Jerome BrunerDiscovery Learning Theory Presented By:Carole Woodard
Overview• Define Discovery learning theoretical term• Historical background• Media presentation• Stages of development• Categories for knowing• Current Trends• Conclusion
Objective• Participants will:• Construct a definition of discovery learning• Justify discovery learning theoretical base• Defend the three stages of learning development• Evaluate the categories for knowing
Disclosure• It is my intentions to present the idea of adult learning and development that focus on relationships and categories. The presentation will use Bruner’s category concept to describe teaching and learning strategies in which learning occurs. The theoretical foundation supports the belief that people do age, but they do not stop learning. Age is recognized and coded in the presentation with age related periods of life, and age related examples associated with physical characteristics of age.• The terms: constructive, constructivism and constructivist are used interchangeably throughout the presentation
Originator: Jerome Bruner• A constructivist• A science psychologist• Contributions to the philosophy of education• Contributions to the cognitive psychology
What is Discovery Learning?• A constructive theory• An assumption on how people learn• A framework that describes how information is absorbed through senses
Discovery Learning Tenants• Cognitive – A way of thinking about what you see, touch, taste, hear and smell• Emotional – A feeling, mood, or sentiment• Environmental Influence – culture, religion, ethics and moral• Prior Experience – familiarity, what has happened• Patron-age: an indication of support
Two Aspects of Constructivism1. Cognitive Constructivism• people construct ideas mentally to understand2. Social Constructivism• Reality is socially and culturally constructed through human activity• Lever-age an indication of advantages
Historical Development•In the latter part of the 1940’s and 50’sstudying the cognitive development of children,Bruner’s research shifted where he began tocriticize the cognitive structure. I categorizedthis as the foot-age, because Bruner began toexplore how learners construct knowledge andthe ways learners learned what they know.
Influence on Constructive DevelopmentTheorists such as Piaget,Vygotsky and Tolmaninfluenced Bruner in the1960s. Piaget’s theory focusedon growth and Development.Vygotsky’s expanded on socialand cultural constructivism.Tolman’s explored theenvironment impact on learning.From the mid 1970s throughtoday, Bruner’s work has movedin new directions, leading him toinfluence Brooks, Gardnerand Rogoff.• The pack-age deal, an indication of tied together.
How is Discovery Learning Defined?• A teaching and learning model where the learner mentally, emotionally and physically engages in the learning process which focus on active participation and opportunities for students to learn.• Man-age: This is an indication of managing ones own learning.
Three Main Attributes of Discovery1. exploring and problem solving to create, integrate, and generalize knowledge2. student driven, interest-based activities in which the student determines the sequence and frequency3. Activities to encourage integration of new knowledge into the learner’s existing knowledge base
Theoretical Perspective 1) Learning is active rather than passive 2) Learning is process-oriented rather than content- oriented 3) Failure is important 4) Feedback is necessary 5) Comprehension is deeper 6) Learner centered•Institutions must offer programs that recognizewhat students want. Indication of us-age
Discovery Verse Traditional Chart The wreck-ageDiscovery Learning Traditional LearningActive learning Passive learningProcess base learning Fact baseFailure viewed as positive Failure viewed as negativeStudent guides the learning Teacher guides the learningStudent determines success Teacher determines success
Learning Has Evolved• Potential to learn a vast array of complex skills because of failure• Learner can be bias toward certain information and patterns• Ability to make and use tools (computers, platforms, symbols) to support, extend, enhance, and develop the learner• Ability to synchronize the learners in a meaningful way with specific details• This change indicates a break-age.
EnactiveA person learns about the world through actions on physical objects and the outcomes of these actions.
Iconic Learning can be obtainedthrough the use of models and pictures.
SymbolicLearner develops the capacity to think inabstract terms, such as language, numbers and logic. Formulas: please excuse my dear aunt sally
What is Categorization?• A coding system used for mental organization used to recall facts based on the sense described earlier, for example, taste, smell, hear or touch.• Learning stages of development together with the senses file information in abstract form. Similar to the ways in which people file folders in a computer system.• People respond to knowledge based on the filing system they construct• Bagg-age: an indication of collection
How Does Categories Facilitate learning?• Reduces the complexity of the learning environment• Indentifies objects, topics and tasks• Reduces the need for constant relearning• Provides direction for activities• Curiosity feeds natural curiosity of the human existence *pass-age indicating a success process
Points of Resistance– Considered a slow method that rest on assumptions– The learning outcome is uncertain– Challenges authority– Instigate conflicts because learning is multi- leveled and multi-dimensional in process– Mess-age: indicating confusion or miscommunication
Current Trend The 5E Learning Model1. Engage (connect prior knowledge)2. Explore (discover the relationship with new knowledge3. Explain (clarify the details for understanding)4. Elaborate (strategically structure process)5. Evaluate (assess balance or similarities)Cover-age: an indication of a process of protection
SummaryThe mess-age of the theory was written with threeletters related to age. The analogy that you can’t teachold dog new tricks, is a historical us-age that no longer fit learners of today. To abolish the customary way towardsteaching and learning required a theoretical pack-agewith particular characteristics to prove learning hasevolved with integration of all ages, regardless of thepass-age. Age can hinder any person’s freedom,progress, and development in bond-age, but the learnermust be motivated and continue to man-age the mentaland cognitive bagg-age. Through consistency andexperience of which learners already know, they canbuild categories at any age level in education and on thego.
ConclusionEnactive, iconic, and even symbolic learner willattest that patron-age over forty is the mostcommon success. No outward scars or physicalbruises beyond the emotional wreck-age simplyencourage learners to continue the process. Theincrease of opportunities for the learner to learnincreases the lever-age by far is the best. Byfiguring out the structure of tricks to avoid break-age with new foot-age to monitor the learningprogress. Cultural learning and social learningtoo, are constructivist old patterns as cover-ageand knowledge for you.
The End• Test your knowledge (Pre-assessment) here• Test your knowledge (Post-assessment) here• Participants evaluation form here• Outline here• Handout here• Questions? Email me here
• References Abruscato, J., DeRosa, D. A. (2010). Teaching children science: a discovery approach. 7th ed. Pearson Education, Inc.• Bruner, J. (1960). The process of education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press• Culatta, R. (2013). Instructional domain: Constructivist theory (Jerome Bruner). Retrieved from Http://tip.psychology.org/bruner.html• Demetriou, C. (2011). The attribution theory of learning and advising students on academic probation. NACADA Journal, 31(2), 16-21.• Derek Bok Center (Creator). (2008, January 1). What students want: Teaching from a student’s perspective [Video] Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K2lwKdKz2DY• Iwasborntolearn (Poster). Lewis, D. (Narrator). (2011, March 10). Born to learn [Video] Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=falHoOEUFz0• Kegan, R. (1994). In over our heads: the mental demands of modern life. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.• Knowles, M. S., Holton, E. G., & Swanson, R. A. (1998). The adult learner: The definitive classic in adult education and human resources development. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing Company.• Merriam, S., Caffarella, R., Baumagartner, L. (2007). Learning in adulthood a comprehensive guide (3rd ed.). A Theory of Adult Learning: Andragogy, 35-72. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass• Mezirow, J., & Associates. (2000). Learning as transformation: Critical perspectives on a theory in progress. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.