Introduction toInstructionalDesign
Learning Outcomes1. Explain instructional design;2. Apply Gagne’s 9 Events of Instructions to your learningmaterial;3. Chu...
Instructional design is abouthelping the learnersmake sense of theinformationIt is morethan just aninformation dump
InstructionaldesignLearner focused onthe right thingA logical flow of content and learning activitieswith strategies to en...
Gagne 9 Events of InstructionContentPresentationEvents of Instruction Instructional TechnologiesIntroduction 1. Gain atten...
How to designthe content tomake it moreengaging
Chunk1st StepIt helps you present information in a waythat makes it easy for your audience tounderstand and remember.Why?
Content Chunking1What isChunking?
How to Chunk Your Content?1Starts by listing topics coveredby your learning outcomes.2 Group the topics into similar items...
Example: Content ChunkingTopic 1: item ATopic 2: item BTopic 3: item CTopic 4: item DTopic 5: item ETopic 6: item FTopic 7...
Example: Content ChunkingStep 2 Group the topics into similar itemsTopic 1: item ATopic 2: item BTopic 3: item CTopic 4: i...
Example: Content ChunkingStep 3 Give a topic name to each groupTopic 1: item ATopic 2: item BTopic 3: item CTopic 4: item ...
System concept descriptions provide:• The missions, features, capabilities and functions of the system• Major system compo...
• The missions, features, capabilities and functions of the system• Major system components and interactions• Operational ...
System concept descriptions provide:Example 2FunctionalRequirementsNon-functionalRequirementsDeploymentandOperationalRequi...
System concept descriptions provide:Example 2: Continue•The missions, features, capabilities and functionsof the system•Ma...
System concept descriptions provide:Example 2: Continue•Required performance characteristics such asresponse time, through...
System concept descriptions provide:Example 2: Continue•Deployment considerations such as acquisition ofbusiness data to s...
Activity256398741Try to memorize thefollowing "code symbols" in30 seconds
1 2 34 5 67 8 9
Present Engaging ContentNext StepTo enhance the students’ understandingand to engage them with thecourse/topic.Why?
• Use words and graphics rather thanwords alone.MultimediaPrinciple• Place corresponding words andgraphics near each other...
Multimedia & Contiguity PrinciplesMultimediaContiguityPlace corresponding wordsand graphics near eachother.Use words and g...
Modality PrinciplePresent words as speech, rather than on-screen textIt is recommended that words bepresented in spoken fo...
NarrationPicturesPhoneticProcessingVisualProcessingMULTIMEDIA MEMORY SYSTEMSensory Memory Working MemoryBalancing Content ...
Audio: The Butterfly Goes through four stages to become adult butterfly. The process can be callMetamorphosis. There are 4...
Redundancy PrincipleAvoid using words in both text and audioPrintedWordsPicturesPhoneticProcessingVisualProcessingMULTIMED...
Example:Eliminate redundant material and avoid narration and "identical" text.Metamorphosis the name for rapid transformat...
Coherence PrincipleAvoid adding too many multimedia elements (audio)1. Avoid visuals or text that is not essential to thei...
Personalization PrincipleUse conversational style rather than formalspeech.Once you mix redand blue together,you will get ...
Examples ofGood Elearning Design
Good DesignBad DesignExample 1: Focus on meaning and not information
UnderstandingImagesupports thecontent andhelps thelearnerdevelop avisual modelof theinformationVisual-based
(Visual-based)(Text-based)VSInstead of justgiving InformationWhy don’t wemake them
Why are Visuals important in apresentation?Imagine you have to look/read 50 slides likethis…
First item inthe cycleSecond itemin the cycleThird itemin the cycleFourth itemin the cycleFifth item inthe cycleCycle of A...
Metamorphosis the name for rapid transformation of a larvainto an adult that occurs in some insects. The Butterfly Goesthr...
Example 3: TableBlood group AB individuals have both A and B antigens on thesurface of their RBCs, and their blood plasma ...
Example 3: TableBloodTypeCell CompatibilityAB Can receive blood from any group (with AB being preferable), butcan donate b...
Can you read this? Can you read this?Can you read this?Can you read this?Can you read this?Can you read this?Can you read ...
Visual Design: Recommended FontUse sans-serif font and use the same font through out thecourse.IncreaseReadabilityExample:...
Blood group AB individuals have both A and B antigens on thesurface of their RBCs, and their blood plasma does not contain...
Instructional Design (ID)LearningOutcomesAssessmentLogicalFlowContentEngagingExperiences
References• http://www.articulate.com/rapid-elearning/instructional-design/• http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/learning/...
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Introduction to Instructional Design

  1. 1. Introduction toInstructionalDesign
  2. 2. Learning Outcomes1. Explain instructional design;2. Apply Gagne’s 9 Events of Instructions to your learningmaterial;3. Chunk content to make it more meaningful;4. Apply the design principles to your content;
  3. 3. Instructional design is abouthelping the learnersmake sense of theinformationIt is morethan just aninformation dump
  4. 4. InstructionaldesignLearner focused onthe right thingA logical flow of content and learning activitieswith strategies to enhance the students’understanding and learning experiences.
  5. 5. Gagne 9 Events of InstructionContentPresentationEvents of Instruction Instructional TechnologiesIntroduction 1. Gain attention • Present a dilemma, analogy, video2. State learning outcomes• List clear learning outcomescreatively3. Recall prior knowledge• Explain how prior knowledge relatesto new topic• Initiate discussion• Pre-testsContent 4. Present core content • Explanation, example, simulation5. Provide learning guidance • Guidelines, checklists, mnemonics,group discussionAssessment 6. Provide learning activities7. Provide feedback8. Assess learning• Check your understanding• Assessment• ScenarioSummary 9. Apply learning • Summarize the topics• Provide additional references
  6. 6. How to designthe content tomake it moreengaging
  7. 7. Chunk1st StepIt helps you present information in a waythat makes it easy for your audience tounderstand and remember.Why?
  8. 8. Content Chunking1What isChunking?
  9. 9. How to Chunk Your Content?1Starts by listing topics coveredby your learning outcomes.2 Group the topics into similar items.3 Give a topic name to each group.
  10. 10. Example: Content ChunkingTopic 1: item ATopic 2: item BTopic 3: item CTopic 4: item DTopic 5: item ETopic 6: item FTopic 7: item GTopic 8: item HTopic 9: item JStep 1 List all topics covered by your learning outcomes.
  11. 11. Example: Content ChunkingStep 2 Group the topics into similar itemsTopic 1: item ATopic 2: item BTopic 3: item CTopic 4: item DTopic 5: item ETopic 6: item FTopic 7: item GTopic 8: item HTopic 9: item J
  12. 12. Example: Content ChunkingStep 3 Give a topic name to each groupTopic 1: item ATopic 2: item BTopic 3: item CTopic 4: item DTopic 5: item ETopic 6: item FTopic 7: item GTopic 8: item HTopic 9: item JBasic of xTypes of yProcess of zProcess of w
  13. 13. System concept descriptions provide:• The missions, features, capabilities and functions of the system• Major system components and interactions• Operational environment including manual procedures required• Operational modes such as production, backup and maintenance• Interfaces with other systems• Required performance characteristics such as response time, throughputand data volumes• Quality attributes such as availability, reliability and usability• Other considerations such as security, audit, safety and failure modes inemergency situations• Deployment considerations such as acquisition of business data tosupport the system including data cleansing and loading• The classes of users that will interact with the system• Requirements for support of the system such as maintenanceorganization and help desk.The following bulleted list has too many chunks presented at once:
  14. 14. • The missions, features, capabilities and functions of the system• Major system components and interactions• Operational environment including manual procedures required• Operational modes such as production, backup and maintenance• Interfaces with other systemsFunctional Requirements• Required performance characteristics such as response time, throughput anddata volumes• Quality attributes such as availability, reliability and usability• Other considerations such as security, audit, safety and failure modes inemergency situationsNon-functional Requirements• Deployment considerations such as acquisition of business data to support thesystem including data cleansing and loading• The classes of users that will interact with the system• Requirements for support of the system such as maintenance organization andhelp desk.Deployment and Operational RequirementsSystem concept descriptions provide:Example 1
  15. 15. System concept descriptions provide:Example 2FunctionalRequirementsNon-functionalRequirementsDeploymentandOperationalRequirements
  16. 16. System concept descriptions provide:Example 2: Continue•The missions, features, capabilities and functionsof the system•Major system components and interactions•Operational environment including manualprocedures required•Operational modes such as production, backupand maintenance•Interfaces with other systemsFunctional Requirements
  17. 17. System concept descriptions provide:Example 2: Continue•Required performance characteristics such asresponse time, throughput and data volumes•Quality attributes such as availability, reliabilityand usability•Other considerations such as security, audit,safety and failure modes in emergencysituationsNon-functional Requirements
  18. 18. System concept descriptions provide:Example 2: Continue•Deployment considerations such as acquisition ofbusiness data to support the system includingdata cleansing and loading•The classes of users that will interact with thesystem•Requirements for support of the system such asmaintenance organization and help desk.Deployment and Operational Requirements
  19. 19. Activity256398741Try to memorize thefollowing "code symbols" in30 seconds
  20. 20. 1 2 34 5 67 8 9
  21. 21. Present Engaging ContentNext StepTo enhance the students’ understandingand to engage them with thecourse/topic.Why?
  22. 22. • Use words and graphics rather thanwords alone.MultimediaPrinciple• Place corresponding words andgraphics near each other.Contiguity Principle• Present words as speech, rather thanon-screen text.Modality Principle• Avoid using words in both text andaudioRedundancyPrinciple• Avoid adding too many multimediaelements (audio)Coherence Principle• Use conversational style and virtualcoaches.PersonalizationPrinciple6 Design Principles of Effective e-Learning
  23. 23. Multimedia & Contiguity PrinciplesMultimediaContiguityPlace corresponding wordsand graphics near eachother.Use words and graphicsrather than words alone.Source: www.infovisual.info
  24. 24. Modality PrinciplePresent words as speech, rather than on-screen textIt is recommended that words bepresented in spoken form rather thanprinted form whenever the graphic isthe focus of the words and both arepresented simultaneously.
  25. 25. NarrationPicturesPhoneticProcessingVisualProcessingMULTIMEDIA MEMORY SYSTEMSensory Memory Working MemoryBalancing Content Across Visual and Auditory ChannelsLongTermMemory
  26. 26. Audio: The Butterfly Goes through four stages to become adult butterfly. The process can be callMetamorphosis. There are 4 Stages, The first stage is Egg where the female butterflies lay theireggs on plants to enable caterpillar (later stage) to get the food from plant leafs. The secondstage is Larva, also called Caterpillar. It emerges from egg after few days. Caterpillar spends mostof its time eating. More narration to explain the cycle……Example:The 4 Stages of Metamorphosis Process
  27. 27. Redundancy PrincipleAvoid using words in both text and audioPrintedWordsPicturesPhoneticProcessingVisualProcessingMULTIMEDIA MEMORY SYSTEMSensory Memory Working MemoryNarrationOverloading Content Across Visual and Auditory Channels
  28. 28. Example:Eliminate redundant material and avoid narration and "identical" text.Metamorphosis the name for rapid transformation of alarva into an adult that occurs in some insects. TheButterfly Goes through four stages to become adultbutterfly. The process can be call Metamorphosis.There are 4 Stages:Egg: Female butterflies lay their eggs on plants to enablecaterpillar (later stage) to get the food from plant leafs.Larva: Also called Caterpillar. It emerges from egg afterfew days. Caterpillar spends most of its time eating.Pupa: The Caterpillar forms a protection shield calledPupa when it has finished growing. Most of thetransformation takes place in side Pupa.Butterfly: When the Pupa has finished transformation theButterfly emerges from the Pupa. The adult Butterfly layseggs on plants after mating period.
  29. 29. Coherence PrincipleAvoid adding too many multimedia elements (audio)1. Avoid visuals or text that is not essential to theinstructional explanation.2. You should not add music to instructional segments.3. Lean text that gets to the point is better than lengthyelaborated text.
  30. 30. Personalization PrincipleUse conversational style rather than formalspeech.Once you mix redand blue together,you will get purplecolour.Purple will beproduced whenred and blue aremix together.
  31. 31. Examples ofGood Elearning Design
  32. 32. Good DesignBad DesignExample 1: Focus on meaning and not information
  33. 33. UnderstandingImagesupports thecontent andhelps thelearnerdevelop avisual modelof theinformationVisual-based
  34. 34. (Visual-based)(Text-based)VSInstead of justgiving InformationWhy don’t wemake them
  35. 35. Why are Visuals important in apresentation?Imagine you have to look/read 50 slides likethis…
  36. 36. First item inthe cycleSecond itemin the cycleThird itemin the cycleFourth itemin the cycleFifth item inthe cycleCycle of ABCMetamorphosis the name for rapidtransformation of a larva into an adult that occursin some insects. The Butterfly Goes trhough fourstages to become adult butterfly. The process canbe call Metamophosis.There are 4 Stages:Egg: Female butterfies lay their eggs on plants toenable caterpiller (later stage) to get the foodfrom plant leafs.Larva: Also called Caterpillar. It emerges from eggafter few days. Caterpillar spends most of its timeeating.Pupa: The Caterpillar forms a protection shieldcalled Pupa when it has finished growing. Most ofthe transformation takes place in side Pupa.Butterfly: When the Pupa has finishedtransformation the Butterfly emerges from thePupa. The adult Butterfly lays eggs on plants aftermating period.Some introduction and explanation about thecycle.Example 2: Cycle Chart
  37. 37. Metamorphosis the name for rapid transformation of a larvainto an adult that occurs in some insects. The Butterfly Goesthrough four stages to become adult butterfly. The process canbe call Metamorphosis.
  38. 38. Example 3: TableBlood group AB individuals have both A and B antigens on thesurface of their RBCs, and their blood plasma does not contain anyantibodies against either A or B antigen. Therefore, an individualwith type AB blood can receive blood from any group (with ABbeing preferable), but can donate blood only to another type ABindividual.Blood group A individuals have the A antigen on the surface oftheir RBCs, and blood serum containing IgM antibodies against theB antigen. Therefore, a group A individual can receive blood onlyfrom individuals of groups A or O (with A being preferable), andcan donate blood to individuals with type A or AB.Blood group B individuals have the B antigen on the surface oftheir RBCs, and blood serum containing IgM antibodies against theA antigen. Therefore, a group B individual can receive blood onlyfrom individuals of groups B or O (with B being preferable), and candonate blood to individuals with type B or AB.Blood group O (or blood group zero in some countries) individualsdo not have either A or B antigens on the surface of their RBCs, buttheir blood serum contains IgM anti-A and anti-B antibodiesagainst the A and B blood group antigens. Therefore, a group Oindividual can receive blood only from a group O individual, butcan donate blood to individuals of any ABO blood group (i.e., A, B,O or AB). If a patient in a hospital situation were to need a bloodtransfusion in an emergency, and if the time taken to process therecipients blood would cause a detrimental delay, O Negativeblood can be issued.BloodTypeRed blood cell compatibilityAB Group AB blood can receive blood from anygroup (with AB being preferable), but candonate blood only to another type ABindividual.A Group A can receive blood only fromindividuals of groups A or O (with A beingpreferable), and can donate blood toindividuals with type A or AB.B Group B individual can receive blood only fromindividuals of groups B or O (with B beingpreferable), and can donate blood toindividuals with type B or AB.O Group O can receive blood only from a groupO individual, but can donate blood toindividuals of any ABO blood group (i.e., A, B,O or AB).Red blood cell compatibilityRed blood cell compatibility Chart
  39. 39. Example 3: TableBloodTypeCell CompatibilityAB Can receive blood from any group (with AB being preferable), butcan donate blood only to another type AB individual.A Can receive blood only from individuals of groups A or O (with Abeing preferable), and can donate blood to individuals with type Aor AB.B Can receive blood only from individuals of groups B or O (with Bbeing preferable), and can donate blood to individuals with type Bor AB.O Can receive blood only from a group O individual, but can donateblood to individuals of any ABO blood group (i.e., A, B, O or AB).Red blood cell compatibility Chart
  40. 40. Can you read this? Can you read this?Can you read this?Can you read this?Can you read this?Can you read this?Can you read this?Can you read this?Can you read this? Can you read this?Bad Contrast Good ContrastVisual Design: Good and Bad Contrast
  41. 41. Visual Design: Recommended FontUse sans-serif font and use the same font through out thecourse.IncreaseReadabilityExample:VerdanaImpactArialCalibri
  42. 42. Blood group AB individuals have both A and B antigens on thesurface of their RBCs, and their blood plasma does not contain anyantibodies against either A or B antigen. Therefore, an individualwith type AB blood can receive blood from any group (with ABbeing preferable), but can donate blood only to another type ABindividual.Blood group A individuals have the A antigen on the surface oftheir RBCs, and blood serum containing IgM antibodies against theB antigen. Therefore, a group A individual can receive blood onlyfrom individuals of groups A or O (with A being preferable), andcan donate blood to individuals with type A or AB.Blood group B individuals have the B antigen on the surface oftheir RBCs, and blood serum containing IgM antibodies against theA antigen. Therefore, a group B individual can receive blood onlyfrom individuals of groups B or O (with B being preferable), andcan donate blood to individuals with type B or AB.Blood group O (or blood group zero in some countries) individualsdo not have either A or B antigens on the surface of their RBCs, buttheir blood serum contains IgM anti-A and anti-B antibodiesagainst the A and B blood group antigens. Therefore, a group Oindividual can receive blood only from a group O individual, butcan donate blood to individuals of any ABO blood group (i.e., A, B,O or AB). If a patient in a hospital situation were to need a bloodtransfusion in an emergency, and if the time taken to process therecipients blood would cause a detrimental delay, O Negativeblood can be issued.Serif: Times New Roman, Size 12Blood group AB individuals have both A and B antigens onthe surface of their RBCs, and their blood plasma does notcontain any antibodies against either A or B antigen.Therefore, an individual with type AB blood can receive bloodfrom any group (with AB being preferable), but can donateblood only to another type AB individual.Blood group A individuals have the A antigen on the surfaceof their RBCs, and blood serum containing IgM antibodiesagainst the B antigen. Therefore, a group A individual canreceive blood only from individuals of groups A or O (with Abeing preferable), and can donate blood to individuals withtype A or AB.Blood group B individuals have the B antigen on the surfaceof their RBCs, and blood serum containing IgM antibodiesagainst the A antigen. Therefore, a group B individual canreceive blood only from individuals of groups B or O (with Bbeing preferable), and can donate blood to individuals withtype B or AB.Blood group O (or blood group zero in some countries)individuals do not have either A or B antigens on the surfaceof their RBCs, but their blood serum contains IgM anti-A andanti-B antibodies against the A and B blood group antigens.Therefore, a group O individual can receive blood only from agroup O individual, but can donate blood to individuals of anyABO blood group (i.e., A, B, O or AB). If a patient in a hospitalsituation were to need a blood transfusion in an emergency,and if the time taken to process the recipients blood wouldcause a detrimental delay, O Negative blood can be issued.San-Serif: Arial, Size 12
  43. 43. Instructional Design (ID)LearningOutcomesAssessmentLogicalFlowContentEngagingExperiences
  44. 44. References• http://www.articulate.com/rapid-elearning/instructional-design/• http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/learning/id/nine_step_id.html• http://sites.google.com/site/cognitivetheorymmlearning/home• http://imej.wfu.edu/articles/2000/2/05/index.asp• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KkuSevUXV30&feature=related• E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Third Edition(with R. Clark, 2008)

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