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Introduction to theoretical perspective in nursing

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Introduction to theoretical perspective in nursing

  1. 1. nes & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLCFOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTIONonal Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards 1 © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learnin NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTR INTRODUCTION Long Term Care Administrator Boards National Association of TO THEORETICAL NURSING © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC NOT FOR KNOWLEDGE SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION National Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boardsnes & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLCFOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION O b je c t i v e s NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION L e a r n i ngonal Association of Long Term this chapter the student should be able to After completing Care Administrator Boards 1. Identify and define terminology related to theoretical thinking © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learnin 2. Identify and SALE OR DISTRIBUTION works in nursing NOT FOR describe several types of theoretical NOT FOR SALE OR DISTR 3. National Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards Identify and explain the four metaparadigm concepts of nursing © Jones &K e y T e r m s Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION Assumptions Health National Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards Clarity Human being (person) Concept Metaparadigmnes & Bartlett Learning, LLC Conceptual model © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC NursingFOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION Derivable consequences Philosophies of nursing OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALEonal Association of EmpiricalTerm Care Administrator Boards Long precision Proposition Environment Simplicity Generality Theory © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learnin NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTR National Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION National Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards 1nes & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION.FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTIONonal Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards 72376_TEXT_Masters.indd 1 10/18/10 12:27 PM
  2. 2. nes & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLCFOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTIONonal Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards 2 N ursing T heories : A F ramework for P rofessional P ractice © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learnin NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTR A lthough the beginning of nursing the- National Association of Long Term Care Administrator Florence ory development can be traced to Boards Night­n­ ale, it was not until the second half i g of the twentieth century that nursing theory caught the © Jones &BACKGROUND LLC Bartlett Learning, © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC attention of nursing as a discipline. During the decades NOT FORAND OVERVIEW SALE OR DISTRIBUTION the 1960s and 1970s, theory development was a of NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION major topic of discussion and publication. During the National Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards 1970s, much of this discussion related to the develop- ment of a single global theory for nursing. However,nes & Bartlett Learning, LLC in the© Jones & Bartlettaway from the LLC 1980s, attention turned Learning, develop- FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION of a global theory NOT FOR as schol­­OR DISTRIBUTION ment for nursing, SALEars began to recognize theonal Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards development in nursing. validity of multiple approaches to theory Because of the plurality in nursing theory, this information must be organized to be mean­­ ingful for practice, research, and further knowl­­ edge © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC is to present an organized and prac- Bartlett Learnin development. The goal of this chapter © Jones & NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTIONthat are essential to understandingSALE OR DISTR tical overview of the major concepts NOT FOR National Association of Long Term nursingAdministrator Boards theoretical perspective in professional Care practice. Definitions of key terms are included throughout the discussion. © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC T NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION o apply nursing theory SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR in practice, the nurse must have some knowledge of the theoret- National Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards ical works of the nursing profession. Theoretical STRUCTURE works in nursing are generally categorized either as OF NURSINGnes & Bartlett Learning, LLC philosophies, conceptual models, theories, orLLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, middle- FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION KNOWLEDGE range NOT FOR SALEon theDISTRIBUTION theories, depending OR level of ab­ traction. s The most abstract of these theoretical works are theonal Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards followed by the conceptual philosophies of nursing, models, theories, and middle-range theories. However, © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC of the discipline is considered the the metaparadigm © Jones & Bartlett Learnin highest level of abstraction. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTR National Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards Metaparadigm of Nursing Before discussing the metaparadigm concepts that are important to nurs- © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC to ing, it is important define the term “concept.” A& BartlettaLearning, © Jones concept is term LLC NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION National Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boardsnes & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION.FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTIONonal Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards 72376_TEXT_Masters.indd 2 10/18/10 12:27 PM
  3. 3. nes & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLCFOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTIONonal Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards chapter 1   Introduction to Theoretical Nursing Knowledge 3 © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learnin NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTR or label that describes a phenomenon or group of phenomena (Meleis, 2007). National Association phrase that Term Care Administrator Boards The label may be a word or of Long summarizes ideas, obser- vations, and experiences so as to provide a mental image for the purpose of facilitating communication and understanding about the phenomenon © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC (Fawcett, 2005). The phenomenon described by a concept may be either NOT FOR SALEor abstract. An empirical concept is one that NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION empirical OR DISTRIBUTION can be either observed or experienced through the Care Administrator Boards National Association of Long Term senses. An abstract concept is one that is not observable, such as hope or caring (Hickman, 2002). A metaparadigm is the most global perspective of a discipline. Anes & Bartlett Learning, LLC defined by Fawcett (2005, Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC metaparadigm is © p. 4) “as the global concepts Most disciplines FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION that identify the phenomenon of central interest to a discipline, the global have a single metaparadigmonal Associationpropositions Term Carethe concepts, and the global propositions that but multiple of Long that describe Administrator Boards state the relations between or among the concepts.” Each discipline sin- conceptual gles out phenomena of interest that it will deal with in a unique manner. models. Multiple The concepts and & Bartlett Learning, and interrelate these phe- conceptual & Bartlett Learnin © Jones propositions that identify LLC © Jones NOTeven more abstract in DISTRIBUTION those found in models allow the nomena are FOR SALE OR the metaparadigm than NOT FOR SALE OR DISTR members of the the conceptual models, yet identification of these metaparadigm concepts National Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards discipline to view allows members of the discipline to identify and communicate the bound- the phenomena aries of the subject matter specific to the discipline (Kim, 2000). Most of interest in © Jonesdisciplines have a single metaparadigm but multiple conceptual models. Bartlett ways. & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & different Learning, LLC NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION members of the discipline FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION Multiple conceptual models allow the NOT to view the phenomena of interest in different ways (Fawcett, 2005). National Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards While several proposals have sought to define what should be included as the metaparadigm concepts for the discipline of nursing, mostnes & Bartlett Learning, LLC central concepts of the discipline of nursing as person scholars accept the © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION (human being), environment, health, and nursing: ❖❖ Human being or person: individuals, families, communities, andonal Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards other groups who are participants in nursing ❖❖ Environment: human beings’ significant others and physical sur- © Jonesas well as local, regional, national, and worldwide roundings & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learnin NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION that are asso- cultural, social, political, and economic conditions NOT FOR SALE OR DISTR ciated with human beings’ health National Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards ❖❖ Health: human processes of living and dying ❖❖ Nursing: the definition of nursing, the actions taken by nurses on © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC behalf of or in conjunction with human beings, and the goals or NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION National Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boardsnes & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION.FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTIONonal Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards 72376_TEXT_Masters.indd 3 10/18/10 12:27 PM
  4. 4. nes & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLCFOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTIONonal Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards 4 N ursing T heories : A F ramework for P rofessional P ractice © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learnin NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTR outcomes of nursing actions; the process of which encompasses National Association ofare referred to asCare Administrator Boards activities that Long Term assessment, diagnosis (labeling), planning, intervention, and evaluation (Fawcett, 2005, p. 6) © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC Because concepts are so abstract at © Jones & Bartlett many the metaparadigm level, Learning, LLC NOT FOR SALE OR conceptual models have developed from NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION DISTRIBUTION the metaparadigm of nursing. Sub­­­ sequently, multiple theories have been developed from each concep- National Association of model inTerm Caredescribe, explain, and predict the tual Long an effort to Administrator Boards phenomena within the model. These conceptual models and theories of nursing repre-nes & Bartlett Learning, LLCsent various paradigms derived from theBartlett Learning, LLC of © Jones & meta­­ paradigm of the discipline FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION nursing. There­ore, although each of the conceptualDISTRIBUTION f NOT FOR SALE OR models and nursing theories may link and define the four metaparadigm concepts somewhatonal Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards differently, the four metaparadigm concepts are generally pres­nt and e defined either implicitly or explicitly in each of the models and theories. © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learnin Philosophies of Nursing NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTR Philosophies of nursing set Term general meaning of nursing and National Association of Longforth theCare Administrator Boards nursing phenomena through reasoning and the logical presentation of ideas. Phi­os­ ­ hies are broad and address general ideas about nursing. l op © Jones & Bartlett Learning,their breadth, nursing philosophies contributeBartlett Learning, LLC Because of LLC © Jones & to the discipline NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION clarifying values,NOTforming SALE OR DISTRIBUTION by providing direction, and FOR a foundation for National Association of Long Term (Alligood, 2006). Four theoretical works that have theory development Care Administrator Boards been categorized as philosophies of nursing will be presented in Chapters 3 through 6 of this book.nes & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION Conceptual Models of Nursing SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FORonal Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards Conceptual models are composed of abstract and general concepts and propositions that provide a frame of reference for members of a discipline. This frame of reference determines how the world is viewed by members © Jones & discipline and guides the members as they propose questions and Bartlett Learnin of a Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & make observations relevant to the discipline (Faw­ ett, 1994). A concep- SALE OR DISTR NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION c NOT FOR tual model is specifically defined as National Association of Long Term a set of concepts and statements Care Administrator Boards that integrate the concepts into a meaningful configuration (Lippitt, 1973; as cited in Fawcett, 1994). Assumptions are accepted as truth and © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC and beliefs of the theory or conceptual framework. represent the values © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION National Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boardsnes & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION.FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTIONonal Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards 72376_TEXT_Masters.indd 4 10/18/10 12:27 PM
  5. 5. nes & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLCFOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTIONonal Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards chapter 1   Introduction to Theoretical Nursing Knowledge 5 © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learnin NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTR Assumptions form the basis for defining concepts and framing proposi- tions (Meleis, 2007). A proposition of a statement about a concept or a National Association is Long Term Care Administrator Boards statement of the relation between two or more concepts (Fawcett, 2005). Conceptual models of nursing are models containing abstract con- © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC cepts that are not directly observable and that are not limited to a par- NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION ticular type of patient, situation, or event (Fawcett, 2005, p. 16). At the Nationallevel of the conceptualLong Term Care Administrator Boards Association of model, each metaparadigm concept is defined and described in a manner unique to the model, with the model providing an alternative way to view the concepts considered important to the disci-nes & Bartlett Learning, definitions and overall framework presentedBartlett Learning, LLC pline. The LLC © Jones & in a conceptual FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION explicit. Thus theyNOT FORpurpose and scope model are formal and identify the SALE OR DISTRIBUTIONonal Associationof nursing for nurses, for other healthcare providers, and for the public. of Long Term Care Administrator Boards In addition, they provide a framework for recording the effects of nursing. Using a conceptual model or framework also helps to provide consistency in nursing practice& Bartlett Learning, LLC provides a mecha- © Jones & Bartlett Learnin © Jones by facilitating communication and nism for engaging in a systematicDISTRIBUTION research, educa- NOT FOR SALE OR DISTR NOT FOR SALE OR approach to nursing tion, and practice (Fawcett, 2005, p. 17–18). National Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards Nursing Theories © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC NOT FOR nursing theory is more specific than A SALE OR DISTRIBUTION a conceptual model (Alligood, NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION 2010). A “theory is an organized, coherent, and system­ tic articulation a National Association of related to significant questions in a discipline that of a set of statements Long Term Care Administrator Boards are communicated in a meaningful whole . . . discovered or invented for describing, predicting, or prescribing events, situations, conditions, ornes & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC relationships” (Meleis, 2007, p. 37). More specifically, nursing theory is FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION 41) as “a conceptualizationFOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION defined by Meleis (p. NOT of some aspect of realityonal Association(invented or Term Care Administrator Boards of Long discovered) that pertains to nursing. The conceptualization is articulated for the purpose of describing, explaining, predicting, or pre- scribing nursing care.” According to Fawcett (1994), “The primary distinc- tion between a conceptual model and a theoryLLC level of abstraction. TheJones & Bartlett Learnin © Jones & Bartlett Learning, is the © primary A conceptual FOR SALE ORabstract system of global concepts and NOT FOR SALE OR DISTR NOT model is a highly DISTRIBUTION distinction between a linking statements. A theory, in contrast, deals with one or more specific, National Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards conceptual model concrete concepts and propositions.” and a theory Theories vary in their scope and level of abstraction. The theory that is the level of © Jonesis broad in scope and highly abstract conceptually may © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC & Bartlett Learning, LLC be referred to abstraction. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION National Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boardsnes & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION.FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTIONonal Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards 72376_TEXT_Masters.indd 5 10/18/10 12:27 PM
  6. 6. nes & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLCFOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTIONonal Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards 6 N ursing T heories : A F ramework for P rofessional P ractice © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learnin NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTR as a grand theory, whereas the theory that has a narrow scope and is National Associationpractical may be referred to as a middle-rangeBoards more concrete or of Long Term Care Administrator theory (Fawcett, 2005, p. 19). Middle-range theories also generally include fewer concepts and propositions (Fawcett, 2005), represent a limited or partial © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC view of nursing reality and are more appropriate for empirical testing NOT FOR SALE OR (Liehr & Smith, 1999), and are more applicable to practice (Smith, 2008). DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION National Association ofNursing Term Care be derived from existing conceptual models Long theories may Administrator Boards of nursing. Such theories evolve from nursing reality as perceived by the theorist. Nurse theorists, like other nurses, are affected by both historicalnes & Bartlett Learning, LLCevents and philosophical influences & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones in their lives. Nursing theories may FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION evolve from a perception ofFOR nursing practice. As a consequence, also NOT ideal SALE OR DISTRIBUTIONonal Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards realities and address different various nursing theories represent different aspects of nursing (Meleis, 2007). For this reason, the multiplicity of nurs- ing theories presented in the following chapters should not be viewed as © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC competing theories, but rather as complementary theories © Jones & Bartlett Learnin that may pro- NOT FOR SALE OR different ways to describe, explain, and predict nursingSALE OR DISTR vide insight into DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR concepts and/or prescribe nursing care. National Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards Curley (2007, p. 3) describes this understanding in an interesting way by comparing the multiplicity of nursing theories to a collection of maps © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC Each map may display Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC of the same region. © a different characteristic of NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTIONrainfall, topography, or air currents. Although all of the region, such as NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION the maps are accurate, the best map for use depends on the information National Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards needed or the question being asked. This is precisely the case with the nurse’s choice of nursing theories for practice.nes & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLCFOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION S everal authors have devised criteria foronal Association of Long Term Care Administratoranalysis and evaluation of nursing concep- the Boards ANALYSIS AND tual models and theories. In general, the crite- EVALUATION Bartlett Learning, LLC for analysis include examination of Bartlett Learnin © Jones & OF ria that are used © Jones & the origins of the model relative to logic and reasoning THEORETICAL OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE NOT FOR SALE OR DISTR as well as the work of other scholars who have influ- KNOWLEDGE IN National Associationenced the thinking of the theorist, the unique focus of of Long Term Care Administrator Boards NURSING the model, and the definitions of the metaparadigm concepts (Fawcett, 2005, p. 52–53). Other authors sug- © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC gest that the criteria for analysis should include clarity, NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION National Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boardsnes & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION.FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTIONonal Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards 72376_TEXT_Masters.indd 6 10/18/10 12:27 PM
  7. 7. nes & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLCFOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTIONonal Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards chapter 1   Introduction to Theoretical Nursing Knowledge 7 © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learnin NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FORI SALELOR DISTR simplicity, generality, empirical precision, and derivable consequences C R T I C A T H I N K I N G (ChinnNational 2008, p. 237). ClarityLong to consistency in terms of & Kramer, Association of refers Term Care Administrator Boards terminology and structure—or put simply, “How clear is the theory?” (p. 237). Simplicity is highly valued in nursing model and theory develop- © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC Can you ment: “How simple is this theory?” (p. 237). Generality refers to the scope NOT FOR the concepts DISTRIBUTION the theory (Alligood, 2010,FOR SALE of anyDISTRIBUTION of SALE OR and the purpose of NOT p. 12) think OR additional Nationaland is reflected in of Long Term Care Administrator (Chinn & criteria that Association the question, “How general is this theory?” Boards Kramer, 2008, p. 237). The fourth criterion in analytic schema is empiri- should be cal precision, which is linked to the testability and usability of the theory added to thenes & Bartlett Learning, 2010, p. 13). Chinn and KramerJonesp. 237) express this (Alligood, LLC © (2008, & Bartlett Learning, LLC list for analysis FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION notion by asking, “How accessible is this theory?” Finally, the lastDISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR cri- and evaluationonal Associationterion is “How important isAdministrator Boardsis, the derivable of models and of Long Term Care this theory?” (p.237)—that consequences of the theory. theories? If so, Suggested evaluation criteria include an explanation of the origins of what are they? the model and an & Bartlett of statements LLC © Jones examination Learning, of values and philosophi- Share your & Bartlett Learnin © Jones NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION exploration of the rationale for SALE OR DISTR cal claims of the theorist. This step is followed by an NOT FOR adding these comprehensiveness of the content of the model, which entails looking at National Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards criteria. the depth and the breadth of the model to ascertain, for example, if defi- nitions of the metaparadigm concepts of the discipline are included. The © Jonesthird step considers whether LLC & Bartlett Learning, the structure of the model is logical. © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC NOT FOR SALE considers whether the model will lead to further theory gen- Step 4 OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION eration, and step 5 of the evaluative process focuses on the credibility National Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards of the model for use in practice. As a part of the criterion for step 5, attention is also paid to the factors of social utility, social congruence,nes & Bartlett Learning, significance. The criterion of social utility& Bartlett Learning, LLC and social LLC © Jones considers whether FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION required to use the model in practice. TheOR DISTRIBUTION special education is NOT FOR SALE criterion of social congruence considers whether the model will lead to nursingonal Associationactivities that meet the expectations of the public. The criterion of social of Long Term Care Administrator Boards significance considers whether the model makes differences in the health conditions of the public. © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learnin Finally, in step 6 of the evaluation process, a determination is made NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTR as to the contributions of the model to the discipline of nursing. This determination is reflects the findings from a review ofCare Administrator Boards National Association of Long Term literature, where the expectation is that the model will enhance understanding of the phe- © Jonesnomena of interest rather than being based up any type of © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC & Bartlett Learning, LLC comparison of one model to another (Fawcett, 2005, p. 54–57). NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION National Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boardsnes & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION.FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTIONonal Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards 72376_TEXT_Masters.indd 7 10/18/10 12:27 PM
  8. 8. nes & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLCFOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTIONonal Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards 8 N ursing T heories : A F ramework for P rofessional P ractice © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learnin NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTR A combination of these criteria will be used in the brief analysis of National Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards each nursing model and theory in the chapters that follow in this book. While some of the theories will fare better than others based on the way they satisfy these criteria, in the final analysis all of the theorists whose © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC work is included in the subsequent chapters of this book have made sub- NOT FOR SALE OR stantial contributions to the discipline of nursing. DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION National Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boardsnes & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLCFOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTIONonal Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learnin NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTR National Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION National Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boardsnes & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLCFOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTIONonal Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learnin NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTR National Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION National Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boardsnes & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION.FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTIONonal Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards 72376_TEXT_Masters.indd 8 10/18/10 12:27 PM
  9. 9. nes & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLCFOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTIONonal Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards chapter 1   Introduction to Theoretical Nursing Knowledge 9 © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learnin NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTR C l as s r o o m A c t i v i t y 1 - 1 National Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards Select one nursing model or theory for review. Review the chapter in this book that pertains to this model or theory, and conduct an © Jones &analysis and evaluation of the theory, using the criteria presented & Bartlett Learning, LLC Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones in NOT FOR SALE OR based on the information in the model- or theory-specificSALE OR DISTRIBUTION this chapter, DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR chapter. Compare your evaluation with the evaluations made by your National Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards fellow students, and discuss areas of agreement and disagreement.nes & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLCFOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTIONonal Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learnin NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTR National Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION National Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boardsnes & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLCFOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTIONonal Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learnin NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTR National Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION National Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boardsnes & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION.FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTIONonal Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards 72376_TEXT_Masters.indd 9 10/18/10 12:27 PM
  10. 10. nes & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLCFOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTIONonal Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards 10 N ursing T heories : A F ramework for P rofessional P ractice © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learnin NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTR REFERENCES National Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards Alligood, M. R. (2006). Philosophies, models, and theories: Critical think- © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC In M. R. Alligood & © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC ing structures. A. M. Tomey (Eds.), Nursing theory: Utilization and application (3rd ed., pp. 43–65). St. Louis: NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION Mosby. National Association of Long R. (2010). Introduction to nursing theory: Its history, signifi- Alligood, M. Term Care Administrator Boards cance, and analysis. In M. R. Alligood & A. M. Tomey (Eds.), Nursing theorists and their work (7th ed., pp. 3–15). Maryland Heights, MO:nes & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC Mosby. FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION Chinn, P. L., & Kramer, M. K. (2008). Integrated knowledge developmentonal Association of Long Term Care Administrator BoardsElsevier-Mosby. in nursing (7th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Curley, M. A. Q. (2007). Synergy: The unique relationship between nursing and patients. Indianapolis, IN: Sigma Theta Tau International. © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learnin Fawcett, J. (1994). Analysis and evaluation conceptual models of nursing. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION Philadelphia: F. A. Davis. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTR National Association Contemporary nursing knowledge: Analysis and evalu- Fawcett, J. (2005). of Long Term Care Administrator Boards ation nursing models and theories (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: F. A. Davis. Hickman, J. S. (2002). An introduction to nursing theory. In J. B. George © Jones & Bartlett Learning,Nursing theories: A base for professional nursing practiceLearning, LLC (Ed.), LLC © Jones & Bartlett (5th NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION ed., pp. 1–20). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. National Association of H. S. (2000). The nature of theoretical thinking in nursing (2nd ed.). Kim, Long Term Care Administrator Boards New York: Springer. Liehr, P., & Smith, M. J. (1999). Middle range theory: Spinning researchnes & Bartlett Learning, LLC and practice to create knowledge for the new Learning, Advances © Jones & Bartlett millennium. LLC FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION in Nursing Science, 21(4), 81–91. SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR Lippitt, G. L. (1973). Visualizing change: Model building and the changeonal Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards process. Fairfax, VA: NTL Learning Resources. Meleis, A. I. (2007). Theoretical nursing: Development and progress (4th © Jones & ed.). Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott. Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learnin Smith, M. C. (2008). Disciplinary perspectives linked to NOT FOR SALE OR DISTR NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION middle range theory. In M. J. Smith & P. R. Liehr (Eds.), Middle range theory for National Association ofpp. 1–11). New York: Springer. nursing (2nd ed., Long Term Care Administrator Boards © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION National Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boardsnes & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION.FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTIONonal Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards 72376_TEXT_Masters.indd 10 10/18/10 12:27 PM

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