CYCLOPEDIAOF HARDY FRUITS
o.     THE MACMILLAN COMPANY   NEW YORK  BOSTON   CHICAGO   DALLAS        ATLANTA   SAN FRANCISCO      MACMILLAN &      CO...
BALDWIN
CYCLOPEDIA OFHARDY FRUITS                       BY           U. P.      HEDRICK             AND HORTICULTURIST OF THE NEW ...
H4-                             THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA *     a*          **             ,*"**i       **"            ...
PREFACE   The purpose of this manual is to describe               The chief value of a book like this lies inthe varieties...
TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                            na                              PART    I    ...
viii                         TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                       PAGE ...
PLATESPLATE    I   BALDWIN APPLE      (in color)               Frontispiece                                               ...
CYCLOPEDIAOF HARDY FRUITS
CYCLOPEDIA OF                            HARDY FRUITS                             PART         I    POME-FRUITS           ...
2-    vCONSTlT.tfnONAL      CHARACTERS                             LEAF-BUDS AND LEAVESstill   more important that thecult...
FLOWER-BUDS AND FLOWERS                                         SIZE     AND SHAPE Flower-buds and flowers.               ...
THE STEM                                      CHARACTERS OF THE SKIN  The terms used in describing shapes of apples       ...
INTERNAL STRUCTURE                                   FIBROVASCULAR BUNDLESCutting pomes to show the internal structure.   ...
6                    SEEDS                                      FLAVOR AND QUALITYthe outer cycle, the bundles are opposit...
DESCRIPTION BLANK FOR THE APPLEName                                 Orchard.            Row           No       Date.    .....
CHAPTER              II                                   SPECIES OF POME-FRUITS   There are about ninety genera in the Ro...
CRAB APPLES                                                  CRAB APPLESspecies, however, which some authorities prefer   ...
10                   THE PEAR                                                        THE PEARgions, where its usefulness i...
THE PEAR                                                   THE QUINCE                           11listof 854 pears, of whi...
12         THE JAPANESE QUINCE                                                   THE JUNEBERRY  The Japanese quince, now p...
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Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)
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Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)

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Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922) >>>>Detailed descriptions of hardy fruits grown in temperate climates.

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Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits; by U. P. Hedrick (1922)

  1. 1. CYCLOPEDIAOF HARDY FRUITS
  2. 2. o. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY NEW YORK BOSTON CHICAGO DALLAS ATLANTA SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO., LIMITED LONDON BOMBAY CALCUTTA MELBOURNE THE MACMILLAN CO. OF CANADA, LTD. TORONTOMAW LIBttAfrr.AQRlCin.TUmi
  3. 3. BALDWIN
  4. 4. CYCLOPEDIA OFHARDY FRUITS BY U. P. HEDRICK AND HORTICULTURIST OF THE NEW VICE-DIRECTOR YORK AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1922 All rights reserved
  5. 5. H4- THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA * a* ** ,*"**i **" COPYRIGHT, 1922, BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. Set up and electrotyped. Published September, 1922. MAIN Press of J. J. Little ft Ives Company New York. U. S. A.
  6. 6. PREFACE The purpose of this manual is to describe The chief value of a book like this lies inthe varieties of hardy fruits grown in North the accuracy of the descriptions and of theAmerica. A new book describing hardy fruits determinations of synonyms. Herein theneeds no justification. Downings Fruits and author has had an advantage over the oldFruit Trees and Thomas American Fruit Cul- pomologists, since his connection with a mod-turist, in their many editions, have served two ern experiment station, with a large collectiongenerations of fruit-growers. Both are worn out of fruits and a good horticultural library, hastools. Most of the varieties described by these given him opportunity to describe first handauthors are not now found in American or- and pass impartial judgment on varieties, andchards or nurseries. Many of the kinds they to go to original sources for names; whereas,discuss have never been grown in this country, the old writers, lacking these modern facilities,the descriptions published having come from were compelled to copy one from the other.European fruit-books. On the other hand, With great reluctance, the author abandonsnone of the varieties of this century is de- a key to varieties of the several hardy fruits.scribed in Downing or Thomas. Moreover, Years of patient labor have not enabled himthe descriptions of these old workers are too to produce a key that will work. A varietyscant and fragmentary to have great value in of any fruit behaves so differently in the sev-modern pomology. A new manual of fruits is eral great pomological regions of the continentneeded to take the place of Downing and that a key cannot be made that will be usableThomas, valuable as these books were for for a fruit in all regions. A satisfactory keytheir day. to varieties of apples for New York does not The plan of the book is simple. A brief fit this fruit in Virginia, Iowa, California, orglance through its pages should suffice to reveal Oregon. About the only constant characterseven to the beginner in the study of pomologi- of the apple for all regions of the continentcal literature the arrangement of fruits and are sweetness and sourness. The color of thetheir varieties, and the presentation of names flesh is the only constant character of theand synonyms. Clearness and simplicity have peach. There are few or no constant char-been sought, that the reader may with the acters in other fruits as they grow in differentleast trouble obtain a perfect mental picture regions. To arrange varieties alphabeticallyof the variety described. is unscientific, disorderly, and makes difficult The ways in which the author designs to the identification of fruits, but it is the authorsmake this manual useful are: (1) To aid in belief that they cannot be satisfactorily ar-the identification of varieties. (2) To guide ranged otherwise for a text covering more thanin the choice of varieties. (3) To sort the one pomological region. Keys to varieties ofnames now in use for varieties of hardy fruits, fruits can be of value only when made forand assign them to the varieties to which they particular regions.belong. (4) To state in what regions the va- In acknowledging obligations, the authorrieties described grow best. (5) To tell when needs to name the pomologists of the nine-and where the varieties originated. (6) By teenth century. Coxe, writing in 1817, was thedepicting choice products of the orchard, to pioneer, followed by Prince, Kenrick, Manning,stimulate the desire to grow better fruits. Downing, Thomas, Cole, Barry, Hovey, Elliot, The book is written for fruit-growers, Hooper, and Warder, the pageant ending innurserymen, students in colleges and high- 1867. These men brought fruit-growing intoschools, county agricultural agents, and buyers being in America and nourished it to maturity.of fruits. It is designed for those interested They studied fruits in their various seasonalin fruits in general, rather than for the spe- expressions with accuracy and insight, andcialist inpomology. Specialists will find fuller wrote with the sincere and sympathetic feelingdiscussions of nearly all of the varieties de- of the best naturalists of their day, therebyscribed in this manual in the fruit-books pub- putting American pomology on a solid founda-lished by the New York Agricultural Experi- . tion. The author of this manual is not forget-ment Station, most of them written under the ful of their great work, a service to the nationaldirection of the author, and from which he welfare little appreciated, but which is to himhas drawn heavily for this volume. perennial inspiration. U. P. HEDRICK. Geneva, New York, December 15, 1921. 483481
  7. 7. TABLE OF CONTENTS na PART I POME-FRUITS 1 CHAPTER I THE STRUCTURAL BOTANY OF POME-FRUITS 1 II SPECIES OF POME-FRUITS 8 III VARIETIES OF APPLES 15 IV VARIETIES OF CRAB-APPLES 72 V VARIETIES OF PEARS 76 VI VARIETIES OF QUINCES 107 PART II DRUPE-FRUITS 111 VII BOTANY OF THE DRUPE-FRUITS 113 VIII VARIETIES OF APRICOTS 131 IX VARIETIES OF CHERRIES 136 X VARIETIES OF NECTARINES 157 XI VARIETIES OF PEACHES 161 XII VARIETIES OF PLUMS 190 PART III THE GRAPE 223 XIII BOTANY OF THE GRAPE . 225 XIV VARIETIES OF GRAPES 233 PART IV THE BRAMBLES 263 XV BOTANY OF THE BRAMBLES 265 XVI VARIETIES OF RASPBERRIES 275XVII VARIETIES OF BLACKBERRIES AND DEWBERRIES 285 PART V CURRANTS AND GOOSEBERRIES 293XVIII BOTANY OF CURRANTS AND GOOSEBERRIES 295 XIX VARIETIES OF CURRANTS 301 XX VARIETIES OF GOOSEBERRIES . .... 307
  8. 8. viii TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE PART VI HEA1TH FRUITS 311 CHAPTER XXI BOTANY OF HEATH FRUITS 313XXII THE CRANBERRY AND ITS VARIETIES 316XXIII BLUEBERRIES AND HUCKLEBERRIES 322 PART VII THE STRAWBERRY 327XXIV BOTANY OF THE STRAWBERRY , 329 XXV VARIETIES OF STRAWBERRIES 335 PART VIII MISCELLANEOUS FRUITS 347XXVI PERSIMMONS, MULBERRIES, PAWPAWS, ELDERS, HIGHBUSH CRAN- BERRIES, BUFFALO-BERRIES, GOUMIS AND BARBERRIES . . . 349
  9. 9. PLATESPLATE I BALDWIN APPLE (in color) Frontispiece FACING PAGE II BARTLETT PEAR (in color) 34 III SECKEL PEAR 64 IV MONTMORENCY CHERRY 94 V NAPOLEON CHERRY 114 VI ELBERTA PEACH 132 VII BRADSHAW PLUM 152VIII DE SOTO PLUM 172 IX SHROPSHIRE PLUM 192 X CONCORD GRAPE (in color) 206 XI NIAGARA GRAPE 230 XII JUNE RED RASPBERRY 250XIII AGAWAM BLACKBERRY 272XIV FAY CURRANT 296 XV INDUSTRY GOOSEBERRY . 308XVI GOOD LUCK STRAWBERRY (in color) 342
  10. 10. CYCLOPEDIAOF HARDY FRUITS
  11. 11. CYCLOPEDIA OF HARDY FRUITS PART I POME-FRUITS CHAPTER I THE STRUCTURAL BOTANY OF POME-FRUITS Botanists differ in defining a pome. One to which belong the apricot, cherry, peach,definition is that the outer fleshy part of the nectarine, and plum; the brambles, a generalapple, pear or quince, fruits which all agree name for blackberries, dewberries, and raspber-are typical pomes, is the thickened calyx; a ries; and strawberries, sometimes called thecomparatively new definition describes a pome runner fruits. Among these several groups,as consisting of two to five carpels, each of pome-fruits lead in importance in the agricul-which is a drupe-like fruit containing one to tural regions of the world. The pomes seem tomany seeds, the several drupes being connected have been cultivated longer than any other ofand held together by a fleshy receptacle. The the fruits under consideration; hence it may 1. Flower and fruit of a pome. A, Flower of pome; B, Fruit of pome, a, Sepal; b, calyx-tube; c, receptacle; d, carpel; e, ovule; j, petal; g, stamen; h, style.definition most generally accepted is that a be assumed that they are farthest evolved frompome is a fleshy fruit of which the compound the wild state, and accordingly there are moreovary is borne within and connected with the varieties of apples and pears than of otherenlarged receptacle. hardy fruits. It is significant that pomology, A discussion of the botanical alliances of this the name accepted for the science and practicegroup of plants would be helpful to the study of fruit-growing, is derived from pome. (Fig.of the structure of pomes. Such a discussion,however, would lead far afield, so that a brief CHARACTERS OF POME-FRUIT PLANTSstatement must suffice as to the place whichpome-fruits hold in botanical classifications of The recognition of varieties is usually de-plants. The pome-fruits belong to Rosaceae, pendent on characters of the fruits, but thea family of plants of which the rose is the plants are distinct as well as the fruits andtype. Three other groups of hardy fruits com- may be helpful in identification and classifica-mon in orchards are associated with the pomes tion, and, in the absence of fruit, must bein the Rose family. These are: drupe-fruits, relied on to identify a species or variety. It is
  12. 12. 2- vCONSTlT.tfnONAL CHARACTERS LEAF-BUDS AND LEAVESstill more important that thecultivator should adaptability of varieties to special locations,know whether or not the plant is manageable although nothing is more certain than thatin the orchard, and, therefore, should have a some varieties are adapted to a greater rangedescription of all plant-characters. of conditions than others. The Baldwin apple Size of tree is a very reliable character to and Bartlett pear have as one of their mostdetermine varieties of any of the pome-fruits. valuable qualities great adaptability to diverseThe Wagener or Rome Beauty apples, or the conditions.Winter Nelis pear, are almost dwarfs as com- Trunk and branch.pared with other apples and pears. Size variesgreatly with environment, it must be remem- The trunk counts for little in descriptionsbered, in using this character. The terms large, of varieties because it usually changed by issmall, and medium are commonly used to pruning. The bark may be smooth or shaggy.designate size. Vigor must not be confused Color of bark is often a most valuable diag-with size. Vigor may be denned as internal nostic character, especially in young trees.energy. Small trees may be as vigorous as Many not most varieties of pome-fruits can iflarge ones. be told in the nursery by the color of the bark. The term "habit of growth," as used by The branches offer several distinctive char-pomologists, has reference to the form of the acters, some of which are very reliable. Thetop. In describing the tops of pome-fruit trees long slender branches of Rhode Island Green-a number of self-explanatory terms are used; ing and Tompkins King apples, and the slenderas, upright, spreading, drooping, tall, low, dense, drooping branches of the Winter Nelis pear areopen-topped, vase-form, and round-topped. examples. The branches of some pears bearMany if not most varieties of pome-fruits may spines, and the fruit-spurs borne on branchesbe told by the form of the top. One can tell of all pome-fruits are very characteristic. TheSutton at a glance by its upright branches; as branchlets or twigs may be short or slender;he can, also, Rhode Island Greening by its long-jointed or short-jointed; straight or zig-wide-spreading branches; or the Winter Nelis zagging; variously colored; some, at certainpear by its drooping branches. The form of stages of maturity, are pubescent, othersthe top may make a variety easy or difficult to glabrous; the branching angle of branchletsmanage in the orchard. is often characteristic; the epidermis may be smooth or covered with scarf-skin; lastly, the Constitutional characters. size, shape, color, number, and position of the Constitution a rather vague term used by is lenticels on young wood are most importantpomologists toindicate the vital power of in identifying trees after the leaves have fallen.varieties. It generally refers to hardiness, pro-ductiveness, susceptibility to pests and adapt- Leaf-buds and leaves.ability to climates and soils. Size, length and shape of leaf-buds help to The degree of hardiness is difficult to use identify dormant trees. The shape may usu-in identification but does identify, and is of ally be described as acute, pointed, obtuse,utmost importance in characterizing the value conical or plump. If the bud lies close to theof a fruit. Baldwin and Rhode Island Green- twig, it is said to be appressed; if it standsing apples are relatively tender to cold Mcln- ; at a considerable angle, it is free. In examin-tosh is hardy and Hibernal is very hardy. The ing dormant buds, note should be made as toBartlett pear is tender; Seckel more hardy. whether the leaf-scar is conspicuous or incon- Productiveness, age of bearing, regularity of spicuous.bearing, and certainty of bearing are all well- While leaves vary much in accordance withrecognized characters of pome-fruits, helping the condition of the plant which bears them,to set the value of a variety, and all count in they offer a number of valuable distinguishingclassifying, although rather difficult to use for characters. In the study of leaves, thosethis purpose. Length of life, whether long or found on water-sprouts or suckers and thoseshort, is another character of constitution that borne on slow-growing spurs should not bemust be noted. used, but, rather, those found on free-growing The degree of susceptibility of a variety to twigs.fungous diseases or insect pests is a most The size of the leaf, if given in figures, is avaluable cultural character and may be used most valuable determinant of varieties of allin classifying. Thus, there are great differences pome-fruits, as is the shape, if depicted inin varieties of apples in their resistance to well-chosen words. Thickness counts for some-apple-scab, fire-blight, cedar-rust and bitter- thing, as do the color of the upper and lowerrot; or, to codlin-moth, any of the aphids, surfaces and the character and amount ofor San Jose scale. All pears are more or less pubescence on the surfaces. The margins offersusceptible to pear-blight and various fungous evidence for identification in the character ofdiseases, as they are also to psylla, San Jose the serrations, and in the glands and hairs toscale, and other insects. Varieties of apples be found in an occasional variety. The timeand pears are described in this text as immune of the appearance and the fall of leavesto one or more of these pests, and others as characterizes some varieties. Lastly, someespecially susceptible to them. sorts have many leaves and others few. The All of these constitutional characters are length, thickness, and color of the petiole andmuch modified by care and environment. Care its smoothaess or pubescence are sometimesand environment, also, greatly modify the worth noting.
  13. 13. FLOWER-BUDS AND FLOWERS SIZE AND SHAPE Flower-buds and flowers. is in proper condition for use. Unless other- Flower-buds offer the same marks for identi- wise stated, season has reference to the period fication as are mentioned for leaf-buds. They during which fruit is in condition for use in may usually be distinguished from leaf-buds, ordinary storage, which of course greatly pro- being larger and less pointed, and, of course, by longs the natural season. The terms summer, their contents, if examined under a microscope. fall and winter, sometimes modified by early Time of opening is a mark of distinction with or late, give the season with sufficient accuracy. varieties that bloom very early or very late, Keeping quality and shipping quality, both de- but it will be found that most varieties open pendent on several factors, are usually men- at approximately the same time. tioned in connection with season. The flower of the apple gives opportunity to Rather closely connected with season is use, its characteristics almost the uses for which a variety is identify through particularly every variety; the flowers of the pear and suited being indicated by several terms. A quince are of less use, but still are useful. The market variety is one suitable for the general size, shape, and color of the petals offer the market; a local market sort is one which does best means of identification in flowers. The not stand handling well enough for the general length, thickness, amount, and kind of pubes- market but is acceptable in local trade. A cence on the styles may distinguish varieties. dessert or table variety is suitable for eating The styles of Tolman Sweet are covered and m the uncooked state; culinary, cooking, or bound together by dense pubescence not to be kitchen varieties are especially desirable for found in any other variety. The styles of the culinary purposes. Howell pear are abnormally short. The calyx- Size and shape.tubes, calyx-lobes, and pedicels differ mate-rially. These structures in the flower, while Among external characters of pome-fruits, size is important, if severaloffering decisive evidence in identification, are typical specimensseldom used by pomologists, because characters can be examined, but is often misleading be-of plant and fruit may be studied cause under the stress of environment abnormal during amuch longer time and are of greater cultural specimens may be produced. Gradations in . size are expressed by the termsimportance. The stamens, however, afford a large, medium,more permanent means of classifying than and small, modified by very, above, or below.other parts of the flower. In the blooming Used in connection with size, uniform signifies that the fruits of a variety areseason, length, diameter, and the pubescence generally ofof stamens may be noted, but much more im- about the same size.portant, taxonomically, is the position of the Probably no one character of pome-fruits isstamens on the calyx-tube in the mature more important in classification than shape, fruit,these organs, or remnants of them, especially since it may be used with reference persisting to immature as well as maturein the ripened fruits, as will be noted in the specimens.discussion of characters of the fruit. In determining the shape of a pome, the fruit should be held opposite the eye perpendicular Lastly, some varieties may be identified to the diameter from stem toduring the blooming season by the distribution calyx; or theof the blossoms on the tree. The flowers of fruit may be cut longitudinally at its widestRome Beauty, as an example, are borne on diameter. So looked at, an apple may bethe periphery of the tree, described as round, oblate, conical, giving it an aspect ovate, 06-by which one may recognize the variety at long, truncate, or by combinations of theseonce. The flower-clusters of some and similar terms. If the fruit then be turned pome-fruits so that the base or apex isbear many flowers; others few; in some the opposite the eye,flowers are loosely arranged, in others com- or if a transverse section be made at the widest diameter, it may be determined whetherpactly. the fruit is regular, that is if the transverse section is circular in outline; FRUIT CHARACTERS OF POMES elliptical, with its sides compressed; or ribbed, angular, If a variety is not oblique, with sides unequal or noteworthy in the char- symmetrical, allacters for which the fruit is grown those self-explanatory terms.which appeal to the senses of taste and The shapes of pears are even more used in sight-it stands small chance of classifying that fruit than is the case with being cultivated longor widely. Varieties are generally apples. Besides the terms used in known, describingtherefore, from the characters of the fruit apples, additional descriptive words are neces-rather than those of the sary by reason of the common division of a plant. Hence, especialattention is paid to pear into two parts the neck and the descriptions of the fruitsome pomologists characterizing almost The neck is the narrow part bearing the body. wholly stem;from the fruit and saying little or the body is the more or less swollen nothing of partthe plant. crowned by the calyx. A pear is pyriform when the curves formed by the body and neckSeason and use. are concave; turbinate, or top-shaped, when the body is nearly round with a short Perhaps season the first character, and is neck. Ihe neck may be long or short, distinct or ob-certainly it is one of the most important char- scure obtuse or acute.acters to be noted in the The body is usuallyseason ripened fruit By described by the terms used in is meant the period in which a variety describing apples.
  14. 14. THE STEM CHARACTERS OF THE SKIN The terms used in describing shapes of apples right, if the tips incline inward, the lobes areand pears are applicable to the quince. Many said to be connivent; if inclined outward, theyoomologists describe quinces as either apple- are re flexed or divergent. The lobes may beshaped or pear-shaped. broad or narrow, with tips acute or acuminate. A graphic record should accompany a de- Characters of the skin.scription of the fruit, to show size and shape.A simple outline drawing serves the purpose. The skins of pome-fruits offer several most valuable features for classification, color beingThe stem. the most important. Perhaps no character of Varying as little as any other character of fruits varies more in accordance with environ-the apple or pear, the stem is much used in ment than the color, yet the color itself andidentification. It may be long and slender, the way in which it is distributed on the fruitas in the Rome Beauty apple or Bosc pear; serve to make this character a fairly safe dis-short and thick as in the Sutton apple and tinguishing mark for most varieties of pome-Cornice pear; fleshy as in the Peck Pleasant fruits. The ground-color of apples, pears, andapple and Louise Bonne pear; clubbed when quinces is the green or yellow-green of chloro-enlarged at the end; and lipped when the phyll, usually with an over-color of tints andflesh forms a protuberance under which the shades of yellow or red. The over-color maystem is inserted, as in the Pewaukee apple. be laid on in stripes, splashes or streaks; orThe stems of pears are often set obliquely, as as a blush it may mottle the surface, or may ;in Clairgeau; or are crooked or curved, as in be a single color, in which case the fruit is saidHowell. The stems of some pome-fruits have to be self-colored.distinguishing colors; those of others are The skin may be thick or thin, tough orpubescent. In some pears, as Bergamot dEs- tender. In a few varieties of apples it is rela-peren, there are bud-like projections on the tively free from the flesh, but with most clingsstem. The length of the stem in apples and tightly. The surface of the skin may be cov-pears is a reliable diagnostic character only ered with a delicate white substance calledwhen it is known from what part of the flower- the bloom, Mclntosh furnishing a good ex-cluster the fruit was developed. For, as a ample of an apple with a bloom. In otherrule, the nearer the flower to the center of the varieties the skin is waxy or oily, as in Lowellumbel in the apple, and the tip of the raceme and Tompkins King apples. This characterin the pear, the shorter the stem of the fruit. must not be confused with waxen, which re- fers to the glossy appearance of the skin ofCavity and basin. such apples as Winter Banana and Maiden The cavity, the depression in which the stem Blush.is offers several marks which greatly en- set, Some apples and pears have an unbrokenhance the value of a description of any of the russet surface, as Roxbury Russet apple andpomes. It may be acute or obtuse; shallow, the Sheldon pear. Or the surface may bemedium, or deep; narrow, medium, or broad; rough because of minute russet dots or nettedsmooth or russeted; furrowed, ribbed, angular, veins. In many apples the cavity alone isor uniform; or it may be lipped as described russeted, as in Pumpkin Sweet. If the russetunder stem. The color of the skin within the of the cavity is spread out in radiating lines,cavity is sometimes different from that with- it is said to be radiating.out, and there may be radiating lines, rays, In some apples a suture-like line extendsor streaks. toward the apex from the base, Tolman Sweet The basin, the depression in which the calyx furnishing an example.is set, is as important as the cavity in classify- With varieties of all of the pome-fruits, noteing pomes, and is described by the same should be made of the presence and characterterms. The furrows in the basin are some- of pubescence about the calyx. In the quince,times indistinct and are then called wavy. the whole surface is covered with woollyThe skin around the calyx-lobes may be pubescence, which must be described.wrinkled, plaited, folded or corrugated. Rarely, Nearly all apples and pears have few orthere are fleshy protuberances about the calyx- many dots on the skin, notes on which maylobes, as in the Delicious apple and Siberian enhance the value of a description. Thesecrab-apple, called mammiform appendages. may be obscure or conspicuous, large or small, raised or sunken. If visible under the epider- Calyx-lobes. mis, they are said to be submerged. When The withered calyx-lobes persist in some star-like, they are called stellate. If sur- pomes and not in others. They persist in the rounded by a halo of lighter color, they are common apple and are deciduous in P. bac- said to be areolar. In some varieties of apples, cata; persist in European pears, deciduous in the dots are much elongated. the Asiatic species; persist in edible-fruited The .roughened outer skin, called scarf-skin, the commonquince, deciduous in the Japanese gives a distinguishing appearance to a few quince. The calyx-lobes may be open, partly apples. The scarf-skin runs outward from the open, or closed in varieties of the fruits in base of the apple in lines or stripes on Pump- which they are persistent. In some varieties kin Sweet, Green Newtown, and some other of apples the segments are separated at the varieties. This scarf-skin gives a dull appear- tase; in others, united. The lobes may lie flat ance to some red apples, as Sweet Winesap and on the fruit or may stand erect. When up- Black Gilliflower.
  15. 15. INTERNAL STRUCTURE FIBROVASCULAR BUNDLESCutting pomes to show the internal structure. by abnormalities in the fruit. The base of the When varieties cannot be distinguished from styles, in some varieties, develops into fleshy tissue which alters the shape of the calyx-tube.external marks, there are several very reliablecharacters that can be made use of in the in- The calyx-tube may be cone-shaped, funnel-ternal anatomy of the pome. To study these shaped, or urn-shaped. When funnel-shaped, the broad upper part is called the limb; thecharacters it is necessary to make a longi- narrow lower part, the cylinder. In sometudinal and a transverse section of the fruit. varieties the remnants of the styles, often moreTo make an accurate examination of the in- or less fleshy, form a point, called the pistil-ternal structure of apple, pear or quince, the point, which projects into the calyx-tube.sectioning must be done with a keen, thin Gano has a well-developed pistil point.knife, with a steady hand and a good eye. In making the longitudinal section, the knife The core.should pass through the center of the calyx, The position of the core in the fruit isshowing the remnants of styles and stamens; often a valuable means of distinguishing varie-through the middle of the core cell, showing ties. If close to the stem, the core is said tothe outline of the core cavity; and through be sessile; if at the center of the pome, it isthe middle of the stem. A true record cannotbe obtained unless the organs named are di- median; when distant from the stem, distant. The cell containing seed, called a carpel, isvided with fair accuracy into halves. In mak- morphologically a modified leaf, which bying the transverse section, the knife should folding together and by union of its edgespass through the widest diameter of the fruit, forms a closed receptacle. In some varietiescutting the core in half. If the core is not the carpels are open; in others, closed. If thein the center of the fruit, trial cuts to locateit must be made that it may be halved exactly. tip of the carpel is indented, it is said to be emarginate; if long and pointed, mucronate. In shape, carpels may be round, cordate, ob- cordate, elliptical, oblong, elongated, ovate, or obovate. In the cores of most pomes there is a central cavity called the core-cavity, some- times spoken of as the axial-sac, which may be either narrow or wide in some it is lacking. ; This is a character of much importance and reliability in pears. When the carpels extend quite to the axis of the fruit, they are said to be axile, and there is no core cavity; when distant from the axis, they are abaxile, and a core cavity is formed. Sometimes the carpel is lined on the inner surface with a white sub- stance, as in Tompkins King, when it is said to be tufted. In some pears there are many fine hairs in the core-cavity, in which case the2. Longitudinal section of an apple showing core characters (X Vz). a, Cavity; b, core- cavity is said to be tufted. The characters of lines; c, abaxile open core with broadly ellip- the core are shown in Fig. 2. The limits of tical mucronate carpels; d, conical calyx- the core are marked by a line usually very distinct in apples and quinces, which is called tube; e, calyx-lobes; /, basin. the core-line. The area enclosed by this line may be large or small and may be variouslyThe stamens. shaped. In some species of apples, as in After halving the fruit longitudinally, the P. coronaria and P. ioensis, rue core separatesfirst organs to be studied are the stamens, the from the flesh along the core-line so that itposition of which furnishes reliable taxonomic may be taken out, leaving a well-defined cavitydata. Hogg, an eminent British pomologist, in the apple. The direction which the core-devised an analytical key to varieties of apples line takes from the intruded woody stem fibresbased on the position of the stamens. Apples is often a clear mark of distinction. Thus, themay be divided into three groups in accordance line may proceed at right angles from thewith the position of stamens. In one group stem, may incline upward, or incline down-the stamens are on the outer margin of the ward. When the core-line joins the calyx-tubecalyx-tube and are said to be marginal; in along the sides it is said to be clasping; whenthe second, they are located about the middle the two ends of the line meet at the base ofof the tube and are said to be median; in the the calyx-tube, the expression "core-linesthird, they are inserted at the base of the meeting" is used.tube and are said to be basal. Fibrovascular bundles.The calyx-tube and styles. Ten primary fibrovascular bundles enter the Passing from the stamens to the calyx-tube, flesh of pomes from thepedicel and closelyit will be found that the shape of this structure follow the core-line which marks the limits ofis of some use in the core. These are plainly seen in transverse separating varieties, althoughit is exceedingly variable in accordance with sections of apples and quinces as well-markedthe size of the fruit, and is materially altered dots. They are arranged in two cycles. In
  16. 16. 6 SEEDS FLAVOR AND QUALITYthe outer cycle, the bundles are opposite the quality. It is important, also, in describingdorsal sutures of the carpels; those of the the flesh to have the fruit at the proper stageinner cycle alternate with the carpels. The of maturity, and as immaturity verges almostcore-line appears in the transverse section on imperceptibly into maturity and maturity intothe inner side of the ten bundles as a beautiful decay, each condition affecting the flesh, it isbit of tracery, looping out between the bundles not surprising that differences of opinion mayinto the pulp. There is much difference in the be many in judging the flesh characters of asize of the bundles and in the outline of the fruit. In cutting an apple, the color of thecore-line, as seen in sections of a pome, and flesh is first noted. It may be white, as inthese seem quite distinct in each variety. Ac- Mclntosh; tinged with yellow, as in Baldwin;cordingly, it is proposed by several workers greenish-white, as in Stark; or streaked orat home and abroad to classify varieties by tinged with red, as in Wealthy. Apples withmeans of these structures. To the working red flesh are occasionally found, but no stand-pomologist, who finds little difficulty in identi- ard varieties have flesh of this color. Pearsfying varieties from characters more easily seen, have the flesh of the same colors as the apple,such attempts seem an unnecessary magnifi- except that none is quite as white in flesh ascation of fine points. Mclntosh. The flesh of the quince is yellow or orange, often turning pink or red whenSeeds. cooked. One determines the nature of the Seeds are characteristic in all varieties of texture by cutting the fruit, by pressingpome-fruits, and might well be used in classi- with the ringers, and by eating. The texturefication more generally than is the case. The may be coarse or fine; tender or tough; crisp,number is exceedingly variable in all varieties. breaking, melting, or in the pear almostIn apples and pears, the usual number is two buttery; dry or juicy. Many varieties ofin each cell, but often there are three or more, pears are granular or gritty about the core,and occasionally seeds are missing; in quinces, and sometimes gritty nodules are found in thethere are many in each cell. Seeds vary flesh, but usually as abnormalities.greatly in different varieties in size, shape andcolor, and differences in these characters are Flavor and quality.as constant as are those of any other organs Apples and pears are readily divided intoof the fruit. Number, size, shape, and color two classes as to flavor; they are either sweetof seeds should be noted with care in every or sour. Such a division is less apparent intechnical description of a pome. The point quinces. The qualifying terms mildly andof the seed, also, is worth noting; it may be very are often used with sweet and sour. Sub-acute, acuminate, or obtuse. Like the carpels, acid, tart, and sprightly are sometimes mostthe seeds are often tufted. In quinces, the expressive. Austere refers to a flavor moreseeds are arranged in two rows, and the testa or less sour with some astringency. Pears andabounds in a gum having demulcent and quinces may often be put down as astringent.mucilaginous properties. All varieties have a more or less distinct aroma. Rich and refreshing are words oftenFlesh. found in the rather extensive vocabulary neces- Most pomes may be identified from the flesh sary to describe the flavors of fruits.characters without a glance at any other part Quality is that combination of texture,of fruit or plant. Flavor, odor, and texture flavor, and aroma which makes a fruit pleasantof flesh are distinct in almost every variety to the palate. Quality is rated by commonof apple, pear, or quince, and appeal more consent of pomologists in five grades: poor,strongly to the senses of taste and smell than fair, good, very good, and best. It should becharacters measured by the eye do to the noted that good in this rating signifies a fruitsight. Unfortunately, flavors, odors, and tex- of butmedium quality.tures are difficult to describe. All characters The accompanying description blank for theof the flesh vary greatly in accordance with apple sets forth most of the characters stu-conditions of growth, soil and climate having dents and fruit-growers will use in describinga profound influence on texture, flavor, and pome-fruits.
  17. 17. DESCRIPTION BLANK FOR THE APPLEName Orchard. Row No Date. .... 19.TREE FRUIT, Contd Marked characteristics Length Large, medium, small Large, medium, small Vigorous, medium, weak Uniform, variable Upright, spreading, drooping Roundish, oblate, conical Tall, low, dense Ovate, oblong, truncate Open, vase-formed, round-topped Oblique, ribbed, irregular Slow growing, rapid growing Symmetrical, sides unequal Hardy, half-hardy, tender Uniform Very productive, productive STEM Medium productive, unproductive Long, medium, short Regular bearer, uncertain bearer Thick, medium, slender SUSCEPTIBILITY to CAVITY Insects Obtuse, acute, acuminate Diseases Shallow, medium, deep TRUNK Narrow, medium, broad Stocky, medium, slender Russeted, smooth Smooth, medium, shaggy Symmetrical, furrowed BRANCHES Compressed, lipped Thick, medium, slender CALYX Smooth, medium Open, closed Shaggy, zigzag Large, medium, small Red, brown, gray, green Lobes Lenticels Separated at base Numerous, medium, few Long, medium, short Large, medium, small Broad, medium, narrow BRANCHLETS Obtuse, acute, acuminate Thick, medium, slender, willowy BASIN Long, medium, short Shallow, medium, deep Red, brown, gray Narrow, medium, wide Green, glossy Obtuse, abrupt, smooth Rough, smooth, zigzag Furrowed, corrugated Pubescent, glabrous Symmetrical, compressed Internodes SKIN Long, medium, short Thick, medium, thin LEAF-BUDS Tough, medium, tender Large, medium, small Smooth, rough Long, medium, short Russet, waxen Obtuse, conical, pointed, plump Glossy, dull, bloom Appressed or free COLOR , Leaf-scars Prominent LEAVES Length Width. -DOTS Large, medium, small Numerous, medium, few Wide, medium, narrow Large, medium, small Long, medium, short Conspicuous, obscure Oval, ovate, obovate Gray, russet Abruptly pointed, taper-pointed Submerged, areolar Thick, medium, thin Light, medium, dark green FLESH Smooth, rugose White, yellow, red Margin Firm, coarse, medium, fine Glandular, crenate Crisp, tender, tough Dry, juicy, sweet, subacid Finely serrate, coarsely serrate Sour, aromatic, sprightly Petiole, length Long, medium, short Quality Best, very good, good Thick, medium, slender Fair, poor, very poor FLOWERS CORE Date of bloom Large, medium, small Early, medium, late Large, medium, small Open, closed Axile, abaxile White, pink Fertile or sterile CORE-LINES Clasping, meetingFRUIT CALYX-TUBE Marked characteristics Early, mid-season, late Long, medium, narrow Wide, medium, narrow DATE OF RIPENING Funnel-shaped, conical, urn-shaped LENGTH OF SEASON SEED Large, medium, small HANGS WELL OR DROPS Wide, medium, narrow Long, medium, short KEEPING QUALITY Flat, plump, obtuse SHIPPING QUALITY Acute, acuminate, tufted USE Dessert, kitchen, market, home SUSCEPTIBILITY to Insects TYPE OF Diseases DESIRABILITYREMARKS
  18. 18. CHAPTER II SPECIES OF POME-FRUITS There are about ninety genera in the Rose 1. Apples (Malus). Flowers pink, rose-color, red or sometimes white, borne in fascicles or subumbellatefamily, of which ten or twelve bear pome- clusters on short spurs or lateral branchlets ; ovary 3-5-fruits. Of the pome-bearing genera, but two celled ;styles more or less united at the base. Fruitcontain cultivated species of prime importance more or less globular with a distinct depression at both ends, the flesh without grit cells, rounded at the base.in fruit-growing: namely, Pyr s, to which be- The species in this section number from 30-40, of whichlong apples and pears; and Cydonia, the not more than a half dozen are domesticated.quince. Three other genera are of lesser im- 2. Pears (Pyrus). Flowers white, few, borne in corymbs on short spurs or lateral branchlets ovary 5-celled ;portance: Mespilus, the medlar; Chsenomeles, ; styles usually free. Fruit usually pyriform, sometimesthe Japanese quince; and Amelanchier, the subglobose, usually conical at the base, the flesh usuallyJuneberry. The fruits of Crataegus, the haw- bearing grit-cells when ripened on the tree. Thethorns or thorn-apples, allied to medlars in the species number from 15-20 of which but two are truly domesticated, but several others give promise of valuestructure of the fruit, are edible, and several for stocks and possibly for their fruits.species offer possibilities for domestication, butnone is cultivated in North America. THE APPLE THE GENUS PYRUS Of the thirty and more species of apples and crab-apples, but two are prominent pomologi- Authorities differ as to what groups of plants cal subjects, as all of the others remain wildshould be included in Pyrus. Most of the or are cultivated in a small way or as orna-older botanists placed in the genus the apple, mentals. Among the ornamental species, how-pear, crab-apple, quince, medlar, sprbus, and ever, are several bearing edible fruits, which,chokeberry. Some botanists still include all though of small value now for the orchard,of these fruits, but the modern tendency is to may through selection or hybridization playsegregate the groups in distinct genera some- an important part in the pomology of thewhat in accordance with the common names, future. But for the present, fruit-growers areas the differences which give distinctions suffi- concerned with only P. Malus, from whichcient for a common name suffice also for a comes the common apple, and P. baccata,botanical division. The pear and apple, how- parent of most cultivated crab-apples. Culti-ever, are generally kept together in Pyrus; vated apples and crab-apples are easily dis-but few botanists consider the differences in tinguished in standard varieties by size, shape,the two fruits sufficiently marked to justify flesh, and flavor, to name the characters inputting them further apart than in two sections which differences are most apparent, but inof one genus. The distinguishing characters outlying varieties the two fruits merge intoof Pyrus are: each other so that clear botanical separation rests on a difference in one structure, the calyx. Woody plants, trees or shrubs, with smooth or scaly In the common apple the calyx persists on thebark. Leaves simple, or sometimes lobed, alternate,usually serrate, deciduous with deciduous stipules which ripened fruit; in the true crab-apple, it fallsare free from the petiole. Flowers perfect, regular, from ripe fruits.borne in compound terminal cymes ; torus urn-shaped,adnate to the ovary and inclosing it with thick suc- 1. Pyrus Malus, Linn.Apple. Plant a large bushculent flesh at maturity ; calyx-lobes 5, acuminate and or a tree attaining a height of 60-70 feet with a trunkreflexed, persistent in some and deciduous in other 1-2 feet in diameter which .divides into stout spreadingspecies ; petals 5, white, pink or red, inserted on the branches forming a round open head ; bark separatingthickened border of the disk ; stamens 15-20, in three into large, thick, ashy-brown persistent scales ; branch-rows ; styles 2-5 free 01 united below ; carpels 2-5, lets and twigs glabrous or slightly pubescent, usuallyinferior, crowned by the styles, usually 2-seeded. Fruit bright red-brown and dotted with scattered, conspicuous an ovoid or pyriform poine ; seeds 2 in each cell, brown lenticels. Leaves oval, ovate or orbicular-ovate, usuallyor brownish, lustrous, mucilaginous on the outer surface. pointed at the apex, rounded or truncate at the base, with serrate margins, dull in color, soft in texture, borne on stout petioles. Flowers large, white, pink or red, Pyrus contains fifty to sixty species widely borne in close terminal cymose clusters on short pedicels ;scattered throughout the north temperate zone, appearing with the leaves ; calyx-lobes 5, acuminate ;the largest number in south-central and east- petals 5, inserted, remotely contracted into narrow claws, usually pink. Fruit exceedingly variable in size, shapeern Asia. In North America, Pyrus is repre- color, flavor and time of ripening, with a cavity aboutsented by five species, while eight or nine the stem, the calyx persistent and set in a well-markedspecies inhabit Europe. Study of the species basin ; flesh thick, succulent and homogeneous. Seedsmakes plain that there are many natural brownish, glossy, mucilaginous, usually two in each of the 5 carpels forming the core.varieties. The two sections of Pyrus, giventhe rank of genera by some authors, are dis- Between four and five thousand namedtinguished as follows: pomological varieties belong to this species, a
  19. 19. CRAB APPLES CRAB APPLESspecies, however, which some authorities prefer CRAB-APPLESto divide into two or more specific groups. Itis probable that cultivated apples have come There seems to be little question that thefrom two distinct species, possibly three, but crab-apples of most common cultivation, rep- resented by such varieties as Martha, Hyslop,these have been so fused by hybridization thatit is now impossible to separate cultivated and Transcendent, are hybrids between twovarieties into species. The best that can be species, P. baccata and P. Mains, though thesedone is to divide the species into several hybrids are often put in a separate species,botanical varieties to which the pomological P. prunifolia. The Siberian crabs, of which several named varieties are cultivated, un-varietiesmay be referred, but even this cannot doubtedly belong to a distinct species now tobe done with the precision that might bewished. Of the many botanical varieties de- be described,scribed by various authors, but three are de- 2. Pyrus baccata, Linn. Siberian Crab. Plant alimited with sufficient exactness to make them small round-headed tree attaining a height of 30-40 feet,useful to the pomological student. These with a trunk 10-12 inches in diameter, which divides into many rather slender branches forming a compact head ; vigorous, hardy and productive wood hard and ; tough, bark much less rough and tree smoother in all of Var. sylvestris, Linn. Characterized by glabrous its parts than in the common apple. Leaves ovate, ovate-shoots and leaves whereas those in the type species are lanceolate or ovate-acuminate, thin, glabrous, brightpubescent ; the calyx-lobes are glabrous outside but green petioles ; slender ; margins finely and evenlypubescent within. The habitat of the variety is West serrate. Flowers large, white, very fragrant, handsome ;and Central Europe. The distinction between this appearing with the leaves pedicels very slender, green- ;variety and the type species would be hardly worth ish; style usually longer than the stamens, glabrous ormaking, were it not that some European botanists give lightly pubescent ; calyx-lobes long, narrow acuminate ;it the rank of a species and refer several pomological calyx falling away before maturity. Fruit from %-lvarieties to it. inch in diameter, yellow or red ; borne on long, hard Var. pumila, Henry. To this botanical variety, de- slender stems ; basin shallow or none, often wrinkledscribed as a species by some authors, most of the or having mammiform protuberances ;flesh yellow, verycultivated apples are now referred. The trees are large firm, subacid, astringent, translucent. Seeds small,or small, sometimes bush-like, with the young branches, short, wide, obtuse, dark brown.pedicels, calyx-tube, both surfaces of the calyx-lobes andthe under surface of the leaves prominently tomentose.The Paradise and Doucin apples, used as dwarfing stocks, There are several botanical forms of P. bac-are probably dwarf forms of Var. pumila. This botanical cata,but to which of these the cultivated crab-variety is native to southeastern Europe and western apples belong is a mooted question. No doubtAsia, although found wild as an escape wherever the there are a number of natural hybrids, as thereapple is cultivated. Var. astracanica, Loud. It is probable that several certainly are of artificial ones. Hybrid andpomological varieties belong to this botanical variety, pure-bred crab-apples, cultivated for theirwhich is characterized by large, coarsely serrate or doubleserrate leaves, tomentose beneath, and by the long fruits, number two score or more, and probablypedicels it is a native of Asia. ; a much greater number of named varieties, the world over, are grown as named ornamen- In the descriptions of the species and its tals.varieties, statements of habitat were made; The crab-apple probably came originallythese need to be amplified. P. Mains has been from Siberia, northern China, and Manchuria,known as a wild plant in temperate Europe but and flowers has been cultivated for its fruitand Asia throughout historic times, but un- in China and Japan from time immemorial.questionably its fruits were used long before The Chinese and Japanese have developedhistory began, and, no doubt also, the plants many forms differing in plant, fruit, andwere distributed by the prehistoric dwellers flower, more particularly in the flowers, thesein the two continents. Students of the origin being of many colors, various sizes, and in allof cultivated plants now believe the species degrees of doubling. The Siberian crab-appleto be indigenous in the northwestern Himalayas, is the hardiest of the tree-fruits, grows withwhere there are vast forests of wild apples great rapidity, thrives in many soils, andascending the mountains to a height of nine bears year after year with increasing abun-to ten thousand feet in regions to which man dance.could hardly have introduced the plant. This species was early introduced into Eu- The apple has been cultivated from remote rope, although little grown until the last cen-times in India, Cashmere, and northern China. tury for its fruit. While it may have comeCarbonized apples are found in the ancient earlier as an ornamental, it seems not to belake habitations of Switzerland, showing that mentioned as a fruit-tree in America untilthey must have been known in Europe by pre- toward the close of the eighteenth century, andhistoric peoples. The apple is mentioned by since nurserymen did not list crab-apples untilthe earliest writers on agriculture in China, toward the middle of the nineteenth century,India, Italy, France, Germany, and Greece, this fruit must be looked on as comparativelyEngland. was introduced by the first col- It a newcomer.onists in all temperate parts of the New World. But few of the cultivated crabs of AmericanIt is now the most valuable fruit-plant of the orchards are pure-bred to the species, most oftemperate regions of the world, and by se- them being hybrids with P. Mains. Theselection and hybridization several thousand hybrid crabs are most valuable additions tovarieties have been obtained. The apple is the apple-flora of the whole country, and, cultivated in all agricultural regions of the because of great hardiness, promise much for United States excepting in subtropical parts of cold regions. The species does not thrive as the Gulf states and California. well as might be wished in southern apple re-
  20. 20. 10 THE PEAR THE PEARgions, where its usefulness is also much cur- or many grit-cells. Seeds 1-3 in a cell, sometimes abortive or wanting, large, brown or brownish, oftentailed by its susceptibility to pear-blight. tufted at the tips.Crab-apple trees are used in cold climates asstocks upon which to graft the common apple, Botanists describe several botanical varieties,for which purpose they are in most respects and some would separate from the species avery desirable. number of garden forms. In the present state Some twenty or more oriental flowering of botanical knowledge of the species, however,crab-apples are listed in the botanies, several the pomologist may best classify pomologicalof which produce edible fruit, and two of varieties under the type species.which, P. prunijolia, Willd. and P. Sieboldii, Pyrus communis now grows naturally in allRegel, have been more or less cultivated for but the coldest and warmest parts of Europetheir fruits and used as stocks for the common and Asia. It probably came originally fromapple in China and Japan. Some of these the Caucasian countries and northern Persia,Asiatic crab-apples are promising, also, for where, in elevated regions, there are now for-hybridization with the common apple and the ests of wild pears; or, possibly, the originalSiberian crab. center of distribution was in Cashmere and the Five types of native crab-apples grow in northwestern Himalayas where there are alsoNorth America. None of these has sufficient pear forests. The tree grows spontaneouslymerit to recommend it to pomologists in as an escape from orchards in nearly all re-regions where the common apple grows, but gions where the pear is generally cultivated,one, the Soulard crab, P. Soulardii, Bailey, but sparingly in North America, because keptprobably a natural hybrid between P. Mains down by pear-blight.and P. ioensis is grown in the upper Missis- The common pear has been cultivated fromsippi Valley where only trees of great hardiness time immemorial. The ancient Greeks hadwithstand the cold. A typical variety of this several varieties; Pliny, the Roman naturalist,species is described as the Soulard crab by describes forty-one varieties. The pear is men-botanists. There is some promise of further tioned in France, Germany and Great Britainamalgamation of the common apple and the almost with the first written records of agri-native crab-apple to secure greater hardiness culture, and it came to America with theof tree and longer keeping qualities in the earliest permanent settlers in the northernfruit. states. The French brought the pear to Can- ada and Michigan, and pear-trees said to be THE PEAB two hundred years old are yet standing about mission sites of the French along the St. The innumerable varieties of pears, more come from Lawrence and the Great Lakes to Detroit,than 4000, almost all single a A second species, P. Michigan. The pear is now grown in thespecies, P. communis. the Chinese Sand pear, furnishes per- temperate regions of the whole civilized world,serotina, not so commonly planted as the apple onlyhaps a score of named sorts with showy fruits because less easily managed in the orchard,which keep well, but are scarcely edible un- less adaptable to soils and climates, and morecooked and of very indifferent quality in This species, however, susceptible to pests, especially the pear-blight,culinary preparations. which takes prodigious toll from this fruit inhas added much to the pear flora of the world; the pear-regions of the New World.for, when hybridized with the common pear,a plant is produced of remarkable vigor, clean In North America, pears thrive particularly well only in the states north of Maryland andin growth, productive, hardy, and almost im-mune to the dreaded pear-blight, which yields west to Wisconsin and in the Pacific states.a fruit suitable for culinary purposes and The climate of the southern states is uncon-edible out of hand, if properly ripened. The genial to this fruit, being too hot, while that of the Mississippi Valley and Great Plains iswell-known Kieffer is typical of these hybrids.A too hot in the summer and too cold in the third species, P. nivalis, the Snow pear, is winter. Blight, also, is more virulent in thesegrown sparingly in parts of Europe for the regions than in those first named, and makesmaking of pear cider, but is not of sufficient pear-culture precarious even where climateimportance to warrant discussion in a pom- favors. California and New York are the lead-ological text. ing pear-growing states, in both of which re- 3. Pyrus communis, Linn. Common Pear. A vig- gions the pear industry is handicapped byorous, upright tree attaining a height of 80 feet and blight.a diameter of 4 feet, usually with an oblong or pyramidaland rather compact top bark on old trees rough with ; Pear-growing began in America as an avoca-rather large persistent scales. Leaves 2-4 inches long, tion for men of means, leisure, and taste. Its1-2 inches wide, oblong-ovate, thin, hard and veiny ;upper surface dark green, glabrous lower surface light ; period of greatest activity began early in thegreen, glabrous; apex acuminate ; margin, crenate- nineteenth century and passed before the closeserrate or entire, never setose-serrate petiole 1 to 2 ; of the century, during most of which timeinches long, becoming glabrous. Flowers 1-2 inches the pear was the center of interest in Americanacross, white, appearing with the leaves, borne in 4-12umbel-like clusters on slender pedicels calyx persistent ; fruit circles. In the first half of the last cen-or rarely deciduous ; stamens 15-20. Fruit exceedingly tury many new varieties of pears were intro-variable under cultivation, usually pyrifonn, sometimes duced from Europe, and a considerable numberround-conic, turbinate or occasionally round-oblate ;green, yellow, red or russet, or combinations of these originated on this side of the Atlantic. Incolors; flesh of fruits ripening on the tree with few 1859, T. W. Field, in his Pear Culture, gave a
  21. 21. THE PEAR THE QUINCE 11listof 854 pears, of which 686 originated in other than varieties of the European pear.Europe and 168 in America. The great Ameri- The fruits are little liked by those who havecan pomologists of the nineteenth century the common pear, although they are attractiveManning, the Downings, Wilder, Berckmans, in appearance, long keepers, and not unpalat-Hovey, Barry, and Thomas were more inter- able in some culinary preparations. Severalested in the pear than in any other fruit. Japanese pears have been introduced into For many years past, however, the pear, in America, and their apple-like fruits are notcomparison with the apple, peach, plum, or uncommon, being readily distinguished fromcherry, has been losing in popularity. There apples by their deciduous calyces, roughare now few good collections in the country; skins, long stems, gritty flesh, and potato-likenurserymen list fewer and fewer varieties; the flavor.pear is now less and less used as a dessert fruit, These Japanese pears hybridize freely withthe product being largely used in canning. the common pear, and several valuable hybridsPear-culture is failing in America for the are now widely and commonly grown in Northreasons that the pear is not well adapted to America, Kieffer, Le Conte, and Garber, inthe American climate; that cultural and com- the order named, being the best known. Thesemercial conditions make it more difficult to hybrids are much stronger in growth, moregrow than other fruits and that the formidable ; blight-resistant, more productive, and moredisease, blight, remains unchecked by any of rapid in growth than the common pear; thethe remedies now in use. fruits are more pyriform and of much better Owing to the decline in pear-growing, many flavor than those of the oriental parent; theof the varieties described in this text cannot now calyx in the hybrid is sometimes persistentbe purchased from nurserymen. All have been and sometimes deciduous. They do not makecultivated on this continent, however, and good stocks and intergraft but poorly withmany old trees of all varieties stillexist. Some, the common pear. Of all pear-trees, these areit is to be hoped, will be reintrqduced for handsomest in growth, making excellent orna-home orchards, if not for commercial planta- mental plants.tions. Several other oriental pears are being tested in the United States as stocks for named varie- 4. Pyrus serotina, Rehd. Tree vigorous, upright, ties of the common pear.attaining a height of 20-50 feet, the branchlets becoming Seedlings of theglabrous. Leaves ovate-oblong, sometimes ovate, 3-5 common pear have been used in the past asinches long, rounded at the base, long acuminate, stocks, but these are susceptible to blight, lacksharply setose-serrate ;lower surface cobwebby but be- in vigor, and the seedlings are not uniform.coming glabrous. Flowers white, borne in 6-9-floweredumbellate-racemose clusters calyx-lobes long-acuminate, ; Search is being made for an oriental pear thatglandulose denticulate petals oval, short-clawed stamens ; ; does not have these defects and those ofabout 20 styles 4 or 5, glabrous. Fruit subglobose, ;russet-brown ; stalk slender ; calyx deciduous. European stocks. Some of the species intro- duced from China for stocks are cultivated in their native country for their fruits, and it Pomologists are interested in the typespecies,which comes from central and western may be expected that hybrids between these and the common pear will give new types ofChina, only as a possible source of blight- this fruit.resistant stocks for varieties of the commonpear. Stocks from the species were introducedsome years ago on the Pacific slope, but have THE QUINCEproved unsatisfactory because difficult to bud, The common quince belongs to the genusvery susceptible to leaf-blight, and not im- Cydonia, which differs from Pyrus chiefly inmune to pear-blight. Render, an authority on the fruits. Thus, the pomes of Cydonia arePyrus, gives two botanical varieties, one of harder than those of Pyrus; the quince has awhich is most important to pomologists, having woolly surface while that of the apple andgiven, as a hybrid with the common pear, a pear is smooth; the sepals at the apex of thenew and very distinct type of pear. This quince are more leaf-like than those of thevariety is described as follows: apple and pear; the five carpels of the quince contain many seeds, those of species of Pyrus Var. culta, Rehd. Sand Pear. Japanese Pear. Chi-nese Pear. Tree strong and rapid in growth, with but few; the testa of quince seeds aboundsstrong thick shoots. Leaves very large, often 6 inches in a gum having mucilaginous and demulcentlong and 3-4 inches broad, broadly ovate and long-pointed, very dark green ; margins setose-serrate, the properties, while there is little or no gum inteeth very sharp, almost bristle-like. Flowers very large, seeds of the apple and pear; the stem of theappearing somewhat in advance of the foliage. Fruit quince is so short as to appear to be wanting,apple-shaped or pyriform, more or less rough, with a while the stem of the apple and pear is dis-well-marked cavity about the stem calyx usually de- tinct and often long. ;ciduous flesh tough, gritty and poor in flavor. ; Cydonia contains only the species now to be described. The sand pear from the type in its differs Cydonia oblonga, Mill. Common Quince. Small treeslarger and differently shaped fruits and much or shrubs 15-20 feet in height, with slender unarmedlarger, greener leaves. It comes from Japan, branches. Leaves alternate, oblong-oval, entire, pubescentwhere it must have been early introduced from beneath, petioled, stipulate, 2-4 inches long. Flowers white or tinged with pink, large, 2 inches in diameter,China, and where it is now the most common showy, terminal on short leafy branchlets ; petals 5 ;fruit-tree with the exception of the persimmon. stamens numerous ; styles 5, free ; ovary with 5 cellsThere are several pomological varieties in each containing many seeds. Fruit large, round or pear- shaped, yellow, woolly, with hard yellow flesh whichJapan, although they differ less from each becomes pink after cooking.
  22. 22. 12 THE JAPANESE QUINCE THE JUNEBERRY The Japanese quince, now put in the genus most people very pleasant, which it imparts toChaenomeles, was long included in Cydonia. other fruits when cooked with them. TheIt is easily distinguished by the serrate or species a native of China and Japan, but iscrenate papery leaves and styles united at has long been cultivated in Europe and Amer-the base. The species has been divided intoseveral botanical varieties, but only the type THE JUNEBERRYis of interest to pomologists. The quince is of but secondary importance Under the names juneberry, shad-bush,in fruit-growing, since it is only sparingly used service-berry, sugar-pear, and grape-pear, orfor culinary purposes. The fruit deserves, how- their equivalents in other languages, the fruitsever, much more attention than is given it in of some twenty-five or thirty species ofdomestic economy, for it is second to no other Amelanchier are used for food in all parts offor marmalades, jellies, and conserves of all the North Temperate Zone. While very dis-kinds, and is much used for flavoring prepara- tinct in aspect of tree and fruit, Amelanchiertions of apples and pears. There are but few and Pyrus have few structural differences, thevarieties and there seems to be little or no two genera being separated chiefly by reasoninterest in increasing the number, although of the fact that the compound ovary inthe quince offers great possibilities in hybrid- Amelanchier has partial divisions which areization within the species and with the Japanesequince, while interesting hybrids between thequince and the pear are recorded. Quincestocks are much used whereon to graft thepear, to dwarf the tree and increase the sizeof the fruit and hasten its bearing. The quince is a native of the Mediterraneanand Caucasus regions, and in ancient timesgrew abundantly in Crete, deriving fromCydon in that country the name Cydonia.From ancient Greece, it was taken to Romebefore the Christian era, for the writers ofthe first century mention it as if it were acommon fruit. The Romans knew the quinceas the cotonea, a name to be found in oldEnglish as well as in Latin. Spreading fromItaly, it was soon cultivated, as agricultureadvanced step by step, throughout the mildclimates of Europe. In 812, its culture was 3. Juneberry.enjoined by Charlemagne in France under thename coing. Chaucer speaks of the quince in The species lacking in the ovary of Pyrus.the latter part of the fourteenth century in are so closely related, with numerous spontane-England, calling it come from the French. ous hybrids, from which, indeed, they areEarly Spanish, English, French, and Dutch hardly to be distinguished that it serves the brought the quince to America.settlers uses of pomologists to characterize the genus alone, without giving detailed descriptions of THE JAPANESE QUINCE the several species which have pomological possibilities. (Fig. 3.) Four species of Chamomeles are grown for Amelanchier. Shrubs or small unarmed. Leave*their handsome flowers, and one, C. lagenaria, trees, simple, alternate, petioled, serrate. Flowers white,is of some value also for its fruit and offers a racemose or rarely solitary ; calyx 5-cleft, persistent, thegood field for the plant-breeder. Through tube campanulate and adnate to the ovary petals 5, ; obovate, oblong or rarely linear stamens numerous,hybridization and selection, it is possible that ; short ; styles 5, united below ; ovary inferior, 5-celled,other species of the genus might be made to each cell with two ovules cells with a projection grow- ;yield fruits of value. ing from the back forming a false partition. Fruit an edible berry-like pome with a cavity at the top sweet ; Chcenomeleg lagenaria, Koid. Japanese Quince. Shrub and juicy ripening in early summer. ;3-6 feet high, with spreading, spiny branches. Leavessub- persistent or deciduous, alternate, oblong-ovate, The species of interest to fruit-growers areglossy above, papery, l%-3 inches long. Flowers in all natives of temperate North America. Theclusters of 2-6, red or reddish, l%-2 inches across;calyx-lobes entire or serrate ; petals 5 ; stamens nu- product of one or another of them plays anmerous ; styles 5, united at the base. Fruit 5-celled, important part in the diet of North Americaneach cell with many seeds ; globular or ovoid ; yellowish-green ; stem lacking. Indians, who make use of the berries both fresh and dried. So, also, juneberries have There are many ornamental forms, most of been a source of food supply to explorers, pros- which bear quinces esteemed for jellies, con- pectors, and pioneers, who testify to their serves,and other culinary purposes. The dark, value as pleasing dessert fruits. Juneberries green fruits are very hard, but contain a rich, are as yet little used where they must compete aromatic, lemon-like juice which makes a jelly with other fruits, although they have many of very pleasing flavor. The fruits are further qualities to commend them for domestication. characterized by a strong, distinctive odor, to The fruit of the juneberry is a small pome

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