chapter sixteen
Communication

McGraw-Hill/Irwin
Contemporary Management, 5/e

Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies,...
Learning Objectives
• Explain why effective communication helps an
organization gain a competitive advantage.
• Describe t...
Learning Objectives
• Describe the communication networks that
exist in groups and teams.
• Explain how advances in techno...
Communication and Management
• Communication
– The sharing of information between two or
more individuals or groups to rea...
Communication and Management
• Importance of Good Communication
– Increased efficiency in new technologies
and skills
– Im...
The Communication Process
• Phases of the Communication
Process:
– Transmission phase in which information is
shared by tw...
The Communication Process

Figure 16.1

16-8
Question?
What part of the communication process
has the sender translating the
message into symbols or language?
A. Messa...
The Communication Process
• Sender – person wishing to share
information with some other person
• Message – what informati...
The Communication Process
• Receiver – person or group for which
the message is intended
• Medium – pathway through which ...
The Communication Process
• Feedback phase is initiated by the
receiver
• Receiver decides what message to send
to the ori...
Verbal & Nonverbal Communication
• Verbal Communication
– The encoding of messages into words,
either written or spoken

•...
The Role of Perception in
Communication
• Perception
– process through which people select,
organize, and interpret sensor...
The Role of Perception in
Communication
• Biases
– systematic tendencies to use information
about others in ways that can ...
The Role of Perception in
Communication
• Stereotypes
– often inaccurate beliefs about the
characteristics of particular g...
The Dangers of Ineffective
Communication
• When managers and other members of
an organization are ineffective
communicator...
Information Richness and
Communication Media
• Managers and their subordinates can
become effective communicators by:
– Se...
Question?
What is the amount of information that a
communication medium can carry?
A. Channel capacity
B. Information rich...
Information Richness
• The amount of information that a
communication medium can carry
• The extent to which the medium en...
Information Richness of Communication
Media

Figure 16.2

16-21
Communication Media
• Face-to-Face
– Has highest
information
richness.
– Can take
advantage of
verbal and
nonverbal signal...
Communication Media
• Face-to-Face
– Provides for instant feedback.
– Management by wandering around takes
advantage of th...
Communication Media
• Spoken Communication
Electronically Transmitted
– Has the second highest information
richness.
– Tel...
Communication Media
• Personally Addressed Written
Communication
– Has a lower richness than the verbal forms of
communica...
Communication Media
• Personally Addressed Written
Communication
– Does not provide instant feedback to the
sender althoug...
E-Mail Dos and Don’ts
• E-mail allows telecommuting employees to
work from home and keep in contact.
• The use of e-mail i...
Communication Media
• Impersonal Written Communication
– Has the lowest information richness.
– Good for messages to many ...
Communication Media
• Many managers do not have time to
read all the electronic work-related
information available to them...
Communication Networks
• Communication Networks
– The pathways along which information flows
in groups and teams and throu...
Communication Networks
• Type of communication network
depends on:
– The nature of the group’s tasks
– The extent to which...
Communication Networks in
Groups and Teams
Type of Network
Wheel Network

Information flows to and from one central
member...
Communication
Networks in
Groups and
Teams

Figure 16.3

16-33
Organization Communication
Networks
• Organization Chart
– Summarizes the formal reporting channels
in an organization.
– ...
Organization Communication
Networks
• Organization Chart
– Horizontal communications flow between
employees of the same le...
Formal and Informal Communication
Networks in an Organization

Figure 16.4

16-36
Technological Advances in
Communication
• Internet
– Global system of computer networks that is
easy to join and is used b...
Technological Advances in
Communication
• Intranets
– A company-wide system of computer
networks for information sharing b...
Technological Advances in
Communication
• Groupware
– Computer software that enables members
of groups and teams to share ...
How to Be Successful Using
Groupware
1. Work is team-based and members are
rewarded for group performance
2. Groupware has...
Groupware
• Employees are likely to resist using
groupware when:
– people are working primarily on their own
– people are ...
Groupware
• Collaboration software
– groupware that aims to promote
collaborative, highly interdependent
interactions amon...
Barriers to Effective
Communication
– Messages that are unclear, incomplete, difficult
to understand
– Messages sent over ...
Communication Skills for
Managers as Senders
– Send clear and complete messages.
– Encode messages in symbols the receiver...
Communication Skills for Managers
as Senders
• Jargon
– specialized language that members of an
occupation, group, or orga...
Discussion Question?
What is the most important communication
skill for managers?
A. Be a good listener: don’t interrupt
B...
Communication Skills For Managers
as Receivers
– Pay attention to what is sent as a message.
– Be a good listener: don’t i...
Movie Example: The Terminal
Is there communication
between Viktor and
Frank?
Why or why not?

16-48
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  • The correct answer is “B” – encoding. See next slide.
  • The correct answer is “B” – see next slide
  • There is no one best answer. Students should be familiar with all of the important communication skills. See next slide.
  • The Terminal
    Viktor Navorski (Tom Hanks) has come to America to fulfill a wish of his father. While en route from Krakozhia, there is a coup in his country, leaving Viktor with no official diplomatic status. Viktor lives out his days in the airport terminal waiting for his situation to improve.
    In this scene, Frank Dixon (Stanley Tucci), the director of customs, is explaining the circumstances of the situation to Viktor.
    Is there communication between Viktor and Frank? Why or why not?
    What are some barriers to communication?
    How well was Frank using active listening?
  • Chapter16

    1. 1. chapter sixteen Communication McGraw-Hill/Irwin Contemporary Management, 5/e Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    2. 2. Learning Objectives • Explain why effective communication helps an organization gain a competitive advantage. • Describe the communication process, and explain the role of perception in communication. • Define information richness, and describe the information richness of communication media available to managers. 16-3
    3. 3. Learning Objectives • Describe the communication networks that exist in groups and teams. • Explain how advances in technology have given managers new options for managing communications. • Describe important communication skills that managers need as senders and receivers of messages. 16-4
    4. 4. Communication and Management • Communication – The sharing of information between two or more individuals or groups to reach a common understanding. 16-5
    5. 5. Communication and Management • Importance of Good Communication – Increased efficiency in new technologies and skills – Improved quality of products and services – Increased responsiveness to customers – More innovation through communication 16-6
    6. 6. The Communication Process • Phases of the Communication Process: – Transmission phase in which information is shared by two or more people. – Feedback phase in which a common understanding is assured. 16-7
    7. 7. The Communication Process Figure 16.1 16-8
    8. 8. Question? What part of the communication process has the sender translating the message into symbols or language? A. Message B. Encoding C. Decoding D. Feedback 16-9
    9. 9. The Communication Process • Sender – person wishing to share information with some other person • Message – what information to communicate • Encoding – sender translates the message into symbols or language • Noise – refers to anything that hampers any stage of the communication process 16-10
    10. 10. The Communication Process • Receiver – person or group for which the message is intended • Medium – pathway through which an encoded message is transmitted to a receiver • Decoding - critical point where the receiver interprets and tries to make sense of the message 16-11
    11. 11. The Communication Process • Feedback phase is initiated by the receiver • Receiver decides what message to send to the original sender • Feedback eliminates misunderstandings, ensures that messages are correctly interpreted 16-12
    12. 12. Verbal & Nonverbal Communication • Verbal Communication – The encoding of messages into words, either written or spoken • Nonverbal – The encoding of messages by means of facial expressions, body language, and styles of dress. 16-13
    13. 13. The Role of Perception in Communication • Perception – process through which people select, organize, and interpret sensory input to give meaning and order to the world around them 16-14
    14. 14. The Role of Perception in Communication • Biases – systematic tendencies to use information about others in ways that can result in inaccurate perceptions 16-15
    15. 15. The Role of Perception in Communication • Stereotypes – often inaccurate beliefs about the characteristics of particular groups of people – can interfere with the encoding and decoding of messages 16-16
    16. 16. The Dangers of Ineffective Communication • When managers and other members of an organization are ineffective communicators, organizational performance suffers and any competitive advantage the organization might have is likely to be lost 16-17
    17. 17. Information Richness and Communication Media • Managers and their subordinates can become effective communicators by: – Selecting an appropriate medium for each message—there is no one “best” medium. – Considering information richness • A medium with high richness can carry much more information to aid understanding. 16-18
    18. 18. Question? What is the amount of information that a communication medium can carry? A. Channel capacity B. Information richness C. Bandwidth D. Message capacity 16-19
    19. 19. Information Richness • The amount of information that a communication medium can carry • The extent to which the medium enables the sender and receiver to reach a common understanding 16-20
    20. 20. Information Richness of Communication Media Figure 16.2 16-21
    21. 21. Communication Media • Face-to-Face – Has highest information richness. – Can take advantage of verbal and nonverbal signals. 16-22
    22. 22. Communication Media • Face-to-Face – Provides for instant feedback. – Management by wandering around takes advantage of this with informal talks to workers. – Video conferences provide much of this richness and reduce travel costs and meeting times. 16-23
    23. 23. Communication Media • Spoken Communication Electronically Transmitted – Has the second highest information richness. – Telephone conversations are information rich with tone of voice, sender’s emphasis, and quick feedback, but provide no visual nonverbal cues. 16-24
    24. 24. Communication Media • Personally Addressed Written Communication – Has a lower richness than the verbal forms of communication, but still is directed at a given person. – Personal addressing helps ensure receiver actually reads the message—personal letters and e-mail are common forms. 16-25
    25. 25. Communication Media • Personally Addressed Written Communication – Does not provide instant feedback to the sender although sender may get feedback later. – Excellent media for complex messages requesting follow-up actions by receiver. 16-26
    26. 26. E-Mail Dos and Don’ts • E-mail allows telecommuting employees to work from home and keep in contact. • The use of e-mail is growing rapidly and e-mail etiquette is expected: – Typing messages in all CAPITALS is seen as “screaming” at the receiver. – Punctuate your messages for easy reading and don’t ramble on. – Pay attention to spelling and treat the message like a written letter. 16-27
    27. 27. Communication Media • Impersonal Written Communication – Has the lowest information richness. – Good for messages to many receivers where little or feedback is expected (e.g., newsletters, reports) 16-28
    28. 28. Communication Media • Many managers do not have time to read all the electronic work-related information available to them • Problem with information overload is the potential for important information to be ignored or overlooked • Can result in lost productivity 16-29
    29. 29. Communication Networks • Communication Networks – The pathways along which information flows in groups and teams and throughout the organization. 16-30
    30. 30. Communication Networks • Type of communication network depends on: – The nature of the group’s tasks – The extent to which group members need to communicate with each other to achieve group goals. 16-31
    31. 31. Communication Networks in Groups and Teams Type of Network Wheel Network Information flows to and from one central member. Chain Network Members communicate only with the people next to them in the sequence. Wheel and chain networks provide little interaction. Circle Network Members communicate with others close to them in terms of expertise, experience, and location. All-Channel Network Networks found in teams with high levels of communications between each member and all others. 16-32
    32. 32. Communication Networks in Groups and Teams Figure 16.3 16-33
    33. 33. Organization Communication Networks • Organization Chart – Summarizes the formal reporting channels in an organization. – Communication in an organization flows through formal and informal pathways – Vertical communications flow up and down the corporate hierarchy. 16-34
    34. 34. Organization Communication Networks • Organization Chart – Horizontal communications flow between employees of the same level. – Informal communications can span levels and departments—the grapevine is an informal network carrying unofficial information throughout the firm. 16-35
    35. 35. Formal and Informal Communication Networks in an Organization Figure 16.4 16-36
    36. 36. Technological Advances in Communication • Internet – Global system of computer networks that is easy to join and is used by employees to communicate inside and outside their companies • World Wide Web (WWW) – “Business district” with multimedia capabilities 16-37
    37. 37. Technological Advances in Communication • Intranets – A company-wide system of computer networks for information sharing by employees inside the firm. • Advantages of intranets – Lies in their versatility as a communication medium – Can be used for a number of different purposes by people who may have little expertise in computer software and programming 16-38
    38. 38. Technological Advances in Communication • Groupware – Computer software that enables members of groups and teams to share information with each other and improve communication. 16-39
    39. 39. How to Be Successful Using Groupware 1. Work is team-based and members are rewarded for group performance 2. Groupware has full support of top management 3. Culture of the organization stresses flexibility 4. Groupware is being used for a specific purpose 5. Employees receive adequate training 16-40
    40. 40. Groupware • Employees are likely to resist using groupware when: – people are working primarily on their own – people are rewarded for their own individual performances – People are reluctant to share information 16-41
    41. 41. Groupware • Collaboration software – groupware that aims to promote collaborative, highly interdependent interactions among members of a team and provide the team with an electronic meeting site for communication 16-42
    42. 42. Barriers to Effective Communication – Messages that are unclear, incomplete, difficult to understand – Messages sent over the an inappropriate medium – Messages with no provision for feedback – Messages that are received but ignored – Messages that are misunderstood – Messages delivered through automated systems that lack the human element 16-43
    43. 43. Communication Skills for Managers as Senders – Send clear and complete messages. – Encode messages in symbols the receiver understands. – Select a medium appropriate for the message and, importantly, one that is monitored by the receiver. – Avoid filtering (holding back information) and distortion as the message passes through other workers. – Include a feedback mechanism is in the message. – Provide accurate information to avoid rumors. 16-44
    44. 44. Communication Skills for Managers as Senders • Jargon – specialized language that members of an occupation, group, or organization develop to facilitate communication among themselves – should never be used when communicating with people outside the occupation, group, or organization 16-45
    45. 45. Discussion Question? What is the most important communication skill for managers? A. Be a good listener: don’t interrupt B. Be empathetic C. Ask questions to clarify your understanding D. Understand linguistic styles 16-46
    46. 46. Communication Skills For Managers as Receivers – Pay attention to what is sent as a message. – Be a good listener: don’t interrupt. – Ask questions to clarify your understanding. – Be empathetic: try to understand what the sender feels. – Understand linguistic styles: different people speak differently. – Speed, tone, pausing all impact communication. 16-47
    47. 47. Movie Example: The Terminal Is there communication between Viktor and Frank? Why or why not? 16-48
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