that varying urban microclimates. Myrup, L.O. 1969. Aresult. Duckworth, F.S. and J.S. Sandberg. 1954. The numerical model of the urban heat island. J. Appl.effect of cities upon horizontal and vertical Meteorol. 8:908-918.temperature gradients. Am. Meteorol. Soc. Bull.35:198-207. A model for estimating thermal loads in city spaces. Outcalt, S.I. 1972. A reconnaissance A study of metropolitan microclimates. Gloyne, experiment in mapping and modeling the effect ofR.W. 1965. A method for calculating the angle of land use on urban thermal regimes. J. Appl. Meteorol.incidence of the direct beam of the sun on a plane 11:1369-1373.surface of any slope and aspect. Agri. Meterol.2:401-41 0. A simulation of how the three dimensional geometry of man made structures, vegetation, and A method for estimating the radiation from sun geography influence human comfort levels. Terjung,and sky intercepted by plane surfaces of various W.H. and S.S.F. Lovie. 1972. Potential solarslopes and aspects. Henry, J.A. and S.E. Dicks. 1987. radiation on plant shapes.
Landscaping to Conserve Energy: Annotated Bibliography 11 A model expressing the relationships between the A study of vegetation/microclimate of diverseshape of vegetation canopies and efficient urban spaces in Syracuse, New York. How solarinterception of solar radiation. Intl. J. Biometer, radiation, infrared radiation, air temperature, relative16:25-43. Usher, M.B. 1970. An algorithm for humidity, wind, and city design elements interact onestimating the length and direction of shadows with human comfort. Data revealed that even thin plantreference to the shadows of shelter belts. J. Appl. canopies effectively moderate urban heat loads.Ecol. 7:141-145. A computer program for determining length anddirection of shadows based on variables ofgeographical location and time of year, for use inoptimally positioning shading elements in thelandscape. Books and Monographs Geiger, R. 1966. The Climate Near the Ground.Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, MA. Classic text on microclimate. Landsberg, H.E.1981. The Urban Climate. Academic Press, NewYork. Text exploring all facets of urban meteorologyand micrometeorology. Munn, R.E. 1966. DescriptiveMicrometerology. Academic Press, New York. 245pp. Basic textbook of microclimate theory andprinciple, oriented to the scientist or student. Munn,R.E. 1972. Biometeorological Methods. AcademicPress, New York. 336 pp. Basic text on the interactions of climate andhuman physiology. Plumley, H.J. 1975. The design ofoutdoor spaces for thermal comfort. M.S. Thesis,State Univ. of New York, Syracuse. Design principles for limiting heat loads in urbanspaces. Rosenberg, N.J. 1974. Microclimate: thebiological environment. John Wiley and Sons, NewYork. Principles of micrometeorology, including boththeoretical and practical applications. Much of thematerial is accessible to the educated layperson.Vittum, J.S. 1974. The physical structure of cityspace and its effect on microclimate and humanthermal comfort. M.S. Thesis, State Univ. of NewYork, Syracuse.