Filbert Growing in the Puget Sound Country; by Andrew Anderson Quarnberg (1917)
LIBRARY OF THENEW YORK STATE COLLEGEOF HOME ECONOMICSCORNELL UNIVERSITYITHACA, NEW YORK
Cornell University LibrarySB 401.Q3 Filbert growing in the Puget Sound count 3 1924 003 413 659
Cornell University Library The original of tliis book is in tine Cornell University Library. There are no known copyright restrictions in the United States on the use of the text.http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924003413659
Filbert Growing IN THE PUGET SOUND COUNTRY PRESENTING A TREATISE ON THE FILBERT NUT By A. A. QUARNBERG Price Fifty Ceitts Copyright IQ17 PUGET MILL CO. Walker Building SEATTLE, U. S. A.
FILBERTS For Pleasure and Profit FOREWORDTHE object of this booklet to the pleasure, profit is to call attention and permanent satis- faction to be gained by the growing of Fil-bert Nuts in the Puget Sound district of WesternWashington — especially that territory lying northof Seattle, where climatic and other conditions aremore favorable to their cultivation than in anyother portion of the United States. As owners of a large area of land in thislocality, the Puget JNIill Company vindertook in-vestigation of the various products derived fromthe soil in countries jjossessing similar chmaticconditions, with the intention of introducing herethe most profitable and best-adai)ted yields wher-ever they might be found. With knowledge that the Puget Sound lo-cality has a climate virtually identical with muchof Southern Europe, and with the British Isles, wewere led to a special analysis of the fruits, nuts andother products of commercial success in those por-tions of the globe.
Among the many financially profitable Puget Sound industries of agricul- Americas tural life developed Favored Spot there we found none so for conspicuously promi- nent in its appealing Filbert Culture features as the grow- ing of Filbert nuts. In fact it is difficult tofind in those countries the small home without thebeautiful Filbert tree and its generous yield. Filbert nuts enter largely into the diet of thosepeople who dwell in that portion of the Old World(Southern Europe) which under modern explora-tion furnishes so much evidence of ancient historyand undoubtedlj the cultivation and use of theFilbert and other nuts has been handed down tothe jn-esent generation from jn-ehistoric times whenhuman kind were compelled to subsist on whatNature provided, not having arrived at a conditionwhen mans ingenuity had developed food condi-tions such as we enjoy in this da5 Indeed, theindustry of Filbert growing has assumed tremen-dous proportions there, and the exportation ofFilberts to all parts of the world amounts to mil-lions of dollars annually. With the outbreak of the European war, how-ever, the exportation of Filberts to the UnitedStates and to the Latin-American countries was
virtually shut off, and the stern law of necessitjgave rise to a new enterprise in the utilization ofFilberts, producing from the nut Filbert oil forcooking and lighting purposes, and also for themaking of soap. While many attemjits have been made to in-troduce the growing of Filberts in different partsof the United States, it is not until the last quar-ter-century that success has been attained on such ascale as to warrant plantations for commercial pur-poses. Because other parts of the United Stateshave lacked the favorable climatic and other con-ditions that are so conspicuouslj^ present aboutPuget Sound, attemj^ts elsewhere have served butto emphasize Puget Sounds adaptability to tliisinteresting form of culture. But the financial advantages of Filbert grow-ing in Western Washington have been so thor-oughly tested and demonstrated over a quartercentury period as to prove in our opinion thatthe man or woman with foresight, bj" acquiring aFilbert orchard now, can look forward to amplereturns and income not onlj- for this generation,but for the second and third generations to come.And this takes into account only the partial util-ization of the land, for with Filberts may be pro-duced other crops and other yields that go to makeup the intensive cultivation of land foreshadowingthe "new life of the land." Upon the demonstration farm of the PugetMill Company at Alderwood Manor, on the Seat-
THRIFTY AND PROFITABLE FILBERT ORCHARD WEST OF THE CASCADE MOUNTAINStle-Everett interurban electric railway, we have alarge plantation of Filbert trees of various varie-ties. As a member of the horticultural staff atthat point, we consider ourselves particularly for-tunate in having Mr. A. A. Quarnberg, who un-doubtedly is regarded as the leading Americanauthority on Filbert culture. Mr. Quarnbergs province will be to teach andassist all those who are interested in this fascinat-ing and i^rofitable form of land cultivation. Mr.Quarnberg has spent the most useful years of along and singularly seasoned life in developing tQcommercial success the growing of Filberts in theState of Washington. With an orchard made up of Filbert treesfrom many parts of the world, Mr. Quarnberg has
—standardized Filbert culture into two varietiesthe Du Chilly and the Barcelona, and for the bene-fit of present and prospective Filbert growers Mr.Quarnberg has written the following treatise. Wehope it will not only afford all required informationand direction in regard to this interesting subject,but will point the way to success and independencefor the many who love Nature, love to watch themiracles the soil will produce, and who long for afull and complete life that will round itself out inpeace and plenty for future years. Aldeiwood Manor is ideally Alderwood situated, not only with regard to its physical advantages for the Manor cultivation of Filberts, but be- Ruralizes cause of its location within such the easy reach of a metropolitan cen- City ter. Only a matter of minutes from the center of Seattle, Al- derwood jNIanor provides a homespot of unique attractiveness, with electric lights,telephones and the comforts of the city, yet withthe beauty and charm of the country. The orna-mention and utility of the country place, we believe,cannot be promoted to greater advantage than bythe cultivation of the Filbert tree. For man who wants the freedom, the thehealth, thewholesome surroundings of the countryfor himself and his family, for the man who real-izes thatit is not the amount of land he possessesbut the utilization of that land, Alderwood Manorand Filbert culture, under the expert guidance and
direction of the Alderwood demonstration farm,afford a combination of wonderful appeal. PUGET MILL COMPANY, Walker Building, Seattle, Washington. jn^-i^-i,^
A. A. aUAKNBERGONE OF AMERICAS FOREMOST AUTHORITIES ON THE GROWING OF THE FILBERT NUT
FILBERT GROWING By A. A. QUx-^RNBERGT?OR centuries tilbert culture has held a promi--- nent place among the industries of variousEuropean and Oriental countries, not only l)ecausefilberts are a desirable food, but also on account oftheir value as an article of export. Because of adverse conditions, efforts to growfilberts in the eastern sections of the United Stateshave been discouraging, resulting in the importa-tion of millions of pounds of filberts annually forconsumption in the United States. After twenty-three years of local experiencethe fact is established beyond a doubt that theclimatic conditions are ideally adapted to filbertculture in the Pacific Northwest. Here any ever j^roduced in as fine filberts asany country have for years been successfully grownand it seems certain that filbert growing will de-velop into a profitable industry of large commercialproportions. With practically no filberts produced in theeastern, northeastern and southern states, there is aready market in the United States for all the fil-berts that can be grown in the Pacific Northwest.
The favorable climatic conditions for produc-tion of filberts in the Pacific Northwest, and espe-cially in the Puget Sound region, AVashington, area valuable resource well worth develoi^ing. This article isnot intended as a scientific ortechnical work on the filbert, but simpl}^ to givesome practical information, the result of experi-ence, concerning European filbert (corjdus avel-lana), its culture, training, etc., as at present i)rac-ticed in the Pacific Northwest. DESCRIPTION The word filbert as generallj^ used, designateshazel-nuts of commerce. Andrew S. Fuller in his"Nut Culturist" says: "The common name filbert is from fullbeard. BARCELONA FILBERTS IN THE HUSK.
All varieties with husks extending beyond the nutMith fringed edges are filberts, while those withhusks shorter than the nuts are hazels from the oldAnglo-Saxon word haesel, a hood or bonnet. The FILBERT BRANCH IN BLOSSOMparentage, size, form, or quality of nut is not to beconsidered in this qualification, for when the nutsare ripe and fallen from the husk, there is nothingleft to distinguish the hazel from the filberts." The filbert (corylus) is a deciduous tree orshrub of which the fruit is a nut enclosed in a leafylacinated calyx cup or husk. It blooms before theleaves appear in the spring. The male flowers are visible early in the au-tumn and api^ear in cylindrical catkins which, in thePacific Northwest, remain on the trees till the fol-lowing months of January or February before theyfully develop or scatter their pollen.
The male flowers are quite conspicuous, buthe female flowers are very small and entirelyhidden in the buds until l)looming time, and theithey merely push out their thread-like crimsoncolored styles at the ex-tremities of the buds for .,^fertilization. When fertil-ized the protruding topsof the ])istils wither anddisa])])ear, while the nut-bearino- ])arts of the flow-er remain intact enclosedin tliebuds awaiting de-velopment the followingsummer. The nuts Aary in shapeand ]nay be round, oval, andol)long, conical, etc.,often groM in clusters,but each nut is enclosedin a husk varying inlength from shorter thanthe nut to lengths extend-ing l)eyond. In most va- POLLEN-PRODUCING CATKIN. MALE FLOWER. ARROW POINrieties, tlie extended husk TO FEMALE FLOWER THAT IS FERTILIZEDopens at the outer edge,but in some it rather contracts than oi:)ens, andthe more contracted forms interfere with the busing of the nuts.
PROPAGATION The filbert usuallj^ de- teriorates from the seed, and other modes of prop- agation must be employed for perpetuating and mul- tiplying varieties. ^Vhile varieties may be propa- gated by budding and grafting, the most com- mon method practicedHOW THE YOUNG SPROUTS both in Europe and this CLUSTER ABOUT THE BASE OE THE TREE country, is by sj^routs or LAYERING THE SHOOTS TO MAKE NEW FILBERT TREES BY THE SERPENTINE METHOD
suckers which the cultivated varieties have a ten-dencjr to throw out from the base of their stems,and which are taken up and developed into trees. Usually a considerable num-ber of rooted sjjrouts may beobtained by banking rich soilaround the stools during thesummer to promote root for-mation, and long sprouts maj^be layered during tlie winterand become rooted by the fol-lowing fall. There are several methods oflayering, but the most commonis to bend and fasten down thesprouts so that the lower por-tion is imbedded in earth tothrow out roots, while the ujiperpart is made to grow erect andform a new tree. The rootedsprouts and layers are sepa-rated from the parent tree and y y^^ ..,.,_>~-2T- ,^ LAYERED SPROUT SEV- ERED FROM PARENT TREE, SHOWING ROOT DEVELOP- MENT SUMMER AFTER LAYERING
planted in nursery rows about one foot apart,where they are alloed to remain and develop intothe size of trees desired for permanent orchardplanting. Small trees may be planted into orchard,but larger well-rooted trees are more satisfactory. LAND AND LOCATION OF ORCHARD The climate of the Pacific Northwest is favor-able for the filbert (in fact in no other portion ofthe United States has the filbert met with success),and it will grow on a wide range of land and soileven when moderately poor, so long as it is welldrained and deep enough to supply the necessarymoisture, for the filbert is a surface feeding plant,but it undoubtedly thrives best on moderately deep,richand well drained loam. The air drainage doesnot seem to be so essential with the filbert as withother fruits, asit appears to be less liable to frostinjuries than most other kinds of fruit.
YORDINARY NORTHWEST COLD WEATHER DOES NOT AFFECT THE FILBERT DURING BLOOMING TIME (FEBRUARY)
PLANTING OF THE ORCHARD Filbert trees produce a mass of fiberous roots,and transplant well. Fall or early winter is the best season for transplanting fil- berts, but they may also be planted in the spring. Before planting the orchard, the land should be thor- oughly plowed and harrowed and put into good condition. Different varieties of filberts differ in growth and size of trees and are set from ,ten to twenty feet apart according to variety, quality of land, and the size they are expected to attain. Generally speaking, a distance of sixteen feet is considered ample and not crowded, for the larger European varieties grown in this country. The holes for the trees should be dug sufficiently large to accommodate the roots and the fill- ing in of some good top soil, with the setting of the trees a few inches deeper than they are in the nursery row. NEWLY PLANTED FILBERT TE£E As with most other kinds of fruit, cross-pol-lination of filberts is beneficial and with some va-
NURSERY ROWS OF YOUNG FILBERT TREES, SET OUT ADJOINING FILBERT ORCHARD necessaiy for satisfactory bearing.rieties, Some more self-sterile than others, but mostvarieties areof them do better mixed than when grown alone. Very blooming varieties late will not fertilizethe early blooming varieties and vice versa. Incarrying out this idea, it is best to plant the varietieswith all possible regularity. The_y would pollinizejust as well if they were indiscriminately intermin-gled, but if it is desired to keep the varieties sepa-rate, difficulty would be encountered in the jjicking.
CARE AND CULTIVATION AVhile the filbert will stand some neglect, it iswell to bear in mind that it responds readily togood treatment, and it pays to give the treesgood care and keep the land in good cultivationand fertility. If the soil is deficient in lime, asgenerally is the case west of the Cascade JNIoun-tains, some should be applied; and unless the landis very rich, bearing trees, at least, should bi-annuaily receive a dressing of barnyard manure orifjoultry or other fertilizer. Clean cultivation should be practiced in filbertorchards, excepting as to cover crops, and for thatpurpose vetches probably give the best results inthe Northwest. Generally speaking filbert trees have in the]3ast had but little systematic iJruning in the Pa-cific Northwest. The trees have done well withoutmuch pruning and this has fostered a quite generalopinion that fill)erts needed but little actual prun-ing. But with older trees and the increasing num-ber and size of commercial orchards, a standardsystem is recommended. Up to this time filbert trees have usually been,and in-oba])ly ^vill continue to be, trained as lowstandard tiees headed from one to three feet high.Some have been allowed to grow in their naturalform of several stems, but tlie one stem or trunkform is generally ])referred, being more convenientfor care and cultivation.
Felix the late pioneer promoter of Gillet,filbert culture and one of the most renowned hor-ticulturists and authorities on nuts in this countrj^recommended that "filberts be trained as lowstandard trees and liranched at 18 to 24 inchesfrom the ground and not grown bush-like." SHAPING THE TREE After a filbert tree 4 has been planted, the first pruning required is to head it to desir- able height from 20 to 30 inches, two feet being a good height. During the follow- ing summer a luim- ber of shoots Mill grow out near the top of the headed stem, and from these, three or four are se- lected and trained to form the top of the future tree and the others removed. For the first few years, the to]) requires more or less attention in way of thinning and shortening of strong shoots to give the tree the jJioper form CATKINS fBLOSSOMS) APPEARING i "^^l hr,]anrp UcliaiH^C. ON THE YOUNG FILBERT TREE
-4^ ^«MM :ims:^.^x STURDY FILBERT TREES IN WESTERN WASHINGTON ORCHARD In the family garden or lawn the filbert mightbe made to branch at three or four feet. Nothing,indeed, is prettier than a filbert tree headed atthat height. Particularly is the purple leaf filbertIiighly ornamental with its original and brilliantfoliage. Unless wanted for projiagation purposes, suck-ersfrom the stem and roots should be hoed off ingrowth during the summer, or in winter be severedfrom the tree by pruning shears or other sharpcutting tools.
While the filbert likes a reasonable amount ofair and sun, it does not require continued sun-light as much as most other fruits and succeedswell in partial shade. For this reason filberts arewell adapted for fillers in orchards of walnuts andother strong growing fruit trees. In Kent, Eng-land, apples and pears frequently form a densecover OAer the filbert trees and yet they produce,but naturally not so freely as those in more openquarters. In the famous filbert orchards of Kent, thetrees are trained in the form of a broad, open andbasin-like top on a short trunk, the top having sixor more branches which are systematically prunedin winter by thinning the spurs, removing old woodand shortening strong growths, leaving the treesregularly balanced on all sides. TIME OF BEARING AND YIELDS Filberts are generally early bearers and goodwell-rooted trees usuallj^ begin to bear the thirdyear from planting, increasing thereafter with theage and size of the trees. Usuall}^ a few pounds of nuts may be ex-pected from five-year-old trees, and when theorchard is six years old, it begins to pay. Withproper care it will go on paying from 50 to 100years or more. Filbert trees are known to growvery old. For matured trees the average yield issomewhere between 1,000 and 2,000 pounds of nutsper acre. Some orchards, of course, produce more
in single years, due likely to care and favorableconditions during the poUinizmg period. Frequently good four-year-old trees producefour pounds of dried nuts and five-year-old fivepounds; seven-j^ear-old sometimes 16 pounds, and FILBERT TREE COMING INTO BEARING. THIS TREE AT FOUR YEARS PRODUCED FOUR POUNDSindividual eight-year-old trees as much as 33pounds, but, as before stated, the growing of thefilbert is comparatively new here, and with the ex-
perience of the past as a guide to the care, man-agement, poUinization, etc., one maj- confidentlylook forward to even better average results. During the last few j^ears the Northwestgrown filberts have retailed at prices varying from•25c to 30c per pound according to varietj^ size, etc.Considering the limited area adapted to filbertgrowing in the United States, and the increasingdemand, the problem is one of adequate pro-duction. HARVESTING In the Pacific Northwest filberts usually areripe and ready to gather the first part of themonth of Sei^tember. They should not be jiickeduntil ripe, a condition determined by the brownishcolor of the nut, the straw-colored husk and thereadiness with which the nuts separate from thehusk. The general practice inthe gathering offilberts is to pick them up from the ground in-stead of from the trees. When ripe and giventime, the nuts will fall to the ground of their ownaccord in most instances, but they usually arehurried off the trees to some extent by shakingthe branches gently before each picking. Usually three pickings will gather the crop. Nuts with short husk like the Barcelona gen-erally rollout of the husk and drop to the groundclean, but varieties having long husk, such as DuChilly, require more or less husking to get the
nuts separated. INIachines for husking filberts willundoubtedly be perfected and come into generaluse. Some such as the Avelines have con- A^arietiesstricted husk so tight around the nut that theyhusk with difficulty and are hard to handle inlarger quantities. Filberts are easily dried. When gatheredthey usually are spread on trays and dried in thesun or other ventilated place in a few days. Inwet weather, filberts may be dried artificially inordinary fruit dryers with heat from 75 to 90degrees Fahrenheit. Higher heat than 90 degreesis liable to break down the oil and damage theflavor of the nuts. Filberts are not liable to mould, and theyrequire no washing or bleaching. When dried sufficiently, the test of which isbrittle meat, the nuts are cleaned and polished ina revolving cylinder or other mechanism answer-ing the purpose, and after grading they are sackedand stored in a cool place ready for the market. Filberts are also gathered with the husk andsold in the fresh state at remunerative prices.For this purpose varieties with long husks are bestsuited, as they keep the nuts from rolling out soreadily as in the short husk.
INSECT PESTS AND DISEASES Onthe Pacific Coast filberts are remarlvabl}^free frominsect pests and disease. Anaphis orplant louse sometimes appears on the foliage, butoutside of dropping some honey dew in the leavesand branches, this insect does not seem to do muchharm to the trees, and but little attention so farhas been paid to it. The hazel bud mite has attacked certain sus-ceptible such as Prolific, Fertile de varieties,Coutard, Cosford, Princess Roj^al and others, anddone considerable damage. Fortunately some ofour most popular and valuable varieties, such asBarcelona and Du Chilly and others, in-obably byreason of difference in the construction of the buds,seem to be almost totally immune from tlie bud mite. The blight or fungus disease on the easternAmerican hazel (corylus Americana), which hasattacked and killed the European filbert whereverset out in the eastern and southern states, has neverbeen found on the Pacific Coast native hazel (corylus rostrata), nor on any of the Europeanvarieties cultivated in the Pacific Northwest. VARIETIES An important i:)oint in planting filberts is theselection and assembling of varieties. As none ofthe native American hazels have developed anyvarieties worthy of naming, propagating, or grow-ing in a commercial way, we must look to theforeign species for selections and cultivation.
; Of all now tested out, the Barce- the varietieslona and DuChilly are the best and most desirablemarket varieties of which trees in larger numbersmay be obtained for planting at the present time. SOME OF THE MOST COMMON VARIETIES Barcelona: A magnificent variety from nut very S2:)ain; large, round and of fiist qvialitj^; shell moderately thick; strong grower and very prolific. Intro- duced by Felix Gillet about 47 years ago. One of the best and most popvilar varie- ties for planting. Du Chilly : A fine, large, elongated oval variety with moderately thin shellTHE BAECELONA FILBERT IN THE HUSKAND READY FOR MARKET (FULL SIZE) H U t S U U f O r 1 1mJ
THE DU CHILLY FILBERT IN THE HUSK AND AS IT LOOKS HEADY FOE MAEKET (FULL SIZE)
large, and sweet. fiill-fleshed The largest nutgrown in America, as far as known, over an inchin length and three-fourths of an inch in width;husk longer than the nut; strong, symmetricalgrower. Introduced hy Felix Gillet about thesame time as Barcelona. One of the very bestvarieties. Algiers: Nut much like Barcelona, lint some-what smaller, good bearer. Kentish Cob: Large fruited cob-nut, a gooddeal like Du Chilly; much grown in England. Nottingham: Nut medium, oval shaped,good flavored, shell thin, kernel full and fine flav-ored. A very pretty nut. JMoNTEBEiJ.o : Nut medium, roundish, fullkernel, good flavored, very prolific. Nos Lunghe: A beautiful variety; nutlarge, shell thick, kernel sweet and good flavored;husk long and slightly constricted j^reventing thenut from rolling out. Peaksons Peoijfic (Grandis) Nut large, :short, good (piality, thick shell, short husk, con-sidered the true Barcelona nut of commerce. Mekville de Boewiller: Nut large, roundat the base tapering to a point, fine flavor. Red and AVhite Aveline: Nuts medium,ovate; long constricted husk; kernel with either
wine-colored or white skin, hence the name Redand White Avehne; flavor sweet and good; very —prohfic. Trees are not strong growers. Purple-Leaved Avelixe: very pretty, Aornamental variety, the leaf heing of a dark pur-plish hue, looks beautiful. The nut is like otherAvelines. INIany other varieties of more or less valuemight be mentioned, but with the difficulty of ob-taining trees for planting it would be of but littlepractical use. USES OF FILBERTS The chief uses of filberts are as food, mainlyfor desserts and confectionery. They may also beconverted into a valuable which doubtless when oil,more are grown will become an article of commerce. The filbert is not known and ajijpreciated as itdeserves to be. The Northwest grown filberts cer-tainly are excellent nuts, mild and fine in flavor,and the more familiar the jjeople become with them,the better they will like them and the larger willbe their consummation, not to mention the fact thatthe use of nuts generally is increasing and in many[;ases taking the place of meat in dietary. Consid-ering the limited area adapted to filbert growing,there is no danger of over-production. PERSONAL EXPERIENCE My attention was first drawn to filberts by anirticle on filbert culture in America, written by
Prof. H. E. Van Deman about 24 years ago.Prof. Van Deman organized and was the first headof the division of pomology in the department ofagriculture, Washington, D. C, and he served as ajudge of exhibitions of nuts and fruit in prac-tically every state in the Union and at all the na-tional expositions since 1876 to the time of hisdeath, in 1915. In this article Mr. Van Deman described thealmost universal failures to grow filberts in va-rious eastern and southern states and ended bysaymg, that before giving up all hopes of grow-ing filberts in the United States, they should betried in the territoiy about Puget Sound, Wash-ington, where the climate is similar to that of Kent.England, famous for its fine filbert orchards. Being of an experimental mind, I sent toFelix Gillet for a few trial filbert trees in Feb-ruarj^ 1894, and planted them in Western Wash-ington. Among these were two Du Chilly trees,which jHoved to be the first trees of that varietybrought to the Northwest. In later years I haveadded other varieties, including the valuable Bar-celona, and the development and fruiting of theseexperimental trees were closely watched. While my ])lantings were hmited, the indica-tions plainlyshowed the climate to be highly favor-able to the development of the trees and at thesame time the yield and quality of the nuts of somevarieties j^roved decidedly encouraging.
In 1908, I had tested out alK)ut ten varieties,more or less, with differing results; many for vari-ous reasons proved unsatisfactory and disappoint-ino, while Barcelona and Du Chilly indicated greatpossihilities for filbert culture in tlie Pacific Xorth-west. Xnmerous small })lantings of filberts had alsobeen made in various parts of the Northwest withsimilar results. It became evident that upon theselection and assembling of the right varieties,depended the success or failure of growing filbertsin the Xorthwest. "With the limited filbert growingin the East, but little information on the subjectof varieties could be obtained outside the experi-ence and recommendations of the late Felix Gilletof Nevada City, California, from whose importa-tions and distrilnitions the most of the desirablevarieties of filberts now grown in the Pacific North-west may be traced. For the purpose of determining the relativecommercial value of the various varieties grownin other filbert producing countries and their adap-tability to the conditions existing in the PacificNorthwest, I then began to assemble my nowlarge collection of filberts, which in 1916 numberedabout four dozen different varieties from most ofthe filbert growing countries of the world. 5^""*"S About 25 have now been quite well varietiestested out, and while I have some very promisuigother varieties, I think Barcelona and Du Chillyso far are unsurpassed for commercial planting.
CONCLUSION In conclusion I will say the filbert culture isfascinating; it combines pleasure and profit. Fil-berts are not perishable and do not require an im-mediate market, and with practically none pro-duced in the East, and Avith an ever-growing de-mand there is a ready market for all the filbertsthat may be 23roduced in the Xorthwest for yearsto come. To me no other horticultural industry looksmore j^romising than filbert culture in the PacificNorthwest, and particularly in the Puget Soundregion, especially north of Seattle, Avhere theweather conditions are so favorable, the bearingof certain varieties is good and regular, and thesize and quality of the nuts are not surpassed inany country.