Role of Radar in MicrowavesIEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES   Merrill Skolnik, Life Fellow, IEEE      ...
Flow of contents•   Central Idea•   Early Developments•   What happened during world War II•   Applications•   Microwaves ...
Central Idea :InterdependenceMicrowaves                 Radar
1880-Hertz Experiment           • Maxwell theoretically             proved EM waves exist           • 1880, Heinrich Hertz...
1939-Varian brothers Klystron• Predecessor of magnetron by Varian brothers of  Stanford University• Most important high po...
1940-Magnetron       • 1930 radar concept given         theoretically       • Need of high power         stransmitter     ...
What happened during World War-II• 1940-setup of MIT radiation lab for research  on application of magnetron for radar.• 4...
Other applicationsWeather Radar at Oklahoma   Ground penetrating Radar                                              -Seaha...
Other ApplicationsSpeed measurement    Sea Ice Mapping
Microwaves In Modern Radar• Digital signal processing• Differentiate between more than one target• Transmitters    The kl...
Phased Array Radar• Phase array antenna is used in advance radars  now a days.• This can form various directional patterns...
TWT
Possible Future Directions For Radar•   Developing Jammer Technologies•   Radar Sea Echo•   Phased array with fixed beams ...
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Role of radar in microwaves

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Role of radar in microwaves

  1. 1. Role of Radar in MicrowavesIEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES Merrill Skolnik, Life Fellow, IEEE Falak Shah 09bec082 Nisarg Shah 09bec084 Guided by Dr. Dhaval Pujara
  2. 2. Flow of contents• Central Idea• Early Developments• What happened during world War II• Applications• Microwaves In Modern Radar• Possible Future Directions For Radar
  3. 3. Central Idea :InterdependenceMicrowaves Radar
  4. 4. 1880-Hertz Experiment • Maxwell theoretically proved EM waves exist • 1880, Heinrich Hertz- first radar scientist experimentally proved • 450 MHz microwaves fed to dipole • Followed by JC Bose 60- 120 GHz
  5. 5. 1939-Varian brothers Klystron• Predecessor of magnetron by Varian brothers of Stanford University• Most important high power radar application device also frequency controllable.
  6. 6. 1940-Magnetron • 1930 radar concept given theoretically • Need of high power stransmitter • High frequency radar (3 GHz) for detecting smaller objects • Limitation of high power overcome by magnetron • Frequency depends on dimensions of cavity
  7. 7. What happened during World War-II• 1940-setup of MIT radiation lab for research on application of magnetron for radar.• 4000 personnel aged 20-30 gathered & gained expertise on 100 different radar equipments• Allies gained upper hand over axis powers• Radar was evolved much faster when placed into civilian hands than controlled by military• Today, TWT which is variant of klystron widely used
  8. 8. Other applicationsWeather Radar at Oklahoma Ground penetrating Radar -Seahawk Navigation
  9. 9. Other ApplicationsSpeed measurement Sea Ice Mapping
  10. 10. Microwaves In Modern Radar• Digital signal processing• Differentiate between more than one target• Transmitters  The klystron is a good choice for high-power applications, with the TWT (Travelling Wave Tube) as a candidate when wide bandwidth is needed.
  11. 11. Phased Array Radar• Phase array antenna is used in advance radars now a days.• This can form various directional patterns and provide varying directivity.• An advantage of a phased array is its ability to perform multiple functions such as surveillance and weapon control with a single system.
  12. 12. TWT
  13. 13. Possible Future Directions For Radar• Developing Jammer Technologies• Radar Sea Echo• Phased array with fixed beams (Ubiquitous)• Millimetre wave radar
  14. 14. THANK YOU

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