Landscaping for Wildlife With Native Plants - North Carolina State University

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Landscaping for Wildlife With Native Plants - North Carolina State University

Landscaping for Wildlife With Native Plants - North Carolina State University

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  • 1. N orth Carolina’s native plants provide well-adapted food and cover for North Carolina’s native animals, and a well-planned landscape ofnative plants can help you attract a diversity of wildlife to your property. Native ronmental conditions to those in this state. • Some exotics are planted inten-North Carolina plants also are well-suited to the state’s soils and climate and tionally as lawn or garden orna-require relatively little upkeep, once established on an appropriate site. mentals or as plants to attract However, the spread of exotic plants poses a threat to native plants and wildlife, but other exotic plantsanimals of North Carolina. This publication describes the problems associated were introduced accidentally.with some exotic plants and presents a detailed list of native plants that maybe used in place of these foreign ornamentals to attract wildlife to your property. • Many exotic species become naturalized, which means they are able to survive, spread, and reproduce on their own. • Approximately 25 percent of the plants growing wild in the United States are naturalized exotics, some of which have become invasive, that is, they grow unabatedly where native plants otherwise would occur. Invasive exotic plants are those that pose the greatest risk to the native plants and animals of North Carolina. Competitors,American goldfinches commonly feed on the seeds of orange coneflower in the fall diseases, and insects control aand winter. Photo by Chris Moorman plant’s growth and dispersal in its native range. Over thousands ofWhy use native plants? North America before European years, natural checks and balances settlement. develop, which greatly reduce theBiologists and other scientists chance that a single species will • Exotic plants are those not nativeconsider invasion by exotic plants increase in number to completely to an area. In North Carolina,to be one of the most serious dominate a plant community. exotics usually come from Asiaproblems facing native plant and However, when an exotic plant is or western Europe, regions thatwildlife populations in the United introduced to North Carolina, it have similar climate and envi-States. For example, multiflorarose, bicolor lespedeza, Japanesehoneysuckle, and autumn oliveare examples of exotic plantsintroduced into North Carolina—all for the purpose of promoting“wildlife habitat.” However, eachintroduction has proven detrimen-tal to North Carolina’s nativeplants, pushing them out of theirtraditional habitats; and recentresearch indicates that manyinvasive exotic plants may beharmful to local wildlife as well.• Native plants generally are defined as those that occurred in Exotic invasive plants, including mimosa, kudzu, Queen Anne’s lace, and sericea lespedeza, have taken over this vacated suburban lot. Photo by Chris Moorman 2 North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service
  • 2. birds, but the plant grows and plants, species like sawtooth oak often spreads quickly where the (Quercus acutissima) continue to seeds are defecated. Native fruit- be recommended as plantings to producing plants may succumb to encourage wildlife. Until adequate the competition from this type of information on the invasiveness of invasive exotic, thereby reducing such plants exists, native alterna- the diversity of foods available to tives should be used. birds. In addition, new evidence from the midwestern United States Reversing the trend suggests birds that nest in someSawtooth oak, a tree native to Asia, exotic shrubs experience poor You can help stop the exotic plantcontinues to be recommended as a nesting success. Lower nest invasion by using and nurturingwildlife plant, despite the availability of height, the absence of sharp native plants around your homemany native oak species. Photo courtesy thorns on the exotic plants, and a and on your property. Nativeof Alice B. Russell, NCSU retired branching pattern that allows plants generally grow well and predators easier access to nestsescapes its natural controls andcan become invasive. The charac-teristics that make many exoticplants attractive as ornamentals(colorful berries, pest resistance,tolerance of harsh conditions) alsoincrease their potential for inva-siveness and make them difficultto contain. Prolific growth by asingle plant species can be harmfulbecause forests with a limited Native plants are attractive additions to any property. Both American beautyberrynumber of plant species provide (left) and strawberrybush (right) produce fruits that are attractive to wildlife andvery poor habitat for wildlife. the human eye. Photos by Chris Moorman All exotic plants do not be-come invasive, and most can built in exotic plants all could require less care than exoticsafely be planted as ornamentals. contribute to the increased nest species when grown on the properHowever, it takes scientists many predation. Despite the growing soils under the right environmen-years or even decades to fully base of knowledge related to the tal conditions. Additionally, Northunderstand an introduced plant’s potential problems of exotic Carolina’s native wildlife haspotential invasiveness. Newinformation is being gatheredcontinually, and you should checkwith your local nature center,botanical garden, conservationorganization, or CooperativeExtension agent about a plant’sinvasiveness before introducing itto your property. Ironically, exotic plants thatare attractive to birds and otherwildlife often are the most invasivebecause animals serve as greatdispersers of their fruits and seeds.Autumn olive is an exotic plant Tiger swallowtails, along with other butterflies and the ruby-throated hummingbird,that produces fruits favored by eat nectar from native azalea blooms. Illustration by Liessa Thomas BowenLandscaping for Wildlife with Native Plants 3
  • 3. Table 1. Plant Species Native to North Carolina* (including soil moisture and light requirements, region of primary occurrence, and benefit to wildlife). Wildlife WildlifeLatin Name Common Name** Soil/Light Region Value Latin Name Common Name** Soil/Light Region ValueTall trees (more than 30 ft) Alnus serrulata Alder W-M/F-P M,P,CP S,LAcer barbatum Southern Sugar Maple M/F-S P,CP S Amelanchier arborea Serviceberry M-D/F-S M,P F,N,LAcer rubrum Red Maple W-D/F-P M,P,CP S Amelanchier canadensis Juneberry W-D/F-P P,CP F,N,LAcer saccharum Sugar Maple M/F-S M S Amelanchier laevis Allegheny Serviceberry M-D/F-P M F,N,LAesculus flava Yellow Buckeye M/P-S M H Aralia spinosa Devil’s Walking Stick M/F-P M,P,CP F,NBetula lenta Sweet Birch M-D/F-S M S,L Asimina triloba Pawpaw M/F-S M,P,CP F,LBetula nigra River Birch W-D/F P,CP S,L Carpinus caroliniana Ironwood W-M/P-S M,P,CP S,LCarya glabra Pignut Hickory D/F-S M,P,CP S,L Castanea pumila Chinquapin D/F-P M,P,CP SCarya ovata Shagbark Hickory M-D/F-S M,P,CP S,L Celtis tenuifolia Dwarf Hackberry D/F-P P F,LCarya tomentosa Mockernut Hickory D/F-S M,P,CP S,L Cercis canadensis Eastern Redbud M-D/F-P M,P S,N,LCeltis laevigata Sugarberry M/F-S P,CP F,L Chionanthus virginicus Fringetree M-D/F-P M,P,CP FChamaecyparis thyoides Atlantic Whitecedar W-M/F-P CP C,L Cornus amomum Silky Dogwood W-M/P-S M,P,CP F,N,LDiospyros virginiana Persimmon M-D/F-P M,P,CP F Cornus florida Flowering Dogwood M-D/F-P M,P,CP F,N,LFagus grandifolia American Beech M/P-S M,P,CP S Crataegus spp. Hawthorn M/F-S M,P,CP F,H,N,LFraxinus americana White Ash M/F-S M,P S,L Cyrilla racemiflora Titi W-M/F-S P,CP C,NFraxinus pennsylvanica Green Ash W-D/F-P M,P,CP S,L Halesia tetraptera Carolina Silverbell M/P-S M,P NGordonia lasianthus Loblolly Bay W-M/F-P CP C Hamamelis virginiana Witch-Hazel M/F-S M,P,CP SIlex opaca American Holly W-D/F-S M,P,CP C,F,N,L Ilex decidua Possumhaw W-D/F-P P,CP F,N,LJuniperus virginiana Eastern Redcedar M-D/F-P M,P,CP C,F,L Ilex verticillata Winterberry W-M/F-S M,P,CP F,N,LLiquidambar styraciflua Sweetgum W-M/F-P M,P,CP S Ilex vomitoria Yaupon W-D/F-S CP C,F,N,LLiriodendron tulipifera Yellow Poplar M/F-P M,P,CP S,H,N,L Morus rubra Red Mulberry M-D/F-S M,P,CP F,LMagnolia acuminata Cucumber Tree M/F-P M,P S Myrica cerifera Wax Myrtle W-D/F-P P,CP C,F,LMagnolia grandiflora Southern Magnolia M/P-S P,CP C,S Osmanthus americana Wild Olive, Devilwood M-D/F-P CP C,FMagnolia virginiana Sweetbay W-M/F-P P,CP S,L Ostrya virginiana Hophornbeam M-D/F-S M,P F,LNyssa sylvatica Blackgum D/F-P M,P,CP F Prunus americana Wild Plum M-D/F M,P F,N,LOxydendrum arboreum Sourwood D/F-S M,P,CP N Prunus angustifolia Chickasaw Plum D/F P,CP F,N,LPersea borbonia Redbay W-M/F-S CP C,F,L Prunus caroliniana Carolina Laurel Cherry M-D/F-P CP C,F,N,LPinus echinata Shortleaf Pine D/F-P M,P,CP C,S,L Prunus pensylvanica Fire Cherry M-D/F M F,N,LPinus palustris Longleaf Pine D/F P,CP C,S Rhus copallina Winged Sumac M-D/F-P M,P,CP F,N,LPinus strobus Eastern White Pine D/F M,P C,S Rhus glabra Smooth Sumac M-D/F-P M,P,CP F,N,LPinus taeda Loblolly Pine M-D/F M,P,CP C,S,L Salix caroliniana Carolina Willow W-M/F-S P,CP LPlatanus occidentalis Sycamore M/F-P M,P,CP S Sambucus canadensis Elderberry W-M/F-P M,P,CP FPrunus serotina Black Cherry M-D/F M,P,CP F,N,L Sorbus americana Mountain-Ash M/F-P M FQuercus alba White Oak M-D/F-P M,P,CP S,L Symplocos tinctoria Sweetleaf M-D/F-S M,P,CP S,N,LQuercus coccinea Scarlet Oak D/F-P M,P S,L Viburnum prunifolium Black Haw M/F-S M,P,CP F,LQuercus falcata Southern Red Oak M-D/F-P M,P,CP S,L Viburnum rufidulum Rusty Blackhaw D/F-S P,CP F,LQuercus michauxii Swamp Chestnut Oak M/F-P P,CP S,LQuercus nigra Water Oak M-D/F-P P,CP S,L Small shrubsQuercus pagoda Cherrybark Oak M/F-P P,CP S,L Callicarpa americana American Beautyberry M-D/F-S P,CP FQuercus phellos Willow Oak W-M/F-P P,CP S,L Calycanthus floridus Sweetshrub M/P-S M,P NQuercus rubra Red Oak M/F-P M,P S,L Ceanothus americanus New Jersey Tea M-D/P-S M,P,CP S,N,LQuercus shumardii Shumard Oak M/F-P P,CP S,L Cephalanthus occidentalis Buttonbush W-M/F-P M,P,CP S,H,NQuercus stellata Post Oak D/F M,P,CP S,L Clethra alnifolia Sweet Pepperbush W/F-S P,CP F,H,NQuercus velutina Black Oak M-D/F-P M,P,CP S,L Corylus americana Hazelnut M/F-S M,P SQuercus virginiana Live Oak D/F CP C,S,L Euonymus americana Strawberrybush M/P-S M,P,CP SRobinia pseudoacacia Black Locust M-D/F-P M,P S,L Gaylussacia dumosa Dwarf Huckleberry M-D/F-P M,P,CP F,N,LSalix nigra Black Willow W-M/F-S M,P,CP L Gaylussacia frondosa Blue Huckleberry M/F-P P,CP F,N,LSassafras albidum Sassafras M-D/F-P M,P,CP F,L Hydrangea arborescens Wild Hydrangea M/P-S M,P S,NTaxodium distichum Baldcypress W-M/F-P CP S Ilex glabra Inkberry M/F-P P,CP C,F,N,LTilia americana Basswood M/F-P M,P,CP S,N,L Itea virginica Virginia Willow W-M/P-S M,P,CP S,NTsuga canadensis Eastern Hemlock M/P-S M,P C,S Kalmia latifolia Mountain Laurel M-D/F-S M,P,CP C,H,NUlmus alata Winged Elm M-D/F-P M,P,CP S,L Leucothoe axillaris Doghobble W-M/F-P M,P,CP C,NUlmus americana American Elm W-M/F-P M,P,CP S,L Lindera benzoin Spicebush M-D/F-S M,P,CP F,L Lyonia lucida Fetterbush M/P-S P,CP C,NSmall trees/shrubs (10-30 ft) Phoradendron serotinum Mistletoe parasite M,P,CP F,LAesculus pavia Red Buckeye M/P CP H,N Rhododendron atlanticum Dwarf Azalea W-D/F-P P,CP H,NAesculus sylvatica Painted Buckeye M/P P H Rhododendron calendulaceum Flame Azalea M-D/P-S M H,NSoil moisture: W = wet; M = moist; D = dry.Light requirements: F = full sun; P = partial shade; S = shade.Region: M = mountains; P = piedmont; CP = coastal plain.Wildlife Value: C = winter cover; F = fleshy fruit; S = seed, hard mast, or catkin; H = hummingbird nectar; N = butterfly and other insect nectar; L = butterfly larvae host plant.4 North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service
  • 4. Table 1. Plant Species Native to North Carolina* (continued). Wildlife Wildlife Latin Name Common Name** Soil/Light Region Value Latin Name Common Name** Soil/Light Region ValueRhododendron Cirsium horridulum Yellow Thistle M-D/F P,CP S,H,N,L catawbiense Catawba Rhododendron M/P-S M,P C,H,N Coreopsis angustifolia Narrow-Leaved Coreopsis M/F-P CP S,NRhododendron maximum Rosebay Rhododendron M/P-S M,P C,H,N Coreopsis auriculata Eared Coreopsis M/F-P M,P,CP S,NRhododendron Coreopsis falcata Sickle Tickseed W-M/F-P P,CP S,N periclimenoides Wild Azalea W-M/F-P M,P,CP H,N Coreopsis lanceolata Lance-Leaved Coreopsis D/F M,P,CP S,NRubus spp. Blackberry, Dewberry M-D/F-P M,P,CP C,F,S,N Coreopsis major Greater Tickseed D/F-P M,P S,NSorbus arbutifolia Red Chokeberry W-M/F-S M,P,CP F,L Coreopsis verticillata Threadleaf Coreopsis D/F-P M,P,CP S,NVaccinium arboreum Sparkleberry D/F-P P,CP C,F,N,L Desmodium spp. Beggarlice M-D/F-P M,P,CP S,LVaccinium corymbosum Highbush Blueberry M/F-P P,CP F,N,L Echinacea purpurea Purple Coneflower M-D/F M,P S,NVaccinium stamineum Deerberry D/F-P M,P,CP F,N,L Eupatorium coelestinum Mistflower M/F-P M,P,CP S,NVaccinium vacillans Lowbush Blueberry D/F-P M,P,CP F,N,L Eupatorium fistulosum Joe-Pye-Weed M/F M,P,CP S,N,LViburnum acerifolium Mapleleaf Viburnum M-D/P-S M,P F,L Geranium maculatum Wild Geranium M-D/F-P M,P S,NViburnum dentatum Arrowwood M/F-S M,P,CP F,L Helianthus angustifolius Swamp Sunflower W-M/F-P M,P,CP S,NViburnum nudum Wild Raisin W-M/F-S M,P,CP F,L Helianthus atrorubens Sunflower D/F M,P,CP S,N,L Helianthus divaricatus Woodland Sunflower D/P M,P,CP S,NVines Heliopsis helianthoides Ox-Eye M-D/F-P M,P,CP S,NAmpelopsis arborea Peppervine W-M/F-P CP F Hibiscus moscheutos Rose Mallow M/F-P M,P,CP H,NAristolochia macrophylla Dutchman’s Pipe M-D/P-S M L Houstonia caerulea Bluets M-D/F-S M,P,CP NBerchemia scandens Rattanvine, Supplejack W-M/F-P P,CP F Impatiens capensis Jewelweed W-M/P-S M,P,CP H,NBignonia capreolata Crossvine M-D/F-P P,CP H Ipomoea coccinea Red Morning Glory D/F M,P,CP S,H,NCampsis radicans Trumpet Vine M-D/F-P M,P,CP H Iris cristata Crested Iris M/P-S M,P HDecumaria barbara Climbing Hydrangea M/F-S CP N Liatris spicata Blazing Star W-M/F M,P NGelsemium sempervirens Carolina Jessamine M/F-P P,CP C,H,N Lobelia cardinalis Cardinal Flower W-M/F-S M,P,CP H,NLonicera sempervirens Coral Honeysuckle M/F-P P,CP H Lobelia puberula Blue Lobelia W-D/F-P M,P,CP H,NParthenocissus Lobelia siphilitica Great Blue Lobelia W-M/P-S M H,N quinquefolia Virginia Creeper M-D/F-S M,P,CP F Mitchella repens Partridgeberry M/F-S M,P,CP FPassiflora incarnata Passionflower M-D/F-P M,P,CP H,N,L Monarda didyma Beebalm M/P-S M H,NSmilax spp. Greenbrier W-D/F-P M,P,CP C,F Monarda fistulosa Wild Bergamot M-D/F-P M,P,CP H,NToxicodendron radicans Poison Ivy M-D/F-P M,P,CP F Monarda punctata Horsemint D/F-P P,CP H,NVitis spp. Grape W-D/F-P M,P,CP F Oenothera fruticosa Sundrops M-D/F-P M,P,CP S,HFerns Penstemon canescens Hairy Beardtongue M-D/F-P M,P H,N,LPolystichum Penstemon laevigatus Smooth Beardtongue M/F-S M,P,CP H,N,L acrostichoides Christmas Fern M/P-S M,P,CP C Phlox carolina Carolina Phlox W-D/F-P M,P,CP N Phlox divaricata Blue Phlox M/P-S M,P,CP NHerbs and wildflowers Phlox paniculata Summer Phlox M/F-P M,P,CP NApocynum cannabinum Hemp Dogbane M-D/F-P M,P,CP N Phlox pilosa Prairie Phlox D/F-P P,CP NAquilegia canadensis Columbine M-D/P-S M,P,CP S,H,N Phlox subulata Moss Pink D/F M,P NArisaema triphyllum Jack-in-the-Pulpit W-M/P-S M,P,CP F Phytolacca americana Pokeweed M-D/F M,P,CP F,SAristilochia serpentaria Virginia Snakeroot M-D/P-S M,P,CP L Pycnanthemum incanum Hoary Mountainmint M-D/F-P M,P,CP NAruncus dioicus Goat’s Beard M/P-S M,P L Rudbeckia fulgida Orange Coneflower M/F M,P,CP S,NAsclepias incarnata Swamp Milkweed W-M/F-P M,P,CP N,L Salvia lyrata Lyreleaf Sage M-D/F-S M,P,CP H,NAsclepias tuberosa Butterfly Weed D/F-P M,P,CP N,L Silene virginica Fire Pink M-D/P-S M,P,CP S,H,NAsclepias variegata White Milkweed M-D/F-P M,P,CP N,L Solidago spp. Goldenrod M-D/F-P M,P,CP S,NAster curtisii Aster M-D/F-P M S,N,L Spigelia marilandica Indian Pink M/P-S M,P,CP HAster divaricatus Heart-Leaved Aster M-D/P-S M,P S,N,L Stokesia laevis Stoke’s Aster M/F-P P,CP NAster novae-angliae New England Aster M-D/F-P M S,N,L Vernonia noveboracensis Ironweed W-M/F-P M,P,CP NAster novi-belgii New York Aster M/F-P CP S,N,L Vicia caroliniana Wood Vetch D/F-P M,P,CP S,LAster pilosus White Heath Aster D/F M,P,CP S,N,L Viola pedata Bird-Foot Violet D/F-P M,P,CP LBaptisia australis Blue False Indigo M/F-P M,P N,LBaptisia tinctoria Yellow Wild Indigo D/F-P M,P,CP N,L GrassesBidens aristosa Sticktight W-D/F-P P,CP S,N Andropogon glomeratus Brushy Bluestem M/F P,CP C,S,LChamaecrista fasciculata Partridge Pea M-D/F M,P,CP S,L Andropogon ternarius Splitbeard Bluestem D/F M,P,CP C,S,LChrysogonum virginianum Green and Gold M/S P,CP S,N Aristida stricta Wiregrass D/F-P P,CP C,SCimicifuga racemosa Black Cohosh M/S M,P L Arundinaria gigantea Switchcane W-D/F-S M,P,CP C,S,L Panicum virgatum Switchgrass M/F-P M,P,CP C,S,LSoil moisture: W = wet; M = moist; D = dry. Sorghastrum nutans Indiangrass M-D/F M,P,CP C,SLight requirements: F = full sun; P = partial shade; S = shade.Region: M = mountains; P = piedmont; CP = coastal plain.Wildlife Value: C = winter cover; F = fleshy fruit; S = seed, hard mast, or catkin; H = hummingbird nectar; N = butterfly and other insect nectar; L = butterfly larvae host plant. * Use of specific plants by wildlife will vary regionally, and there always are exceptions.* * For information on which plants may be toxic to humans, visit http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/consumer/poison/poison.htm.Landscaping for Wildlife with Native Plants 5
  • 5. in place of autumn olive, or Landscaping with native consider one of our dozens of plants native oaks (Quercus spp.) in place of sawtooth oak, which has been Retain as much native vegetation introduced from Asia. as possible during land clearing Traditional landscape plantings and construction of houses and don’t fully mimic the dense foliage buildings. However, areas where and high plant diversity of natural plants were cleared during devel- areas. Therefore, birds and butter- opment can be landscaped using flies are most likely to use native native plants. It’s best to provide aA native Viburnum sp. (above), rather plants that grow naturally in diversity of native plant species onthan an exotic berry-producer like unmowed or unmanicured por- your property, which in turnautumn olive, should be planted to tions of your yard or in adjacent ensures that fruits and nectar willattract wildlife. natural areas. Allow native grasses, be available throughout the year. brambles, and shrubs to grow in Each native plant species isbecome adapted to using native small corners of your yard where adapted to a specific range of soilplants over thousands of years. neighbors will be less likely to see types, light conditions, and mois-Therefore, native plants meet theneeds, including food and cover,of North Carolina’s native wildlifewithout causing long-term dam-age to local plant communities. Many native plants produceshowy flowers, abundant fruitsand seeds, and brilliant fall foliage.A diversity of native plants in anurban landscape provides:• Protective cover for most animals.• Seeds, nuts, and fruits for squir- rels and other mammals.• Seeds, fruits, and insects for The presence of vines (trumpet vine, left), annuals (jewelweed, right), perennials, birds. and a variety of other flowering plants helps ensure that hummingbirds will have access to nectar from spring to fall. Photos by Chris Moorman• Nectar for hummingbirds and butterflies• Larval host plants for butterfly the “unsightly” growth. These ture regimes. Before planting, have caterpillars (many caterpillars are areas provide nest sites, cover, and your soil analyzed. A small sample adapted to eat the foliage of food for birds and commonly from your yard can be tested for specific plants, called their host harbor host plants for butterfly nutrient content and will allow plants). caterpillars. Minimize the amount you to receive specific recommen- of lawn on your property because dations for preparing your soil Table 1 contains examples of these areas require frequent use of before planting. Use the results ofnative trees, shrubs, and herbs water, fertilizer, and pesticides that the soil tests to help determinebeneficial to wildlife. Use the table can be harmful to the environ- which native plants will grow bestto identify native alternatives to ment and the very insects you on your land. Contact your localthe exotic plants commonly want to attract. Before making Cooperative Extension Center forrecommended to attract wildlife. drastic changes that might upset instructions on this free service.For example, consider a viburnum your neighbors, describe your plan Here are some important(Viburnum spp.) or holly (Ilex spp.) to them and explain why you concepts to consider when land- intend to make the changes. scaping your property: 6 North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service
  • 6. nectar attractive to birds, butter- available throughout most of the flies, and other wildlife. Also, use year. plants that are known hosts for • Check to make sure the plant the larvae of butterflies native to will fruit. Only the female of your area. some plant species (American • Select plants that flower and bear holly, wax myrtle, and eastern fruit or seed at different times of redcedar) produces fruit. In this the year (see Managing Backyards case, be sure to provide at least and Other Urban Habitats for one male plant for pollination. Birds and Butterflies in Your • Plan viewing areas by mapping Backyard), thereby assuring wildflower beds and fruit- fruits, seeds, and nectar will be producing plants in sight ofFlowering dogwood is a great wildlifeplant because it produces abundant fruitsnearly every year. Photo by Chris Moorman• Before initiating landscaping activities, create a map of the existing vegetation on your property. From this base map, identify areas where food and cover are limited and abundant. Then create a projected map and plan for your final land- scape, making sure to incorpo- rate areas that will provide food, cover, and water.• Include a diversity of native plants in your landscape. Provide plants that produce winter cover Position shade-loving plants like this flame azalea under tall trees or on the shady (evergreens), seeds, fruits, and side of your home. Photo by Chris Moorman windows and paths, but avoid planting them near reflective glass or windows to reduce accidental window strikes by feeding birds. • Consider the moisture and light requirements of plants when including them in your plan. Map moisture-loving plants in low-lying areas, and position shade-loving plants underneath large trees or on the shady side of your home. • Mimic “Mother Nature” by creating gentle curves in your landscape. Plant wildflower bedsEastern redbud (left) is one of the first plants to flower in the spring, and cardinal in irregularly shaped patterns.flower (right) and goldenrod (center) are two excellent late-season nectar sources The beauty of a “natural”for butterflies and other insects. landscape rivals that of moreLeft photo courtesy of Alice B. Russell, NCSU retired; other photos by Chris MoormanLandscaping for Wildlife with Native Plants 7
  • 7. regimented traditional ornamen- tal plantings. Table 2. Some Sources of Native Plants.• Cluster similar types of vegeta- Nursery*/Web Address Address City, State Phone tion to allow wildlife easy access to seasonally abundant food Boone’s Native Seed Co. P.O. Box 10363 Raleigh, NC 27605 sources without excessive Carolina Greenery 375 Carthage Rd. West End, NC 27376-8731 (910)947-3150 movement and increased expo- Coastal Plain Conservation 3067 Connors Dr. Edenton, NC 27932 (252)482-5707 sure to predators. Clumping Nursery similar species and placing Cure Nursery 880 Buteo Rd. Pittsboro, NC 27312 (919)542-6186 http://www.curenursery.com shorter herbs and shrubs in front of taller vegetation improves the Dogwoody Nursery and Gardens 1380 Carson Creek Rd. Brevard, NC 28712 (828)884-6205 appearance of your habitat. Elk Mountain Nursery P.O. Box 599 Asheville, NC 28802 (828)683-9330 http://www.elk-mountain.com/ Fern Valley Farms 1624 Fern Valley Rd. Yadkinville, NC 27055 (336)463-2412 Gardens of the Blue Ridge P.O. Box 10 Pineola, NC 28662 (828)733-2417 Garret Wildflower Seed Farm 1117 New Castle Ct. Raleigh, NC 27603 (919)662-9751 Hanging Dog Valley Nursery 2600 Boiling Springs Rd. Murphy, NC 28906 (828)837-7921 Huffman’s Native Plants U.S. Hwy 441 P.O. Box 39 Otto, NC 28783 (704)524-7446 Humphries Nursery 4712 Whitfield Rd. Durham, NC 27707 (919)489-5502 Lamtree Farm Rt.1, Box 162 Warrensville, NC 28693 (919)385-6144 Mellow Marsh Farm 205 Anolis Rd. Pittsboro, NC 27312 (919)542-3532 www.mellowmarshfarm.comA cluster of orange coneflowers allows Mich Gardens at Jordan Lake 86 Beaver Creek Rd. Apex, NC 27502 (919)387-0402butterflies and birds access to Mountain Gardens 3020 White Oak Creek Rd. Burnsville, NC 28714 (828)675-5664abundant nectar and seeds without gardens.webjump.comexcessive movement or exposure to Native Gardens 5737 Fisher Lane Greenback, TN 37742 (865)856-0220predators. Photo by Chris Moorman http://www.native-gardens.com/ Niche Gardens 1111 Dawson Rd. Chapel Hill, NC 27516 (919)967-0078• Plant low-growing herbs and http://www.nichegardens.com/ shrubs under taller shrubs and N.C. Botanical Garden C.B. 3375, Totten Center Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (919)962-0522 http://www.unc.edu/depts/ncbg trees. This helps to provide the layering important to birds. Plant Delights Nursery 9241 Sauls Rd. Raleigh, NC 27603 (919)772-4794 http://www.plantdel.com/ Different birds eat and nest on Singing Springs Nursery 8802 Wilkerson Rd. Cedar Grove, NC 27231-9324 (919)732-9403 the ground and in the shrub, Sunlight Gardens 174 Golden Lane Andersonville, TN 37705 (800)272-7396 midstory, and canopy layers of a http://www.sunlightgardens.com/ landscape. We-Du Nurseries 2055 Polly Spout Rd. Marion, NC 28754 (828)738-8300• Make sure to provide adequate http://www.we-du.com/ growing space for landscape Woodlanders, Inc. 1128 Colleton Ave. Aiken, SC 29801 (803)648-7522 plantings. Avoid planting large- http://www.woodlanders.net/ maturing trees and shrubs where *Several of these nurseries are open to visitors by appointment only. they will overgrow their space and interfere with overhead utilities or crowd homes and other structures. Shrubs and • Remain patient. It generally takes Where to find native plants trees should be at least 6 feet 3 to 5 years before the results of away from all structures. landscaping efforts pay off and Look for native plants propagated• Consult a local expert or one of wildlife use of native plants from locally collected seed. This many guides for recommended becomes obvious. An old adage helps protect the unique charac- planting procedures. Because of says, “The first year a garden teristics of individual plants of the North Carolina’s hot summers, sleeps, the second year it creeps, species growing wild in your area fall planting works best for most the third year it leaps.” native plant species. 8 North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service
  • 8. native plants from the seed. See Table 3. Known Invasive Plants in North Phillips (1985), Bir (1992), and Carolina. Schopmeyer (1974) for more on Common Name Scientific Name propagating native plants from Trees seed. Table 2 contains a list of Tree-of-Heaven Ailanthus altissima native plant suppliers in North Mimosa Albizia julibrissin Carolina. This list is not compre- Chinaberry Melia azedarach Princess Tree Paulownia tomentosa hensive, and the number of Chinese Tallow Tree Sapium sebiferum nurseries that sell native plants Shrubs increases each year. Visit http:// Japanese Barberry Berberis thunbergii www.unc.edu/depts/ncbg/ Russian Olive Elaeagnus angustifolia sources.htm or http:// Autumn Olive Elaeagnus umbellata www.co.mecklenburg.nc.us/ Bicolor Lespedeza Lespedeza bicolor Japanese Privet Ligustrum japonicum coeng/Recycle/NPVL.htm orYou’ll have to compete with American Chinese Privet Ligustrum sinense consult with local parks, naturegoldfinches for coneflower seed if you Common Privet Ligustrum vulgare preserves, garden clubs, botanicalhope to propagate your own plants Oregon Grape Mahonia bealei Multiflora Rose Rosa multiflora gardens, arboreta, and yourfrom seed. County Extension Center for theIllustration by Liessa Thomas Bowen Vines Porcelain-Berry Ampelopsis names of additional native plant brevipedunculata providers.and ensures that the plants you Oriental Bittersweet Celastrus orbiculatususe in your landscaping are best English Ivy Hedera helix Japanese Honeysuckle Lonicera japonica Eradication andadapted to the local environment. Kudzu Pueraria lobataAvoid planting cultivars of native Japanese Wisteria Wisteria floribunda control of exoticsplants when possible. Most of Chinese Wisteria Wisteria sinensisthese variants may have been Herbicides, prescribed fire, selec- Herbsselected for qualities other than Crown Vetch Coronilla varia tive removal of unwanted plants,their value to wildlife, making Queen Anne’s Lace Daucus carota and disking (or a combination of Tall Fescue Fescue elatior these activities) can be used tothem less desirable as wildlife Sericea Lespedeza Lespedeza cuneataplants. Although many conven- White Sweet Clover Melilotus alba eliminate or control unwantedtional nurseries do not carry a Japanese Grass Microstegium vimineum exotic plants. Because the results Johnson Grass Sorghum halepense of these activities vary fromlarge variety of native species,especially noncultivars, the num-ber of reputable nurseries specializ-ing in these plants is on the rise.Be wary of “deals” on nativeplants, especially orchids andtrilliums, which often indicate theplants were collected from wildareas. Collecting plants from thewild contributes to the destructionof their natural habitats and oftenincreases the chance of plantingfailure. Occasionally, local naturecenters and botanical gardensinitiate native plant rescues fromareas soon to be cleared for devel-opment—these can be good andappropriate wild sources. Inaddition, it is possible to collect Although many invasive plants like Japanese honeysuckle are here to stay, they canwild seed and sow or propagate be controlled locally by using herbicides or removing by hand. Photo by Chris MoormanLandscaping for Wildlife with Native Plants 9
  • 9. county to county, you may need Internet resources North Carolina Department ofto experiment before finding the Agriculture and Consumermost successful approach for your Native Plant Information Services Plant Protectionproperty. In some cases, a range of North Carolina Wildflower Preser- http://www.agr.state.nc.us/native plant species already may vation Society plantind/plant.htmbe present. In others, a single http://www.ncwildflower.org/ U.S. Fish and Wildlife Serviceexotic plant may dominate a piece North Carolina Botanical Garden http://invasives.fws.govof property, requiring the land-owner take extreme measures to http://www.unc.edu/depts/ncbg The Nature Conservancyincrease the diversity and abun- North Carolina Plant Conservation http://nature.org/initiatives/dance of native plants. Program invasivespecies/ Known invasive plants in http://www.ncagr.com/plantind/ http:tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/North Carolina are listed in Table plant/conserv/cons.htm United States Department of3. This list is not comprehensive, Agriculture PLANTS Databaseand most of the plants named North Carolina Partners in Flight http://www.faculty.ncwc.edu/ http://plants.usda.gov/have already spread throughoutNorth Carolina to the extent they mbrooks/pif/ North Carolina Agriculturalcan never be controlled com- North Carolina State University Chemicals Manualpletely. To prevent the list from Consumer Horticulture http://ipmwww.ncsu.edu/continuing to grow, carefully http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/ agchem/agchem.htmlconsider an exotic plant’s potential hort/consumer/factsheets/for invasiveness before introduc- maritime/index.htm Backyard and Other Wildlifeing it on your property, especially http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/ North Carolina Extension Wildlife,when trying to attract wildlife. For hort/consumer/factsheets/ Fisheries, and Aquaculturemore information on methods of native/index-native.html http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/nreos/control required for exotic plant wild/species, contact your local County Mecklenburg County PLANTExtension Center. The North Program North Carolina Wildlife ResourcesCarolina Agricultural Chemicals http://ww.co.mecklenburg. CommissionManual, published by North nc.us/coeng/Recycle/native.asp http://www.ncwildlife.org/Carolina State University, and Sally and Andy Wasowski Website Natural Resources ConservationControlling Invasive Exotics in Your http://www.botanical ServiceYard, by the North Carolina missionaries.com http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/Botanical Garden, are excellent feature/backyard/references for exotic plant control. Exotic and Invasive Plant National Wildlife Federation Information http://www.nwf.org/ Southeast Exotic Pest Plant backyardwildlifehabitat/ Council http://www.se-eppc.org Plant Conservation Alliance— Alien Plant Working Group http://www.nps.gov/plants/ alien/10 North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service
  • 10. Additional resources Justice, W. S., and C. R. Bell. 1968. Phillips, H. 1985. Growing and Wildflowers of North Carolina. Propagating Wildflowers. ChapelManaging Backyards and Other Chapel Hill: The University of Hill: The University of North Urban Habitats for Birds. 2002. North Carolina Press. Carolina Press. North Carolina Cooperative Martin, Alexander, Herbert Zim, Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles, and C. Extension. AG-636-01. and Arnold Nelson. 1951. R. Bell. 1968. Manual of theButterflies in Your Backyard. 2002. American Wildlife and Plants: A Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. North Carolina Cooperative Guide to Wildlife Food Habits. Chapel Hill: The University of Extension. AG-636-02. New York: Dover Publications North Carolina Press.Barnes, Thomas. 1999. Gardening Inc. Ritchie, D. F., and others (eds.). for the Birds. Lexington: The Miller, James, and Karl Miller. 2003. 2003 North Carolina University Press of Kentucky. 1999. Forest Plants of the South- Agricultural Chemicals Manual.Bir, Richard. 1992. Growing and east and Their Wildlife Uses. Raleigh: North Carolina State Propagating Showy Native Woody Southern Weed Science Society. University. Plants. Chapel Hill: The Univer- www.weedscience. Schopmeyer, C. S. 1974. Seeds of sity of North Carolina Press. msstate.edu/swss/ Woody Plants in the UnitedBruce, H. 1998. How to Grow Newcomb, L. 1977. Newcomb’s States. U.S. Department of Wildflowers and Wild Shrubs Wildflower Guide. New York: Agriculture, Agricultural Hand- and Trees in Your Own Garden. Little, Brown and Co. book No. 450. New York: The Lyons Press. North Carolina Botanical Garden. Wasowski, Sally, and AndyCampbell, C. C., W. F. Hutson, A. 2001. Controlling Invasive Wasowski. 1994. Gardening with J. Sharp, and R. W. Hutson. Exotics in Your Yard. Chapel Hill: Native Plants of the South. 1995. Great Smoky Mountains North Carolina Botanical Dallas, Texas: Taylor Publishing Wildflowers. Northbrook, Garden, University of North Co. Illinois: Windy Pines Publish- Carolina. ing. North Carolina Wild FlowerFoote, L. E., and S. B. Jones, Jr. Preservation Society. 2002. 1989. Native Shrubs and Woody North Carolina Native Plant Vines of the Southeast: Landscap- Propagation Handbook. North ing Uses and Identification. Carolina Wild Flower Preserva- Portland, Oregon: Timber Press. tion Society. http:// www.ncwildflower.org/hand-Harper-Lore, B., and M. Wilson book/handbook.htm (eds.). 2000. Roadside Use of Native Plants. Washington, Petrides, G. A. 1988. Peterson Field D.C.: Island Press. Guide to Eastern Trees. New York: Houghton Mifflin Co.Landscaping for Wildlife with Native Plants 11
  • 11. Funding for this publication was provided in part through an Urban and Community Forestry Grant from the North Carolina Division of Forest Resources, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, in cooperation with the USDA Forest Service, Southern Region. The listing of commercial services in this publication does not imply endorsement by North Carolina State University, North Carolina A&T State University, or North Carolina Cooperative Extension nor discrimination against similar services not mentioned. Prepared by Chris Moorman, Extension Wildlife Specialist, North Carolina State University Mark Johns, Wildlife Biologist, North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission Liessa Thomas Bowen, Graduate Research Assistant, North Carolina State University Contributing authors Richard Braham, Forester, North Carolina State University John Connors, Naturalist Center Coordinator, North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences Jesse Perry, Director of Public Programs, North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences Johnny Randall, Assistant Director, North Carolina Botanical Garden, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill Rebecca Vidra, Graduate Research Assistant, North Carolina State University Illustrator Liessa Thomas Bowen Cover photo courtesy of Alice B. Russell © 2002 North Carolina State University 5,200 copies of this public document were printed at a cost of $4,888.00 or $0.94 per copy. Published by North Carolina Cooperative Extension ServiceDistributed in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914. Employment and program opportunitiesare offered to all people regardless of race, color, national origin, sex, age, or disability. North Carolina State University,North Carolina A&T State University, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and local governments cooperating.12/02—9M—JL/VG AG-636-03E03-42809