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Millennium development goals

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  • 1. Millennium Development Goals Gender and Development-India’s Commitment •Goals formulation in 2000 at the UN Millennium Summit set to be achieved by 2015. •They are Universally accepted Values and right , 1. Freedom from hunger 2. Right to education 3. Gender equality 4. Reduce Child mortality 5. Maternal Health
  • 2. 6. Combat HIV/ AIDS 7. Environmental Sustainability 8. Global Partnership for development  Female Literacy gone up from 39% in 1991 to 54 %2001  Literacy gap reduced from 25 % in 1991 to 22 % in 2001  The Literacy gap between the Sexes is Higher in Rural than in Urban areas.  Infant Mortality rate (IMR) higher in Rural areas than Urban.  IMR higher for Girls than boys
  • 3.  Women face limited employment Options, discrimination, lower pay, less control over their health and well being.  Girls to have equal access to education by 2015.  Educated Girls more empowerment to shape their country’s political ,social, economic and environ mental progress.
  • 4. MDGS --- goal 3 – gender equality  Targets. 1. Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education , to all levels of education no later than 2015.
  • 5. United nations Development fund for women(UNDFW)  UNDFW provides financials and technical assistance to promote women’s right , political participation and economic security .  Convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women ( CEDAW) it is international bill of right for women  United nations populations fund (UNFPA)  To support programs of family planning , to combat violence against women.  United nation Educational , Scientific and cultural Organization(UNESCO) ◦ gender equality program ◦ coordinates projects and policy regarding women empowerment, gender equality .
  • 6. CAW : Commission on the Advancement of women  It promotes gender equality in the policy and practice
  • 7. MDGS – goal 3, gender equality India’s Commitment.  Gender equality is enshrined in the Indian constitution in its preamble fundamental rights , fundamental duties and directive principles  our development policies ,plan and programs aimed at advancement of women.  there is marked shift from ‘Welfare” to advancement , to empowerment.  The national commission for women set up by an act of parliament in 1990 to safe guard women’s rights.  73rd and 74th amendment (1993) to the constitution provides for reservation of one / third of all seats in local and municipal bodies
  • 8.  Education , training , employment ,and self – employment strategies , play crucial role for emancipation of women  Women’s movement by NGOS led to many initiatives for women empowerment . 1.International level, India endorsed • Mexico plan of action (1975) • The Nairobi forward looking strategies (1995) for appropriate follow-up 2.India has also ratified • Various international human rights instruments • Convention on elimination of all forms of discrimination against women
  • 9. 3. Gender disparity manifests it self in various forms  declining female ratio  social stereotyping and violence at the domestic and societal levels .  discrimination against girl children 4. the access of the women in rural areas, in the informal, un organized sector , to education ,health and productive resources is inadequate . 5.India’s national policy for employment of women drawn up in after math of the beginning conference 6 .The goal of this policy to bring about advancement and empowerment of women.
  • 10. Measures adopted • by changing social attitudes • to eliminate gender based discrimination • active participation of women • to incorporate gender perspectives in all policies, plans and programs (many of the components of national policy already implemented ) 7.Government introduced a bill in parliament to reserve one third of seats for women in parliament and State legislative assemblies.The bill could not be passed into the law due to vested interests like:
  • 11. 1.The institutional Mechanisms: ◦ courts with public interest litigation ◦ the national human rights commission ◦ the national commission for women 2.Major challenges to human rights of women ◦ poverty deprives women and men of the right to enjoy basic amenities ◦ they are kept in dark about their personal , civil and political rights
  • 12. 3.To enhanceWomen’s empowerment a)To provide education ,employment and role in decision making b) provide equal access to land and other productive resources for women c) suitable changes in inheritance laws d) Hindu succession act already amended to protect women’s right to property
  • 13. 4.Violence against women Measures to be adopted  greater sensitization of the judiciary and law enforcement agency  setting up alternative grievance redressed mechanism  authorized monitoring institutions  to enhance women’s capabilities to fight justice through collective strength  anti – dowry police cells set up  The dowry prohibition Act strengthened