Sport Nutrition For Competitive Rowing
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Sport Nutrition For Competitive Rowing

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Cristina Sutter, MHSc., BSc (Kines)

Cristina Sutter, MHSc., BSc (Kines)
Registered Dietitian
www.satoriintegrativehealth.com
csutter@sfu.ca

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Sport Nutrition For Competitive Rowing Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Sport Nutrition For Competitive Rowing Cristina Sutter, MHSc., BSc (Kines) Registered Dietitian www.satoriintegrativehealth.com [email_address]
  • 2. Performance Benefits Moderation, Food Groups, Balance, variety, Regular meals and snacks, Fuel and Fluids Supplemenents 0-1% or negative? 24% Sport Nutrition 75% Healthy Diet
  • 3. Optimal performance goals of sport nutrition (Burke & Read, 1993)
    • ensure adequate fuel stores
    • prevent dehydration
    • achieve and maintain appropriate lean and fat mass;
    • achieve gastro-intestinal comfort
    • promote optimal adaptation and recovery
  • 4. Healthy Diet Have Regular Meals and Snacks (Breakfast is the most important meal) Healthy Choices Four Food Groups
  • 5. 5-15 5-15 4-6 2-4 This is where you start…….
  • 6. Carbohydrate
    • Everyday carbohydrate :
      • Total Daily Intake: 5-13 grams carb/ kg /day
      • 1-4 hours before exercise: 1-4 grams carb/ kg
      • During practice: 1 gram carb/ kg/ hour
      • After practice: 1.2 grams carb /kg /hour until a meal is eaten. Best to eat a meal within 2 hours.
  • 7. Glycemic Index Hours 1 2 3 Food eaten Low GI (pasta) High GI (potatoes) Blood glucose The glycemic index is the measure of the relative increase in blood glucose after eating 50 g of a carbohydrate food, compared to a glucose drink .
  • 8. Refined Carbohydrate Diet (high glycemic index) Blood glucose snack Insulin McSnack snack Hunger!
  • 9. Less refined carbohydrate diet Blood glucose Oatmeal Insulin Not hungry yet Lentil soup Exercise effects on insulin
  • 10. Protein needs 0.8 Requirement -for average Canadian Requirement -for endurance athlete (use protein as fuel) 1.2 -1.4 Grams protein/kg body weight/day 1.4 -1.8 Requirement -for power athlete (for muscle syn) Typical Canadian diet 1.4 - 2.0 > 3
  • 11. Is protein helpful during recovery ?
    • Doesn’t aid in fuel recovery
      • Filling-up on protein could cut appetite for carbs
    • Small amounts combined with CHO may aid muscle protein recovery
      • 250 ml Chocolate milk
      • 250 ml Fruit Yoghurt
  • 12. Fat is important
    • Essential Fat:
      • Nuts & seeds
      • Avocado
      • Olive & canola oils
      • Legumes
      • Fish
      • Whole grains
    • Saturated Fat:
      • Chocolate, Meat, Dairy
    • Trans Fat:
      • Fast food
      • Processed/baked goods
        • Muffins, pies, cakes
      • Snacks:chips, crackers, cookies
      • Processed meats: hot dog, bologna,
      • Frozen fries, pizza pop, chicken fingers
  • 13. Fat: Too Much or Too Little? Handout page 9
    • Likely too much (of the wrong) fat:
      • fast food & take-out meals
      • commercially processed foods (e.g. frozen chicken, pizza pockets, cookies, crackers, donuts, etc.)
      • few vegetables or fruit
      • always eats desserts
    • Likely too little fat:
      • no or very little meat,
      • avoids egg yolks, ‘regular’ salad dressings, nuts, avocados, cheeses, milk, butter/margarine, and all fried foods.
      • counting grams of fat in their diet
  • 14. Fuels
    • Carbohydrate *main fuel during exercise
    • maintains blood glucose
    • limited body stores: glycogen in liver and muscles
    • usually burned, rarely goes to fat
    • Fat
    • body fat stores (unlimited)
    • burned:
      • In long slow distance, recovery
      • When glycogen runs out
    • Protein
    • body tissues (no stores)
    • converted to carbohydrate for energy (not desirable)
    • excess protein converted to fat
  • 15. Fuel for Performance
  • 16. Carbohydrate During Event...
    • Supplement with High Glycemic Index Carbs during exercise, if glycogen runs out (low stores or long/intense exercise)
    • immediately (<10 min) before event can eat carbs
      • adrenalin suppresses insulin response
    • During event, start fueling 30 min before glycogen depletion:
      • 30-70g CHO/hr = 0.5-1g CHO/kg/hr
      • 6g glucose/100ml = 400 - 1000ml/hr
  • 17. What fuel are muscles burning?
    • Depends on intensity :
      • 90 min practice ( 70% CHO / 30% fat )
      • Regatta ( 100% CHO )
    • Depends on what they’ve eaten :
      • Eat carb in the past few hours: at any intensity/training ( 90%-100% CHO / 0-10% fat )
        • This is GOOD for high intensity exercise!
  • 18. Glycogen Stores
    • Muscle carbohydrate (glycogen) stores last:
      • 1-2 hr at 70-90 % VO2max
      • 2-3 hr at 60-80% VO2max
      • 30 min at 90-130% VO2max
    • If carbohydrate runs-out (glycogen depletion):
        • Body burns protein and fat
          • Very slow fuels , can’t sustain high intensities
  • 19. Outcomes of Carbohydrate Shortage “Glycogen Depletion”
    • Poor endurance performance “Hit the wall”
    • Sluggish brain activity, central fatigue
    • Hypoglycemia
      • Symptoms: shake, sweat, tremble, hungry, poor concentration
      • Stress response: immune system is weakened
  • 20. Pre-exercise Carbohydrate
    • Pre-exercise meals/snacks can:
      • Top-up glycogen in liver and muscle
      • Top-up blood glucose
      • Increase CHO use
      • Prevent hypoglycemia
      • Help psychologically
    • Can also cause gastrointestinal discomfort, avoid:
      • Unfamiliar: select well tolerated foods only
      • Fibre (apples, legumes, vegetables, whole grains)
      • Fat
      • Protein
  • 21. Pre-exercise Carbohydrate...
    • 3 days prior to endurance event eat a high (70%) carbohydrate diet
    • 4-6 hrs before event may eat up to 5g CHO/kg (200-300g carbohydrate)
      • enough time to get into muscle glycogen stores
    • 1-4 hours before event eat 1-4 grams CHO/kg
    • 15-60 min before event avoid carbohydrate
      • causes insulin response, early reliance on carbohydrate and hypoglycemia
  • 22. Carbohydrate after training
    • If have less than 20 hours to recover:
      • High glycemic index, immediately
      • 0.7-1 gram CHO/kg/hour until meal
    • If have more than 24 hours:
      • 7-10 grams/kg/day works well
  • 23. Put Glycemic Index to work for you
    • High glycemic index great for:
      • Short event
      • Quick top-up <10 min. before exercise
      • Quick supplement during exercise
        • Over 90 minutes
          • start 30 minutes before fatigue
        • Drinks often most acceptable
      • Quick recovery of glycogen stores (if in hurry)
  • 24. Put Glycemic Index to work for you
    • Low glycemic index foods great for:
      • Fueling longer training
      • Overnight recovery
      • When muscle glycogen stores are full
      • Abating hunger for longer
  • 25. Rules for Recovery Following Exercise
    • You need 5 hours to recover partially, 17-24 hours to replete glycogen stores completely
    • Fill your muscles first:
      • Junk only fills your stomach
      • You won’t want to eat the important stuff
    • Until you’ve had your recovery carbohydrate and fluid, avoid:
      • Fat & excessive protein
      • Too much alcohol & caffeine
  • 26. Summary
    • Eat plenty of carbs
      • Daily (5-10 grams/Kg/day)
      • Before exercise (1-4 g/kg; 1-4 hours before)
      • During exercise (>90 minutes: 0.5 to 1 g/kg/hr)
      • After exercise (1 g/kg/hr up to next meal)
        • Unknown if protein can benefit muscle
    • Get adequate protein, BUT high protein diets:
        • Enhance dehydration
        • Strain kidneys
        • Increase likelihood carbohydrate depletion
          • Performance loss (muscles and brain)
          • Immune system weakened
  • 27. In general, what to eat more of?
    • Fruit (fresh, dried, canned)
    • Vegetables (dark colours are best)
    • Whole grains (cereals, bagels, bread, crackers, pasta, rice)
    • Nuts & Seeds (not roasted)
    • Beans (canned = easy)
    • Yogurt , milk (chocolate is OK)
  • 28. What and when?
    • Before morning training
      • Cereal and juice
      • Yoghurt and banana
      • Crackers and milk
    • After morning training
      • Water water water
      • Bagel and peanutbutter
      • Bag of cereal, juice
    • At lunch
      • A real lunch with fruit & milk
    • After school
      • Baby Carrots
      • Trail mix
    • After practice
      • Water water water
      • Fruit bar or raisins
    • Supper and snack
  • 29. Fluids for Performance
  • 30. Fluids: Watch for Dehydration
    • Reduced performance at 2% weight loss through dehydration ~1.3 kg
    • Signs:
      • small amount of dark yellow urine
      • reduced sweat, overheat
      • Stomach cramps
      • headache, sluggishness, reduced concentration
  • 31. Fluid Before Practice or Race
    • 600-1000ml 1 hr before
    • 400-500ml of that within 15min before
  • 32. Drink During Practice
    • Large gulps are better than sipping
    • 300ml up to 2L per hour
    • Start with 600 ml @ 20 min, then repeat 150 ml every 20 min. during practice
    • Add 1/10 tsp salt per Litre water = 0.5ml Na/L H20
  • 33. Drink After Practice or Race
    • 1 kg weight loss = 1 L water loss
    • Dehydration at 1% weight loss ~1.5 lbs
    • Need to replace 150% of loss
    • Monitor weight:
        • Pre exercise wt 60 Kg
        • Weight after exercise 58 Kg
        • Fluid loss - 2 kg = 2 L H2O
        • Need to rehydrate with 150% = 3 L
  • 34. Electrolytes
    • Replacement rarely necessary during activity
      • unless replace excessive sweating with copious amount of water
      • sweat loss = 1150mg Na/L sweat
    • Need electrolytes: Sodium and Potassium
      • At end of day
      • Don’t avoid salt
      • Drink tomato juice, V8, skim milk
      • Eat lots of fruit, potatoes.
  • 35. Water or Sports Drink?
      • For rowers, hyponatremia/water intoxication is rare
      • Sports drinks
    • Useful for
      • Pre-exercise carb top-up
      • Extra carb for long workouts (>90 min)
    • Not so good
      • For recovery, require B vitamins to process carbohydrate
  • 36. What does a Training day look like?
    • Breakfast
    • 1 bowl (400 ml) cereal
    • with skim milk
    • 2 pieces toast
    • 4Tbsp Peanut butter
    • 1 orange
    • 90 rowing practice: water, water, water
    • Snack
    • water, water, water
    • banana
    • Lunch
    • 12” turkey sub
    • 2 cookies
    • 3 carrots, celery
    • 250 ml skim milk
    • 1 apple
    • water, water, water
    • Snack
    • 1 c fruit yogurt
    • 2 kiwi
    • * 60 minute dryland training: water, water
    • Supper
    • 500 ml rice
    • veg/meat stir fry
    • bowl ice cream
  • 37. What does a Competition day look like?
    • Breakfast
    • 1 bowl (400 ml) cereal
    • with skim milk
    • 2 pieces toast
    • 250 ml orange juice
    • 10 minute race
    • Snack
    • water, water, water
    • banana
    • Lunch
    • 12” turkey sub
    • 3 orange
    • 250 ml skim milk
    • 1 apple
    • water, water, water
    • Snack
    • 1 c fruit yogurt
    • 2 kiwi
    • 20 minute race
    • Snack: water, bagel and peanut butter
    • Supper
    • 500 ml rice
    • veg/meat stir fry
    • bowl ice cream
    • water, water, water
    • Dessert : chips, pop
  • 38. Weight Cutting
    • lose 5% body weight in 24 hours
    • weigh-in can be 2 to 20 hours pre-event; single or repeated
    • methods include: fluid restriction, rubber suits, saunas, exercise, laxatives, vomiting, spitting, diuretics
  • 39. Effects of Weight Cutting
    • Recovery is variable, 21% in 1 hour to 42% in 3-5 hours
    • Recovers in 5 - 24 hrs with rehydration + 4gcho/kg
    • Reduces muscle endurance and strength
    • Reduced anaerobic performance, lactic acid build up
    • Does not recover with Rehydration:
    • Reduced aerobic performance: hypovolemia, increase core temp, decrease cardiac output, VO2 max
    • Reduce muscle glycogen stores, if low carbohydrate intake
  • 40. Weight Cutting Recommendations
    • performance declines if wt loss >4% and have less than 5 hours to recover
    • if have 5+ hours: 4 - 8% loss rapid will be OK for strength and anaerobic
    • Sauna does not reduce performance as much as active dehydration
    • high CHO diet during low Calorie phase
      • 4 g CHO/kg (65-70% CHO), 1.6g prot /kg
  • 41. Gradual Weight Loss
    • Over many weeks
    • Does not reduce vo2max
    • Is it possible? Is athlete over-fat? Genetically doomed?
    • Look for ‘nice’ but not ‘necessary’ foods in diet. Leave in a few treats.
    • Look for ways to burn extra energy
    • To avoid glycogen depletion if diet is <2200 cal/day, then have high carb foods
  • 42. Weight gain in athletes
    • Most important nutritional factor is energy , especially carbohydrate
    • Need overload, intensity, progression and recovery
    • Recovery: muscle protein synthesis:
      • reduced during and immediately after training
        • CHO (1 gram/kg/hour) can increase synthesis. Benefits of amino acids at this point uncertain.
    • Need >24 hours recovery between sessions to maximize gains