Malaysia ICOP On IAQ by Ir Hj Anuar Mohd Mokhtar


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COSH 2011

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Malaysia ICOP On IAQ by Ir Hj Anuar Mohd Mokhtar

  1. 1. Malaysian ICOP on Indoor Air Quality Ir Hj Anuar Mohd. Mokhtar DOSH Malaysia
  2. 2. SCOPEIntroductionIndoor air quality (IAQ) issues in MalaysiaBackground to ICOPICOP on IAQBenefits of adopting ICOP
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION Increased concern regarding indoor air quality More time spent indoors-up to 90%? New building more insulated Levels of certain pollutants significantly higher than outdoor VOCs, pesticides, by products of combustion Widespread use of synthetic materials and chemicals Toxicological data on most of them are limited Good IAQ is not solely about comfort but also about prevention of building related diseases and diseases from environmental tobacco smoke
  4. 4. WHAT IS INDOOR AIR QUALITY? IAQ refers to •The air quality withinBUILDING and around buildings SICKRELATED and structures, BUILDINGILLNESSES especially as it relates SYNDROME to the health and comfort of building occupants CHRONIC DISEASES
  5. 5. SICK BUILDING SYNDROME A phenomenon that occur when more than 20% of the occupants of a building complain about air quality or have definite symptoms (ILO Encyclopaedia)
  6. 6. BUILDING RELATED ILLNESSES Less often, but often more serious & are accompanied by very definite clinical signs & clear laboratory findings Hypersensitivity Hypersensitivity pneumonitis, Humidifier fever, Asthma, Rhinitis, Dermatitis Infections Legionnaire’s disease and Pontiac fever Tuberculosis (TB), Common cold
  7. 7. Legionnaires’ Disease & Pontiac Fever Diseases of the respiratory system Result of an infection of legionella bacteria hence disease is described as legionellosis Legionnaires’ disease is the more severe form of infection which includes pneumonia Pontiac fever is a milder illness, causing flu-like symptoms without pneumonia
  8. 8. CHRONIC DISEASES Lung cancer Radon* Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) Mesothelioma Asbestos *Radon is a colourless, odourless, tasteless, naturally occurring, radioactive noble gas. It is considered to be a health hazard because it is radioactive. Radon is produced by radioactive decay of uranium that is present in rocks, soils, brick and concrete. It is reportedly the second most frequent cause of lung cancer, after cigarette smoking.
  9. 9. INDOOR AIR QUALITY ISSUES Results of studies by US NIOSH in 1990 (more than 500 buildings investigated)Inadequate ventilation 52%Indoor contaminant sources 16%Outdoor contamination 10%Microorganisms 5%Contamination from fabrics/ 4%building materialsUnknown sources 13%
  10. 10. IAQ ISSUES IN MALAYSIA Mouldy building/offices Cold offices High humidity Low temperatures Pipe burst/leakage Chemical emissions Flooding Off-gassing from building Smoking indoors materials Offices Split unit air-conditioners Restaurants Fresh air lacking Designated areas 10
  11. 11. BACKGROUNDConcerns for exposure to secondhand smokeled to a COP on indoor air quality in 2005Compliance with the 2005 COP on IndoorAir Quality is voluntaryHowever, Industry code of practice (ICOP) isa legal instrument provided for underOccupational Safety & Health Act 1994OSHA-general duty of an employer and alsobuilding owner to ensure the safety andwithout risk to health of employees andanyone at a place of work
  12. 12. GENERAL DUTIES UNDER OSHA1994 Section15: Employer shall ensure, as far as practicable, the safety, health and welfare at work for all his employees (including contractors and his employees) Section 17: Employer shall ensure that he and other persons, not his employees, are not exposed to risks to their safety and health Section 18 Occupier (a person who has the management of control of the place of work) of non-domestic premises shall take such measures that are practicable to ensure premises are safe and without risk to health to persons using the premises and any plant or substance in the premises or provided for use there
  13. 13. BACKGROUNDThe COP need to be reviewed 5 years elapsed Limitations of COPLimitation of the COP Does not apply to workplace using split air-conditioning system Only cover 5 chemical pollutants Does not include temperature, air flow and humidity Does not address bacteria or mould issues Too dependent on assessors
  14. 14. Gazette of ICOP IAQ 2010 Approved by Y.B. Minister on 30th August 2010 Gazetted under subsection 37(4) OSHA P.U. (B) 29/2011 Code of Practice on Indoor Air Quality terbatal
  15. 15. CONTENT OF new ICOP ON IAQ 2010 Application of ICOP Dealing with complaints Investigating IAQ Problems Control of IAQ Information, instruction and training Recordkeeping Appendices
  16. 16. APPLICATION OF ICOPAny area/part of Domestic building where buildings chemicals Applies to all hazardous to buildings or any health are used for analytical, part of building or research or totally enclosed preservation areas served by purposes MVAC including Any area or any air-cooled split part of the building which is Removal and unit where constructed, disposal of persons work used or intended asbestos EXCEPT to be used for containing domestic or materials industrial purposes
  17. 17. Complaints Procedure The Building Owner or Building Management shall Establish a Ensure that an procedure to deal investigation is with complaint conducted to from employer and ascertain the occupants related cause, upon to signs and receipt of symptoms perceived to be due complaint. to IAQ Appendix 2 - sample of IAQ Complaint Form17
  18. 18. Complaint procedures shall include: Procedures for receiving and dealing with complaints Description of the process or processes for response to a complaint Regular reviews of complaints by the occupant Identification of individuals responsible for administering the complaint process Procedures for communicating any remedial action to the complainant; and Follow-up procedures to ensure that the remedial action recommended18
  19. 19. Investigation of IAQ Problem:Duty to investigate whenever.. Renovations are Occupancy in the made that involve space exceeds the significant changes to recommended the ventilation number of system e.g. occupancy in the room without supply original design or return air Complaints received Building Owner or Building Management
  20. 20. Receive indoor air quality IAQ Complaints & complaintsInvestigation Process Communicate to building owner or building management (Appendix 3) Conduct walkthrough inspection Is there YES Notify complainant an obvious solution for the complaints ? NO Rectify problem or Conduct IAQ assessment implement the recommended solution Present Assessment Report to occupier and/or building owner Follow-up to make sure the problem does not Record keeping recur 20
  21. 21. Walkthrough Inspection Provides basic information on factors affecting IAQ Walkthrough activities- Collect information about history of building and ventilation system; Collect previous record of IAQ complaints; Notify building occupants of the upcoming investigation; Identify key individuals for access to relevant information as well as relevant locations within the building; and Identify potential contaminants and their sources. To facilitate the walk through inspection, a Checklist is provided in Appendix.21
  22. 22. Assessment of IAQ By IAQ Assessor Carried out during normal business activity and must consider:- sources of indoor air contaminants; an occupant’s exposure to ETS; an occupant’s exposure to air contaminants, either from indoor or outdoor sources; prescribed activities*; adequacy of mechanical ventilation at the place of work; and necessary actions to be taken to improve the IAQ.* Any activity that could pose health hazard to the occupants, e.g. painting and cleaning carpets 22
  23. 23. Assessment of IAQ By IAQ Assessor Assessment to include:- Measurement of specific physical parameters listed in Table 1; Measurement of indoor air contaminants listed in Table 2; Walkthrough inspection Symptom survey Sample questionnaire provided in Appendix. IAQ assessor shall present and submit the assessment report to the building owner or building management within 1 month upon completion of the assessment.23
  24. 24. Table 1:Acceptable Range for Specific Physical Parameters Parameter Acceptable range (a) Air temperature 23 – 26 oC (b) Relative humidity 40-70% (c) Air movement 0.15 – 0.50 m/s •Reference MS 1525 : 2001 •Code of practice on energy efficiency and renewable energy for non-residential buildings 24
  25. 25. Table 2: List of Indoor Air Contaminants and ACCEPTABLE Limits Acceptable Limits Indoor Air Contaminants ppm mg/m3 cfu/m3 Chemical contaminants* 1.Carbon monoxide 10 - - 2.Formaldehyde 0.1 - - 3.Ozone 0.05 - - 4.Respirable particulates - 0.15 - 5.Total volatile organic compounds(TVOC) 3 - - Biological contaminants 1.Total bacterial counts - - 500* 2.Total fungal counts - - 1000* Ventilation performance indicator 1.Carbon dioxide C1000** - -*Limits are eight-hour time-weighted average airborne concentrations•mg/m3 is milligrams per cubic meter of air at 25° Celsius and one atmosphere pressure•ppm is parts of vapour or gas per million parts of contaminated air by volume•cfu/m3 is colony forming units per cubic meter**C is the ceiling limit that shall not be exceeded at any time. 25
  26. 26. CARBON MONOXIDECombustion product Automobile exhaust, smoking, unvented combustion appliancesAsphyxiantThe standard is set to provide amargin of safety for people withcardiovascular disease
  27. 27. FORMALDEHYDEIt is a VOC, used in bonding/laminating agents, adhesives, paper & textile products, and in foam insulation Also used in cosmetics & toiletries as preservativeNew buildings, re-carpeting, ETSLevels exceeding 1-3ppm cause mucous membrane irritationSuspected carcinogenLevel set for comfortable environment
  28. 28. OZONEColourless gasProduced in ambient air during photochemical oxidationof combustion products such as nitrogen oxides andhydrocarbonOzone concentration set at 0.05ppm to preventsymptoms such as dryness of upper respiratory tract andthroat and nose irritation
  29. 29. RESPIRABLE PARTICULATES Less than 10 micron in diameter Sources are ETS, aerosols from air fresheners or cleaning material Other sources dirt from carpets or dirt carried in from outdoor Outdoor sources such as from haze Levels set as for outdoor air
  30. 30. VOCsHuman bioeffluents, personal care products, cleaning materials,paints, lacquer, varnishes, pesticides, pressed wood products,and insulationAccumulation of VOCs play a major role in SBSSome VOC such as benzene is carcinogenicLevel to prevent discomfort
  31. 31. CARBON DIOXIDE Product of combustion Human respiration & ETS It is an asphyxiant At concentrations (>30,000ppm) may cause headache, loss of judgment, dizziness, drowsiness, and rapid breathing Level set to indicate adequacy of ventilation rates or indicative of inadequate mixing.
  32. 32. MOULDS Fungi that grow on dead organic matter and reproduce through tiny spores, invisible to naked eye, and float through outdoor and indoor air. Mould may begin growing indoors when mould spores land on surfaces that are wet. Mould growth can lead to a variety of health issues, such as causing allergic reactions, irritations, and in some cases, toxic actions. Allergic responses include hay fever-type symptoms, such as sneezing, runny nose, red eyes, and skin rash (dermatitis). Standard set for humidity and temperature is for comfort and to prevent mould growth
  33. 33. BACTERIA Microscopic organisms found in indoor environments typically come from human sources (skin and respiration) or from the outdoors. Bacteria found in the air in buildings are Legionella Pneumophila saprobes (grow on dead organic matter) and the primary concern is about bacteria colonies that may grow in damp areas.
  34. 34. Microbial contamination BO/BM to regularly inspect: ductwork, dehumidifiers, cooling coils, filters, internal building surfaces, and any other MVAC system components. Inspect every 6 month where it is likely that standing water will unintentionally accumulate and which could reasonably cause microbial growth; and take action to promptly remove the water; and make necessary repairs to prevent further accumulation.34
  35. 35. Duty To Control Exposure BO/BM shall: maintain working environment conforming to acceptable range specified in Table 1. Where assessment indicates that IAQ is unacceptable, BO/BM shall initiate to implement any of the control measures within 1 month after receiving report. For any air conditioning system including air-cooled split unit, BO/BM or employer shall ensure the provision for adequate fresh air ventilation such as:- the use of Demand Control Ventilation (DCV); extractor; or by other suitable means.35 DCV
  37. 37. Inspection & Maintenance of MVAC Maintenance schedule for MVAC system as per manufacturers recommendations to ensure that the equipment operate efficiently. If not specified, follow these frequencies and activities: At least every 6 At all time At least every month months• Ensure filters perform • Clean the water • Inspect the building properly and do not trays to ensure that and its MVAC become clogged. no contaminants system.• Regularly check build up. • Clean components cooling coils, of air-handling units condensate pipes & such as fans and water trays for sign of dampers. sludge, algae, rust, • Clean coils and blockage & leak. condensate pipes 37
  38. 38. Continue.. MVAC system to be checked and adjusted to ensure correct air flow, temperature and humidity. • After1st year of operation and at least every 2 years • After any renovations or changes in floor layout that might affect air distribution. Use of non-chemical water treatment for cooling tower- recommended If biocides are used, the dosing shall carried out as per manufacturer recommendation. Records shall be kept of all maintenance.38
  39. 39. Control For Prescribed ActivitiesBO/BM/E to ensure adequate work procedures and control are used during prescribed activities which may include- use of approved PPE; sealing of area where prescribed activities is carried out; displaying signage to warn about hazard associated with prescribed activities; safe work procedures; using portable exhaust system; or administrative control measures such as carry out prescribed activities not during working hours.39
  40. 40. Prevention & Control For RenovationWork BO/BM shall not use materials contain any toxic substances. Highly recommended to use low VOC emission materials. For occupied buildings undergoing partial renovation: spaces to be renovated should be effectively isolated from occupied zones; supply air should be separated so that acceptable IAQ for occupants is maintained. Any major renovation to the building where the air- conditioning system has been affected (e.g. by partitioning of office space): rebalancing of the air distribution shall be required.40
  41. 41. Pest Control Minimise use of pesticides in non-commercial buildings. Pesticide spraying shall be carried out: by licensed pest control operator and outside normal working hours, and preferably during the weekends. Occupants in areas to be sprayed shall be notified in advance. Pesticides applied in targeted locations, with minimum treatment of exposed surfaces. If hydrogen cyanide is used, BO/BM to comply with Hydrogen Cyanide (Fumigation) Act 1953 (Rev.1981). BM or other person who organises pest control activities should have info on chemicals (SDS).41
  42. 42. Housekeeping & Cleaning Housekeeping keeps dust levels down and removes dirt which could otherwise become sources of contamination. Cleaning schedule shall be arranged with reference to occupancy patterns and activity levels. Daily cleaning of surfaces and steam vacuuming of floors is advisable for areas with high traffic or which are in constant use during the day. When chemical based cleaning agents are used, SDSs on the cleaning agents should be available to the building manager and other occupants.42
  43. 43. Environment Tobacco Smoking (ETS) Tobacco smoking is prohibited in many public area as stipulated under: Control of Tobacco Product Regulations 2004 [P.U.(A)324/2004]; Control of Tobacco Product Regulations (Amendment) 2008; and Control of Tobacco Product Regulations (Amendment) 2009; In all indoor areas which are not covered by the Tobacco Product Regulations 2004, smoking should also be prohibited as far as practicable in order to achieve good indoor air quality standard.43
  44. 44. Information Employer shall ensure that all employees are informed on: causes of poor indoor air quality and the adverse effects to health arising from it; complaints procedure; detrimental effects from ETS and its contribution to the overall indoor air quality; modification or improvement to the poor ventilation system at the work station, if any; and findings of the assessment.44
  45. 45. Instruction Employer to give instructions but not limited to- prohibition of smoking except at designated area(s); not to tamper with MVAC system; not to store material/chemical or equipment inside AHU room or ducting; ensure fresh air intake is not blocked at any time or contaminated with undesirable and hazardous elements; and to inform the employer of any discomfort related to indoor air quality.45
  46. 46. Training Employees to be trained on- contents of ICOP; identification of sign and symptoms associated with the illnesses commonly associated with poor IAQ; and identification of poor ventilation conditions and signs of deterioration in the air-conditioned or mechanical ventilation system. Training programme to be reviewed and conducted at least once in two years. Training programme to be documented and kept for inspection.46
  47. 47. Recordkeeping All records shall be kept for not less than 5 years. Assessment report shall be kept for not less than 30 years. Records kept to include - complaint records; investigation reports; assessment reports including the results of indoor air contaminant measurement; and training records.47
  48. 48. Qualifications, experience & training as aregistered IAQ Assessor a registered assessor or hygiene technician I under USECHH who has attended training in IAQ assessment conducted by recognised training providers and passed examination conducted by NIOSH; or a person with at least a Diploma in pure or applied sciences and has 1 year experience in occupational hygiene and has attended training in IAQ assessment conducted by recognised training providers and passed examination conducted by NIOSH; or any other person with equivalent IAQ competency as recognised by the relevant authority.48