Motivation is thought to be a combination of the drive within us to achieve our aims and the outside factors which affect it.Motivation has been shown to have roots in physiological, behavioural, cognitive, and social areas.It may be rooted in a basic impulse to optimize well-being and can also be defined as the purpose for, or psychological cause of an action.
People who are intrinsically motivated still want to receive rewards but these rewards are not what keeps the athlete motivated to persevere through the hard times that comes with being an athlete. Intrinsic motivation is a long term reason to get involved in sports because it will take a long time for this form of motivation to die down.
With intrinsic motivation comes:The desire to overcome a problem or task,The development of skills and habits to overcome a problem,The rehearsal of successful habits until perfection is made, The feeling of pride and enjoyment in performing the skill andRepeated goal setting in order to progress and maintain motivationWiththe SMARTERacronym, we are able to set achievable goals that our made by ourselves with our own driving force behind them.
Tangible rewards: These should be used sparingly with young athletes to avoid a situation where winning a prize is more important than competing well Intangible rewards: These should be used on a regular basis to encourage the athlete to repeat the behaviour which earned the praise.People who are extrinsically motivated still do it for intrinsic reasons such as improving certain skills and becoming a better athlete.
An extrinsically motivated person will work on a task even when they have little interest in it because of the anticipated satisfaction they will get from some rewardFor example : When I do something, I have to explain why I do it. If I am being rewarded extrinsically for doing it, then I can explain to myself that I am doing it for the reward.
Motivation is related to the intensity and direction of behaviour. That is, the level of arousal and the way in which we behave that affects our motivation and hence performance. Two theories in which are related include:Hull’s Drive TheoryInverted U Law
Hull’s Drive TheoryThis demonstrates a linear relationship between performance and arousal. This means at low levels of arousal, performance is low and performance increases in line with an increase in arousal. This is shown in the graphThis theory explains that beginnersto asport often do not perform well under pressure and their skill level decreases due to poor habits and lack of motivation. Habits are described as the performance which is dominant within each person. Experienced athletes tend to perform better under pressure due to their superior skills, the use of stress management techniques and their intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.Inverted U LawThis law states that arousal improves performance up to an optimal point. Past this point, performance begins to decrease. When drawn on a graph this appears as an upside down U shape as you can see. Three rules which surround this theory are; Activity, Skill level and Personality.Activity: Some sports are better performed at low arousal, mainly those which require small, precision movements and control, e.g. shootingSkill level: Beginners to a sport require all of their attention to be focused on the task in hand and so do not cope as well with over-arousal. Highly skilled individuals have the skill well practiced and do not require such high levels of concentration meaning they can deal better with the arousal level.Personality: Extroverts perform better in high-pressure, high arousal situations. Introverts tend to do better in a state of low arousal.
What is it within this type of person that motivates them? And why do others not have this desire?NACH can be seen as people that thrive on a challenge. They are determined, quick minded and not afraid to take risks and be assessed. NAFcan be seen as people who avoid challenges and stay away from risky situations. For those who actually compete in sports are able to be broken down into two categories; ego oriented and task oriented. Ego oriented - measure their success on beating others, being the 'top' competitor and making sure everyone knows who they are.Task oriented - Measure their success by their own achievements such as running a p.b.These two categories are also examples of intrinsic and extrinsic motivational techniques.
Past performances and experiences will influence an athletes confidence and motivational levels. Their last performance will affect they way the approach the next performance.Self-serving bias is when an athlete will blame external factors to help keep their motivation levels up without thinking it was themselves who caused the problem. Learned helplessness is known as repeated failures that often lead to the belief that one is not good enough, destroying ones motivation to keep going. For example.If a team in the Rugby League competition keeps losing, their motivational levels will decrease and the next time they go to play they will bring their past experiences from their last game with them which will have a major affect on their performance.
Goalsare something that we set to achieve our targetsPerformance is the big one that comes with being an elite level athlete because one mistake may cost you big. If an athlete has a bad performance in the game before this can be used as a motive to get motivated and improve for the next time they perform.Persistence is also a big part of achieving goals and is often something that we lack because of low motivation levels.If we haven’t got persistence in our training sessions then we will not get the results that we want which will lead to low motivation levels.Impression if an athlete’s performance is good then this will leave a good impression with coaches, fans and possibly other clubs or organisations. Some athletes get motivation by the support of fans and people around them so leaving a good impression is a very important part of motivation.
In summary we can see that motivation is a crucial aspect of performance and understanding the elements of motivation will help any coach with his athlete or team. The main objective of this presentation is to use motivation to the best of your ability to help improve performance.
What is Motivation? Motivation is a psychological feature that arouses an organism to act towards a desired goal and elicits, controls, and sustains certain goal directed behaviours. There are two forms of motivation – Intrinsic and Extrinsic
Intrinsic MotivationThis is motivation from within, a desire to perform well and succeed. One of the mainintrinsically motivated motives are personal pride the thought of being able to betteryourself and beat the challenges that you set yourself.For Example : Someone who is intrinsically motivated doesn’t require much externalmotivation from fans, money and expectations of others. They are focused on theirown inner goals that they want to achieve and their personal reasons for being inthe sporting situation they are in at that moment.
With intrinsic motivation, goals become achievable.SmartMeasurableAgreedRealisticTime relatedExcitingRecorded
Extrinsic MotivationExtrinsic motivation comes from a source outside of the performer. The motivatingfactors are external, or outside, rewards such as money or grades. These rewardsprovide satisfaction and pleasure that the task itself may not provide.Rewards include:Tangible rewards: Physical rewards such as medals and money.Intangible rewards: Praise, recognition and achievements.
An extrinsically motivated person will work on a task even when theyhave little interest in it because of the anticipated satisfaction they willget from some rewardFor example : When I do something, I have to explain why I do it. If I ambeing rewarded extrinsically for doing it, then I can explain to myselfthat I am doing it for the reward. In this way, rewards can decreaseinternal motivation as people work to gain the reward ratherthan, because they like doing the work or believe it is a good thing todo.
Motivation, Arousal and Performance Motivation is related to the intensity and direction of behaviour. That is, the level of arousal and the way in which we behave that affects our motivation and hence performance. Theories: Hull’s Drive Theory Inverted U Law
Hull’s Drive Theory Inverted U Law Optimal Arousal LevelP HIGH PE ER RF FO OR RM MA AN NC LOW CE LOW HIGH E AROUSAL AROUSAL
Motivation and Personality Some people are more naturally driven to achieve set goals than others. These people like to push and challenge themselves. It is thought that when it comes to motivation, there are two personality types: - Need to Achieve (NACH) - Need to Avoid Failure (NAF)
Experiences Bad or good experiences can affect ones motivation. Successes are often attributed to internal causes whereas failure is often blamed on external factors such as equipment and officials! This is called a self-serving bias. Repeated failures or disappointments often lead to the belief that failure is inevitable in certain situations, leading to feelings that the outcome is uncontrollable. This is known as learned helplessness.
Motives of Motivation Goals Performance Persistence Impression
Summary Motivation is a crucial aspect of performance and understanding the elements of motivation will help any coach with his athlete or team. The main objective is to use motivation to help improve performance.
Reference List Viira, R., & Koka, A. (2012). Participation in afterschool sport: relationship to perceived need support, need satisfaction, and motivation in physical education. Kinesiology, 44(2), 199-208. Chin, Ngiwn., Khoo, S., & Low, Wah-Yun. (2012). Self-determined and goal orientation in track and field. Journal of Human Kinetics, 33, 151- 11. Mclachlan, S., & Hagger, M. S. (2011). Do people differentiate between intrinsic and extrinsic goals for physical activity? Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 33(2), 273-288. Gillet, N., Vallerand, R.J., Amoura, S., & Baldes, B. (2010). Influences of caches ‘autonomy support on athletes’ motivation and sport performance: A test of the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Psychology of Sports & Exercise, 11(2), 115-162.
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