Bloodborne Pathogens


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  • Bloodborne pathogens is a 1910 standard but since we render first aid and CPR on the job it is important that we inform you of the hazards associated with blood and other bodily fluids that could be encountered on the job This standard requires a written exposure control plan which includes engineering and work practice controls Written cleaning and decontamination schedules Make free hepatitis B vaccinations available to employees likely to be exposed to the virus
  • There are several types of Hepatitis from A to E Hepatitis A is fecal/oral with an incubation of 15 to 50 days also by shellfish, fruits, vegetables, and contaminated water. Responsible for 50% of the reported cases in the US Hepatitis B is Parenteral, sexual, perinatal with an incubation period of 40 to 180 days transmitted through blood or bodily fluids, sexual contact and contaminated needles Hepatitis C is transmitted by blood with an incubation period of 35 to 75 days Traditionally associated with blood transfusions and accounts for 20% to 40% of acute viral hepatitis in the U.S. 4 million people. People at risk are those who have body piercing, tattoos or injected drugs, shared needles, shared personal items such as razors, toothbrushes or undergone kidney dialysis Hepatitis D is parenteral, sexual, and perinatal with an incubation period of 21 to 49 days. May cause infection only in the presence of HBV infection Hepatitis E is fecal/oral with an incubation period of 28 to 42 days. First identified through waterborne epidemics in developing countries. Sporadic cases also occur but neither a carrier state nor chronic liver disease has been reported
  • Vaccine must be taken in 3 shots. 1 st given then 2 nd given one month later then 3 rd after 6 months. These vaccines are now made through yeast based cultures and are 95 to 98% effective in preventing the disease. Pay particular attention to the video when it talks about how many viral particles Hepatitis B are in a teaspoon of blood compared to HIV The employee must be offered the vaccine within 10 days of an assignment that warrants first aid or CPR functions. An employee may decline to take the vaccine but will be required to sign a declination form. The employee can change their mind at any time and take the vaccine.
  • Training should occur every year, for new employees, and when the job changes
  • There are two types of records required by the bloodborne pathogen standard: Medical and Training Medical records must be preserved and maintained for each employee with occupational exposure. This record is confidential and separate from other personnel records. Medical records must be maintained for at least the duration of employment plus 30 years Training records document each training session and are to be kept for 3 years. An employee’s medical records can only be obtained by the employee or anyone having the employee’s written consent.
  • Bloodborne Pathogens

    1. 1. Bloodborne Pathogens Subpart 1910.1030 General Industry Standard
    2. 2. What is a Bloodborne Pathogen? <ul><li>Any microorganisms, present in human blood and bodily fluids, that can cause disease (pathogenic) </li></ul><ul><li>Two most prevalent are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)  Liver Disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)  Aids </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Hepatitis B - Facts <ul><li>Hepatitis B is a liver disease, resulting initially in inflammation of the liver. </li></ul><ul><li>Frequently leads to cirrhosis and liver cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 300,000 new cases of Hepatitis B are diagnosed each year in the U.S. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Hepatitis B - Facts <ul><li>There is no cure for Hepatitis B. </li></ul><ul><li>Enters through breaks in the skin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Needle sticks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Existing cuts or abrasions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2-6 months for HBV to develop. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Hepatitis B - Facts <ul><li>A vaccine exists that can prevent infection. </li></ul><ul><li>Employees who render first aid and cpr must be offered this vaccine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Within 10 days following start of that position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provided by employer at no cost to the employee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 shots over a 7 month period </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. HIV (AIDS) - Facts <ul><li>Newest major bloodborne disease </li></ul><ul><li>Currently 9 million active cases of AIDS and 7 million AIDS deaths </li></ul><ul><li>Currently 23 million people are HIV Positive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Majority of infected persons live in underdeveloped countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>15 million – Africa </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5 million SE Asia </li></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. HIV (AIDS) - Facts <ul><li>Over 1 million U.S. citizens are infected. </li></ul><ul><li>HIV/AIDS is on the increase among women, Blacks, Hispanics, adolescents, IV drug users, homosexuals and their partners, and people living in the rural Midwest and South. </li></ul><ul><li>The HIV virus is never inactive-it replicates rapidly and attacks the immune system from the onset. </li></ul>
    8. 8. HIV (AIDS) - Facts <ul><li>Many people have no apparent symptoms for years after infection. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no cure for AIDS, but people are surviving longer due to new anti-retroviral drugs </li></ul>
    9. 9. Definitions <ul><li>Occupational Exposure Routes – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unprotected contact with organic waste (sewage), non-sterile needles, skin lesions, eye fluids, saliva, mucous, blood or materials that have been in contact with body fluids. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-Occupational Exposure Routes - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual transmission </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Definitions <ul><li>Parenteral – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Piercing of mucous membranes or the outer skin with needles, bites, cuts, or abrasions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Universal Precautions – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Treat all blood and other body fluids as if they are infected – wear latex gloves, masks, and wash hands </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Definitions <ul><li>Body Fluids and Specific Exposures – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluids around the heart and lungs(pleural, pericardial) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluids around unborn babies(amniotic and peritoneal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saliva (specifically in dental procedures) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain/Spinal fluids (cerebrospinal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any body fluid that contains blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaginal Secretions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semen </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Exposure Control Plan <ul><li>In writing, employers must identify all tasks where occupational exposures to body fluids may occur </li></ul><ul><li>Compliance – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandates universal precautions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasizes engineering and work practice controls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandates employer provision of all Personal Protective Equipment as required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires a written procedure for clean-up and decontamination </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Personal Protective Equipment <ul><li>Items to be added to First Aid Kits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two sets of rescue breathers with one-way valve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four pair of disposable latex gloves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ten separately-packaged alcohol prep pads </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Personal Protective Equipment <ul><li>Bloodborne Pathogens Clean up kit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One full length impervious apron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One fluid shield mask </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two pair latex gloves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One antimicrobial wipe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One biohazard waste bag </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>scoop </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bleach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>½ gallon of bleach to a gallon of water for decontamination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each mixture must be used within 24 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Absorbent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good source is cat litter </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Most important!!! <ul><li>Wash hands immediately and thoroughly after any exposure or potential exposure </li></ul>
    16. 16. Clean Up <ul><li>Always wear protective equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Always use a bag with a bio-hazard label for disposal of waste </li></ul><ul><li>Always wash hands after exposure </li></ul>Biohazard Symbol
    17. 17. Recordkeeping <ul><li>OSHA requires all medical records for employees with occupational exposure to be kept for duration of employment plus 30 years </li></ul><ul><li>Must be kept confidential </li></ul><ul><li>Retrain employees each year and keep training records for 3 years </li></ul>
    18. 18. REMEMBER! <ul><li>Always treat blood and body fluids as infectious </li></ul><ul><li>Always report incidents of possible (unprotected) contact to management </li></ul><ul><li>Always wash hands immediately and thoroughly with non abrasive soap and water </li></ul><ul><li>Be trained and prepared to act BEFORE an emergency occurs </li></ul>
    19. 19. Summary <ul><li>Protecting yourself from bloodborne diseases requires: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>knowing the facts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>practicing good hygiene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>taking sensible precautions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These are measures that you can control </li></ul><ul><li>These measures are critical - take them seriously - and live to tell others about it! </li></ul>