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Sport Nutrition For Competitive Rowing
 

Sport Nutrition For Competitive Rowing

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Cristina Sutter, MHSc., BSc (Kines)

Cristina Sutter, MHSc., BSc (Kines)
Registered Dietitian
www.satoriintegrativehealth.com
csutter@sfu.ca

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    Sport Nutrition For Competitive Rowing Sport Nutrition For Competitive Rowing Presentation Transcript

    • Sport Nutrition For Competitive Rowing Cristina Sutter, MHSc., BSc (Kines) Registered Dietitian www.satoriintegrativehealth.com [email_address]
    • Performance Benefits Moderation, Food Groups, Balance, variety, Regular meals and snacks, Fuel and Fluids Supplemenents 0-1% or negative? 24% Sport Nutrition 75% Healthy Diet
    • Optimal performance goals of sport nutrition (Burke & Read, 1993)
      • ensure adequate fuel stores
      • prevent dehydration
      • achieve and maintain appropriate lean and fat mass;
      • achieve gastro-intestinal comfort
      • promote optimal adaptation and recovery
    • Healthy Diet Have Regular Meals and Snacks (Breakfast is the most important meal) Healthy Choices Four Food Groups
    • 5-15 5-15 4-6 2-4 This is where you start…….
    • Carbohydrate
      • Everyday carbohydrate :
        • Total Daily Intake: 5-13 grams carb/ kg /day
        • 1-4 hours before exercise: 1-4 grams carb/ kg
        • During practice: 1 gram carb/ kg/ hour
        • After practice: 1.2 grams carb /kg /hour until a meal is eaten. Best to eat a meal within 2 hours.
    • Glycemic Index Hours 1 2 3 Food eaten Low GI (pasta) High GI (potatoes) Blood glucose The glycemic index is the measure of the relative increase in blood glucose after eating 50 g of a carbohydrate food, compared to a glucose drink .
    • Refined Carbohydrate Diet (high glycemic index) Blood glucose snack Insulin McSnack snack Hunger!
    • Less refined carbohydrate diet Blood glucose Oatmeal Insulin Not hungry yet Lentil soup Exercise effects on insulin
    • Protein needs 0.8 Requirement -for average Canadian Requirement -for endurance athlete (use protein as fuel) 1.2 -1.4 Grams protein/kg body weight/day 1.4 -1.8 Requirement -for power athlete (for muscle syn) Typical Canadian diet 1.4 - 2.0 > 3
    • Is protein helpful during recovery ?
      • Doesn’t aid in fuel recovery
        • Filling-up on protein could cut appetite for carbs
      • Small amounts combined with CHO may aid muscle protein recovery
        • 250 ml Chocolate milk
        • 250 ml Fruit Yoghurt
    • Fat is important
      • Essential Fat:
        • Nuts & seeds
        • Avocado
        • Olive & canola oils
        • Legumes
        • Fish
        • Whole grains
      • Saturated Fat:
        • Chocolate, Meat, Dairy
      • Trans Fat:
        • Fast food
        • Processed/baked goods
          • Muffins, pies, cakes
        • Snacks:chips, crackers, cookies
        • Processed meats: hot dog, bologna,
        • Frozen fries, pizza pop, chicken fingers
    • Fat: Too Much or Too Little? Handout page 9
      • Likely too much (of the wrong) fat:
        • fast food & take-out meals
        • commercially processed foods (e.g. frozen chicken, pizza pockets, cookies, crackers, donuts, etc.)
        • few vegetables or fruit
        • always eats desserts
      • Likely too little fat:
        • no or very little meat,
        • avoids egg yolks, ‘regular’ salad dressings, nuts, avocados, cheeses, milk, butter/margarine, and all fried foods.
        • counting grams of fat in their diet
    • Fuels
      • Carbohydrate *main fuel during exercise
      • maintains blood glucose
      • limited body stores: glycogen in liver and muscles
      • usually burned, rarely goes to fat
      • Fat
      • body fat stores (unlimited)
      • burned:
        • In long slow distance, recovery
        • When glycogen runs out
      • Protein
      • body tissues (no stores)
      • converted to carbohydrate for energy (not desirable)
      • excess protein converted to fat
    • Fuel for Performance
    • Carbohydrate During Event...
      • Supplement with High Glycemic Index Carbs during exercise, if glycogen runs out (low stores or long/intense exercise)
      • immediately (<10 min) before event can eat carbs
        • adrenalin suppresses insulin response
      • During event, start fueling 30 min before glycogen depletion:
        • 30-70g CHO/hr = 0.5-1g CHO/kg/hr
        • 6g glucose/100ml = 400 - 1000ml/hr
    • What fuel are muscles burning?
      • Depends on intensity :
        • 90 min practice ( 70% CHO / 30% fat )
        • Regatta ( 100% CHO )
      • Depends on what they’ve eaten :
        • Eat carb in the past few hours: at any intensity/training ( 90%-100% CHO / 0-10% fat )
          • This is GOOD for high intensity exercise!
    • Glycogen Stores
      • Muscle carbohydrate (glycogen) stores last:
        • 1-2 hr at 70-90 % VO2max
        • 2-3 hr at 60-80% VO2max
        • 30 min at 90-130% VO2max
      • If carbohydrate runs-out (glycogen depletion):
          • Body burns protein and fat
            • Very slow fuels , can’t sustain high intensities
    • Outcomes of Carbohydrate Shortage “Glycogen Depletion”
      • Poor endurance performance “Hit the wall”
      • Sluggish brain activity, central fatigue
      • Hypoglycemia
        • Symptoms: shake, sweat, tremble, hungry, poor concentration
        • Stress response: immune system is weakened
    • Pre-exercise Carbohydrate
      • Pre-exercise meals/snacks can:
        • Top-up glycogen in liver and muscle
        • Top-up blood glucose
        • Increase CHO use
        • Prevent hypoglycemia
        • Help psychologically
      • Can also cause gastrointestinal discomfort, avoid:
        • Unfamiliar: select well tolerated foods only
        • Fibre (apples, legumes, vegetables, whole grains)
        • Fat
        • Protein
    • Pre-exercise Carbohydrate...
      • 3 days prior to endurance event eat a high (70%) carbohydrate diet
      • 4-6 hrs before event may eat up to 5g CHO/kg (200-300g carbohydrate)
        • enough time to get into muscle glycogen stores
      • 1-4 hours before event eat 1-4 grams CHO/kg
      • 15-60 min before event avoid carbohydrate
        • causes insulin response, early reliance on carbohydrate and hypoglycemia
    • Carbohydrate after training
      • If have less than 20 hours to recover:
        • High glycemic index, immediately
        • 0.7-1 gram CHO/kg/hour until meal
      • If have more than 24 hours:
        • 7-10 grams/kg/day works well
    • Put Glycemic Index to work for you
      • High glycemic index great for:
        • Short event
        • Quick top-up <10 min. before exercise
        • Quick supplement during exercise
          • Over 90 minutes
            • start 30 minutes before fatigue
          • Drinks often most acceptable
        • Quick recovery of glycogen stores (if in hurry)
    • Put Glycemic Index to work for you
      • Low glycemic index foods great for:
        • Fueling longer training
        • Overnight recovery
        • When muscle glycogen stores are full
        • Abating hunger for longer
    • Rules for Recovery Following Exercise
      • You need 5 hours to recover partially, 17-24 hours to replete glycogen stores completely
      • Fill your muscles first:
        • Junk only fills your stomach
        • You won’t want to eat the important stuff
      • Until you’ve had your recovery carbohydrate and fluid, avoid:
        • Fat & excessive protein
        • Too much alcohol & caffeine
    • Summary
      • Eat plenty of carbs
        • Daily (5-10 grams/Kg/day)
        • Before exercise (1-4 g/kg; 1-4 hours before)
        • During exercise (>90 minutes: 0.5 to 1 g/kg/hr)
        • After exercise (1 g/kg/hr up to next meal)
          • Unknown if protein can benefit muscle
      • Get adequate protein, BUT high protein diets:
          • Enhance dehydration
          • Strain kidneys
          • Increase likelihood carbohydrate depletion
            • Performance loss (muscles and brain)
            • Immune system weakened
    • In general, what to eat more of?
      • Fruit (fresh, dried, canned)
      • Vegetables (dark colours are best)
      • Whole grains (cereals, bagels, bread, crackers, pasta, rice)
      • Nuts & Seeds (not roasted)
      • Beans (canned = easy)
      • Yogurt , milk (chocolate is OK)
    • What and when?
      • Before morning training
        • Cereal and juice
        • Yoghurt and banana
        • Crackers and milk
      • After morning training
        • Water water water
        • Bagel and peanutbutter
        • Bag of cereal, juice
      • At lunch
        • A real lunch with fruit & milk
      • After school
        • Baby Carrots
        • Trail mix
      • After practice
        • Water water water
        • Fruit bar or raisins
      • Supper and snack
    • Fluids for Performance
    • Fluids: Watch for Dehydration
      • Reduced performance at 2% weight loss through dehydration ~1.3 kg
      • Signs:
        • small amount of dark yellow urine
        • reduced sweat, overheat
        • Stomach cramps
        • headache, sluggishness, reduced concentration
    • Fluid Before Practice or Race
      • 600-1000ml 1 hr before
      • 400-500ml of that within 15min before
    • Drink During Practice
      • Large gulps are better than sipping
      • 300ml up to 2L per hour
      • Start with 600 ml @ 20 min, then repeat 150 ml every 20 min. during practice
      • Add 1/10 tsp salt per Litre water = 0.5ml Na/L H20
    • Drink After Practice or Race
      • 1 kg weight loss = 1 L water loss
      • Dehydration at 1% weight loss ~1.5 lbs
      • Need to replace 150% of loss
      • Monitor weight:
          • Pre exercise wt 60 Kg
          • Weight after exercise 58 Kg
          • Fluid loss - 2 kg = 2 L H2O
          • Need to rehydrate with 150% = 3 L
    • Electrolytes
      • Replacement rarely necessary during activity
        • unless replace excessive sweating with copious amount of water
        • sweat loss = 1150mg Na/L sweat
      • Need electrolytes: Sodium and Potassium
        • At end of day
        • Don’t avoid salt
        • Drink tomato juice, V8, skim milk
        • Eat lots of fruit, potatoes.
    • Water or Sports Drink?
        • For rowers, hyponatremia/water intoxication is rare
        • Sports drinks
      • Useful for
        • Pre-exercise carb top-up
        • Extra carb for long workouts (>90 min)
      • Not so good
        • For recovery, require B vitamins to process carbohydrate
    • What does a Training day look like?
      • Breakfast
      • 1 bowl (400 ml) cereal
      • with skim milk
      • 2 pieces toast
      • 4Tbsp Peanut butter
      • 1 orange
      • 90 rowing practice: water, water, water
      • Snack
      • water, water, water
      • banana
      • Lunch
      • 12” turkey sub
      • 2 cookies
      • 3 carrots, celery
      • 250 ml skim milk
      • 1 apple
      • water, water, water
      • Snack
      • 1 c fruit yogurt
      • 2 kiwi
      • * 60 minute dryland training: water, water
      • Supper
      • 500 ml rice
      • veg/meat stir fry
      • bowl ice cream
    • What does a Competition day look like?
      • Breakfast
      • 1 bowl (400 ml) cereal
      • with skim milk
      • 2 pieces toast
      • 250 ml orange juice
      • 10 minute race
      • Snack
      • water, water, water
      • banana
      • Lunch
      • 12” turkey sub
      • 3 orange
      • 250 ml skim milk
      • 1 apple
      • water, water, water
      • Snack
      • 1 c fruit yogurt
      • 2 kiwi
      • 20 minute race
      • Snack: water, bagel and peanut butter
      • Supper
      • 500 ml rice
      • veg/meat stir fry
      • bowl ice cream
      • water, water, water
      • Dessert : chips, pop
    • Weight Cutting
      • lose 5% body weight in 24 hours
      • weigh-in can be 2 to 20 hours pre-event; single or repeated
      • methods include: fluid restriction, rubber suits, saunas, exercise, laxatives, vomiting, spitting, diuretics
    • Effects of Weight Cutting
      • Recovery is variable, 21% in 1 hour to 42% in 3-5 hours
      • Recovers in 5 - 24 hrs with rehydration + 4gcho/kg
      • Reduces muscle endurance and strength
      • Reduced anaerobic performance, lactic acid build up
      • Does not recover with Rehydration:
      • Reduced aerobic performance: hypovolemia, increase core temp, decrease cardiac output, VO2 max
      • Reduce muscle glycogen stores, if low carbohydrate intake
    • Weight Cutting Recommendations
      • performance declines if wt loss >4% and have less than 5 hours to recover
      • if have 5+ hours: 4 - 8% loss rapid will be OK for strength and anaerobic
      • Sauna does not reduce performance as much as active dehydration
      • high CHO diet during low Calorie phase
        • 4 g CHO/kg (65-70% CHO), 1.6g prot /kg
    • Gradual Weight Loss
      • Over many weeks
      • Does not reduce vo2max
      • Is it possible? Is athlete over-fat? Genetically doomed?
      • Look for ‘nice’ but not ‘necessary’ foods in diet. Leave in a few treats.
      • Look for ways to burn extra energy
      • To avoid glycogen depletion if diet is <2200 cal/day, then have high carb foods
    • Weight gain in athletes
      • Most important nutritional factor is energy , especially carbohydrate
      • Need overload, intensity, progression and recovery
      • Recovery: muscle protein synthesis:
        • reduced during and immediately after training
          • CHO (1 gram/kg/hour) can increase synthesis. Benefits of amino acids at this point uncertain.
      • Need >24 hours recovery between sessions to maximize gains