Session 2 Slideshare

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Session 2 - Research Study

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Session 2 Slideshare

  1. 1. Session 2 (Research Study) <ul><li>Group Members (Fantastic 4): </li></ul><ul><li>Alice Ho </li></ul><ul><li>Edwin Leung </li></ul><ul><li>Lewis Li </li></ul><ul><li>Vitus Choi </li></ul>
  2. 2. Prologue <ul><li>The Fantastic 4 identified the following journal as the best research oriented professional journal in the field: (impact factor: 1.583) </li></ul><ul><li>Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology (JASIST). </li></ul><ul><li>JASIST is a research oriented professional journal in Library & Information Science. It is a platform for new research in information transfer and communication processes. </li></ul><ul><li>A strong emphasis on new information technologies and methodologies in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>text analysis, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>computer based retrieval systems, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>measures of effectiveness, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the search for patterns and regularities in measures of existing communication systems. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The orientation of JASIST is toward quantitative experimental research, but significant qualitative and historical work is also included. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Articles in 3 Recent Issues of (JASIST) <ul><li>Kellar, Melanie, Watters, Carolyn, & Shepherd, Michael (2007). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Field Study Characterizing Web-Based Information-Seeking Tasks . Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 58 (7), 999-1018. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Slone, Debra J. (2007). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Impact of Time Constraints on Internet and Web Use. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology . 58 (4), 508-517 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blazic, Borka Jerman, Law, Effie Lai-chong, Arh,Tanja (2007). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An assessment of the usability of an Internet-based education system in a cross-cultural environment: The case of the Interreg crossborder program in Central Europe . Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology . 58 (1), 66-75. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reference: </li></ul><ul><li>Citation Machine (2006). Son of Citation Machine. Retrieved June 11, 2007, Web site: http://www.citationmachine.net </li></ul>
  4. 4. Article for Review <ul><li>Kellar, Melanie, Watters, Carolyn, & Shepherd, Michael (2007). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Field Study Characterizing Web-Based Information-Seeking Tasks . Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 58 (7), 999-1018. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The research was conducted to answer for the following research questions: </li></ul><ul><li>Research Question 1: </li></ul><ul><li>What web browser functionalities are currently being used during web-based information-seeking tasks? </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses will be on the usage of Web browser navigation mechanisms (e.g., auto-complete, bookmarks, history), browser functions (e.g., windows and pages loaded, use of copy/cut/paste), and search tools during Fact Finding, Information Gathering, Browsing, and Transactions. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Article for Review <ul><li>Kellar, Melanie, Watters, Carolyn, & Shepherd, Michael (2007). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Field Study Characterizing Web-Based Information-Seeking Tasks . Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 58 (7), 999-1018. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The research was conducted to answer for the following research questions: </li></ul><ul><li>Research Question 2: </li></ul><ul><li>Are there differences in the patterns of use of web browser functionality across web-based information seek tasks? </li></ul><ul><li>To investigate whether there are significant differences in how participants interact with their Web browser between Fact Finding, Information Gathering, Browsing, and Transactions. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Methodology (Pilot Study) <ul><li>A 4-day pilot study was conducted with 6 participants, all recruited from within the research lab at Dalhousie University. </li></ul><ul><li>Participants were asked to use a custom Web browser for all their Web usage during the pilot study. </li></ul><ul><li>One goal of the pilot study was to record task information related to their Web usage. </li></ul><ul><li>The second goal of the pilot study was to evaluate how well participants were able to categorize their Web usage according to the five task categories (i.e., Fact Finding, Information Gathering, Monitoring, Browsing, and Other). Participants were introduced to the task categorization, and each category was carefully explained. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Methodology (Focus Group for Task Refinement) <ul><li>Ten participants from the Faculty of Computer Science at Dalhousie University (students and faculty) took part in an informal focus group, none of whom had taken part in the pilot study. </li></ul><ul><li>The participants were asked to work together as a group to organize the task information collected during the pilot study and form a consensus on categories based on the goal of the task. </li></ul><ul><li>The resulting task categories are Fact Finding, Browsing, Information Gathering, and Transactions. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Methodology (Field Study - I) <ul><li>Twenty-one university students from Dalhousie University took part in a 1-week field study. </li></ul><ul><li>Over the course of the field study, three types of participant data were collected: qualitative task data, implicit measures data, and questionnaire data. </li></ul><ul><li>The qualitative task data consisted of a user’s task categorization (Fact Finding, Information Gathering, Just Browsing, Transactions, and Other) and a short textual description of the task (e.g., “Reading the news,”“Looking for an e-mail address”). Participants were asked to categorize all Web activity recorded by the custom Web browser </li></ul>
  9. 9. Methodology (Field Study - II) <ul><li>The implicit measures data were collected by the custom Web browser. Two main types of implicit measures were recorded: document complete events (i.e., use of Web browser navigation mechanisms) and browser function events. Navigation mechanisms such as the back button, auto-complete, bookmarks, and history. Browser function events consisted of all other menu, button, and shortcut interactions with the Web browser. This included actions such as opening and closing a window, printing or saving a document, and edit functions such as cut/copy/paste. </li></ul><ul><li>Participants completed three separate questionnaires over the course of the study. During the prestudy session, a demographic questionnaire was used to collect participants’ demographic information and current Web usage. An inventory questionnaire of the Web browser navigation mechanisms used also was completed by participants during the prestudy session. Upon completion of the study, participants completed a poststudy questionnaire which examined any difficulties that they encountered during the study. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Major Conclusions for the Study (Research Question 1) <ul><li>The use of Web browser navigation mechanisms was logged during the field study (Fig. 8). Overall, typed-in URLs were the most common navigation mechanism used to initiate a new task session. </li></ul><ul><li>Within Fact Finding task sessions, typed-in URLs were the most common method for initiating Fact Finding task sessions, followed by the Google toolbar and bookmarks. </li></ul><ul><li>Within Information Gathering task sessions, these tasks were commonly initiated through typed-in URLs, followed by the Google toolbar and the auto-complete function. </li></ul><ul><li>Browsing task sessions were most commonly initiated through typed-in URLs, followed by bookmarks, and selected URLs. </li></ul><ul><li>Transactions were primarily initiated through two mechanisms: bookmarks and typed-in URLs. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Major Conclusions for the Study (Research Question 1)
  12. 12. Major Conclusions for the Study (Research Question 2) <ul><li>There was a clear division separating the four task types into two groups: search-based and revisitation-based. While Fact Finding and Information Gathering were characterized as search-based tasks, with a heavy use of Google and site specific searches, Browsing and Transactions were characterized by a heavy level of monitoring and revisitation. Between Fact Finding and Information Gathering, Information Gathering was a more complex task, where participants interacted much more with the Web browser, loaded significantly more Web pages, and used more browser functions, for a longer period of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Information Gathering was the most complex task. On average, participants spent more time completing this task type, viewed more pages, and used the Web browser functions most heavily, indicating more research is needed to support users in their Information Gathering tasks. We also gained a better understanding of the role of Transactions within our participants’ Web usage and observed that Transactions accounted for a large portion of their Web use, primarily due to Web-based e-mail. Overall, we observed that participants used their Web browsers to engage in a mix of task types and on a regular basis. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Major Conclusions for the Study (Research Question 2)
  14. 14. Major Conclusions for the Study (Research Question 2)
  15. 15. Research Type (A Naturalistic Inquiry) <ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>A qualitative research involving collection of narrative data </li></ul><ul><li>In search for understanding of web-based information seeking tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Did not seek to control the variables and contexts </li></ul><ul><li>Sample size was relatively small </li></ul><ul><li>Individuality was taken into consideration </li></ul><ul><li>Data was interpreted for analysis </li></ul>

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