Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
  • Like
The Fruit Manual: A Guide To The Fruits And Fruit Trees Of Great Britain; by Robert Hogg (1884)
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Now you can save presentations on your phone or tablet

Available for both IPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

The Fruit Manual: A Guide To The Fruits And Fruit Trees Of Great Britain; by Robert Hogg (1884)

  • 326 views
Published

The Fruit Manual: A Guide To The Fruits And Fruit Trees Of Great Britain; by Robert Hogg (1884) >>>>Contains wonderful lists of heritage apples! …

The Fruit Manual: A Guide To The Fruits And Fruit Trees Of Great Britain; by Robert Hogg (1884) >>>>Contains wonderful lists of heritage apples!

Published in Education
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
326
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
10
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. FRUIT MANUAL
  • 2. y^^i^r-: ^iO^^:-^^:.m
  • 3. Digitized by the Internet Archive ^ in 2007 with funding from ^^ Microsoft Corporation[tp://www.archive.org/details/fruitmanualguideOO.
  • 4. Vr^iUNIVERSITY OP CALIF*- -»NIA LIBRARY
  • 5. i
  • 6. THEIF I^ UIT IMI^^lTTJ^^L " Fruit of all kinds, in coat, Bough or smooth rind, or bearded husk or ahelL"—MiLTOW.
  • 7. v.^^^^^5^ THE FRUIT MANUAL:THE FEUITS AND FEUIT TEEES OF GEEAT BEITAIN. Br EGBERT HOGG, LL.D., F.L.S., Viee-Prttident, and latt Secretary, of The Royal Horticultural Society ; Editor of the * Journal of horticulture," dtc, ±c., dte. FIFTH EDITION. JOURNAL OF HORTICULTUEE OFFICE, 171, FLEET STREET. 1884. p tfs i»^ flipfl i (^
  • 8. Co t^t pernor; of i^t htt MR. THOMAS RIVERS, OF BAWBKIDOEWORTH, THIS FIFTH EDITION OF THE FRUIT MANUAL;NOT THAT HE REQUIRES A MEMORIAL OTHER THAN THAT WHICH HEHIMSELF HAS RAISED; BUT FOR FORTY YEARS WE WERE KNIT TOGETHERBY THE CLOSEST FRIENDSHIP, WORKING TOGETHER AND STIMULATING ONEANOTHER IN THE STUDY OF POMOLOGY: AND NOW THAT HE HAS PASSED AWAY ITHUS CHERISH IN MY MEMORY A SINCERE FRIEND AND A GOOD MAN. HE 3DIEID OOTOBER. IVth, ia7"7. Aged 80 Years. y/j
  • 9. PREFACE.It is twenty-four years since this work was first published, andduring the first fifteen of that period it passed through threelarge editions. The fourth appeared nine years ago, and thathas long since been out of print. I have now finished the FifthEdition, in which will be found a great deal of new matter,enlarging the work to upwards of 150 pages more than therewere in the last. The increase in size is mainly due to the introduction ofadditional descriptions of Fruits which are actually existing inour Gardens and Orchards, as I have been desirous of putting onrecord a description of all the fruits generally cultivated in theUnited Kingdom so far as it was in my power to do so. I couldeasily have increased the size of this volume if I had been sodisposed by introducing fruits cultivated abroad or which aredescribed in foreign works; but this would have answered nouseful purpose, for until these have been grown in this countryw^e can form no idea of what their merits or demerits might be.Much harm has already been done and much disappointment hasbeen caused by the indiscriminate introduction and recommend-ation of foreign fruits with the merits they are reputed to possessin other soils and other climates. Fruits are so easily influencedby these two agencies that even in this country, in localities notfar distant from each other, we meet with the most conflictingresults. In the fertile valley of the Thames about Teddingtonand Twickenham every kind of hardy fruit might be expected to
  • 10. Vlll PREFACE.be produced in its greatest perfection ; but the reports furnishedby that experienced cultivator and acute observer, Mr. R. D.Blackmore, which will be found in the descriptions of Peachesand Pears, are quite staggering, and destroy the long-cherishedopinion which some of us have held respecting our favouritefruits. The new Classification of the Apple upon which I have forsome years been engaged is another additional feature in thisvolume, and I trust that, when its principles have been mastered,it will be found of service in the identification of the differentvarieties. The same success that has attended my Classification of theApple has been denied me in my attempt to do the same for thePear. I have merely given a sketch of a system which I hopeto be able some day more fully to elaborate. If one could everyyear, or even at short intervals of years, ensure a crop of fruit thework might soon be accomplished ; but in this uncertain climatewe must be content to proceed by slow marches and wait withpatience till our opportunities arise. I have consented to a request which has been frequently madeto introduce descriptions of the leading kinds of Pine-apples. Since the large importations of this fruit from the West Indies and the Azores, where it is extensively grown for the supply of the European markets, the cultivation of the Pine-apple has fallen off in British gardens. Nevertheless, it is all the more needful that some convenient record should be accessible for the identification of those varieties which have been grown in the pine-stoves of our large establishments.
  • 11. CONTENTS PAGEAlmonds 1 Classification of 1Apples 4 Classification of xi Lists of Select 253 The Best Dessert 257 The Best Kitchen 258 The Best Cideb 259Apricots 260 Synopsis of 260 Lists of Select 273Berberries 273Cherries 274 Synopsis of 274 Lists op Select 316Chestnuts 317Cranberries 317Currants 318 Lists of Select 322Figs 322 Synopsis of 322 Lists of Select 337Gooseberries 337 Synopsis of 337 Lists of Select 365 Table for Weights of 366Grapes 366 Synopsis op 366 Lists of Select 413Medlars 414Mulberries 414Nectarines 415 Synopsis of 415 List of Select 426Nuts and Filberts 426 Synopsis of 426 List of Select 433
  • 12. X CONTENTS.Peaches .----*- Synopsis op PAGE 43H 43B List of Select 464Pears 465 Classification of 465Pine-apples ... Lists of Select The Best - 670 673 675 Synopsis of 675Plums 680 Synopsis of 680 Lists of Select 733 The Best Desseet 733Quinces 734Raspbeeries 734 Synopsis of 734 List of Select 739Strawbeeeies -- 739 List of Select 758Walnuts 758
  • 13. CLASSIFICATION OF APPLES.Many attempts have been made to devise a classification for the Apple.Diel, Sickler, Dochnahl, Lucas, and others have each produced one,but they are all modifications or altered forms the one of the other,and the characters upon which they are constructed are too inconstantand indefinite to render their work of much practical utility. As theultimate design of classification is mainly to facilitate the identificationof the numerous objects that are the subject of inquiry, if it fails inthis, much of its usefulness is impaired. The systems to which Ihave alluded have all proved failures, and, with the exception ofDielsand Doehnahls, I am not aware that under either of them thenumerous varieties of Apples have ever been classified. In British Pomolof/y, which was published many years ago, Isuggested a classification for the Apple that was intended to lead tothe discovery of the names of the diflerent varieties described in thatwork, but its scope was too limited, and it consequently failed in itspurpose. Previous to this I had attempted to make use of Dielsarrangement, but without success, and then I resolved to search out formyself characters upon which to base a system that would accomphshwhat I had in view. In 1876 my earliest views of a new system were published in TheJournal of Horticulture. It appeared while I was absent from home,and was set up in so confused a manner that it called forth some well-merited criticism. I reconstructed it in what I conceived to be a bettershape, and it was printed in a tUstinct form as A New Classiji cation ofAjjples. This is the basis upon which my new and amended system isfounded. I find, however, that in this as in every other classificationof natural objects there are the usual difiiculties to contend with.Kature refuses to be bound, and will not submit to be confined, withinthe narrow limits that man would assign to her. There is still the debatable ground to deal with, where there arc no definite boundaries
  • 14. —XU THE FRUIT MANUAL.and we are met on every hand by the difficulties experienced by M.Milne-Edwards, who says, " We sometimes see the transition of oneplan of structure to an entirely different scheme of organisation takeplace by degrees so completely shaded one into the other that itbecomes very difficult to trace the line of demarcation between thegroups thus connected ; " and it must always be so. No classificationof natural objects has yet been constructed on perfectly fixed principles,and we were to wait, expecting to arrive at that state of scientific ifaccuracy, we should continue waiting. Every system now in use hasbeen crude in its beginning. The natural system of botany, forinstance, which is now almost universally in use, was evolved, and isstill being evolved, out of one which "abounded in errors and imper-fections." I am not discouraged, therefore, when I meet with difficultiesin applying my system. I feel assured that after it has been put intooperation, and some of its imperfections have been discovered andhave disappeared, it will eventually be found to answer the purpose forwhich it is intended ; for I am convinced that the principles uponwhich it is founded are sound. The structural characters on which this classification is based are1. The Stamens; 2. The Tube; 3. The Carpels; and 4. The Sepals. When we make a longitudinal section of an Apple through thecentre of the eye to the stalk we see these various organs. At the topof the section are the calycine segments, or what is technically calledthe eye, and immediately below them there is a cavity called bybotanists the flower-tube. Inserted in this tube is a ring of smallbristle-like organs, which are the remains of the stamens, and theseoccupy three difierent positions. In some fruits they are very nearthe top of the tube ; in others they are lower down, and occupy aposition about the middle ; whilst in others they are very near thebase. The tube itself is of two forms —the conical and the funnel-shaped. Just below the tube is the core, composed generally of fivecells or carpels, and these assume four difierent forms —round, ovate,obovate, and elliptical and each of these varies in its relation to the ;axis of the fruit, some extending close to it and forming symmetricalcells, while others are distant from it and are unsymmetrical. These being the principal characters with which we have to deal, Ishall now proceed to treat of them individually.
  • 15. CLASSIFICATION OF APPLES. XIU 1. The Stamens. — I have already stated that these occupy threedifferent positions in the tube, have adopted them as the primary and 1divisions of this system, having found by experience that they are onthe whole the most reliable characters where all are more or lesschangeable. The marjinal position is shown in Fim. 1, 2 a, 3, and4 a ; the median in Fif/s. 5 a, G a, and 7 and the basal in Figs. 8 a ;and 9 n. 2. The Tube. The tube— is of two distinct forms —the conical andhe funnel-shaped — and these are more or less modified in shape, as willbe seen on reference to the various diagrams. The outlines of theconical tube, as shown in F^s. 1, 2, 6, and 9, proceed from the baseof the sepals in a curved line downwards towards the core, forming aninverted cone. These curves are generally inwards, but occasionallythey are outwards, as in Fuj. 1, which has suggested to me the forma-tion of another division under the name of urn-shaped but it occurs;so seldom that no importance need be attached to it. The lines ofthe funnel-shaped tube proceed, like those of the conical, from thebase of the sepals, curving outwards in the same downward direction,and then, curving inwards, form a hump or shoulder which is higher orlower than the middle of the tube and this has the appearance of a ;funnel shape, as is shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 7, and 8. 3. The Cay-pels. — These constitute what is popularly called the coreof the apple. They are generally five, occasionally they are four,and I have seen only three, but this is very rarely met with. Thesecarpels or seed-cells vary in shape. If one is spht down the middleits walls or membranous lining will be either rounds as represented inFig. 2 b ; ovate, as in Fig. 6 b ; obovate, as in Fig. 9 6; or elliptical,as in Fig. 4 b. Then in relation to the axis of the fruit, they areeither axile or abaxile. When the walls extend to the axis, and thesecharacters will be best seen by making a transverse section of the fruit,the cells are symmetrical, as shown in Figs. 10 and 11, and then theyare said to be axile, whether they are open, as in Fig. 11, or closed, asin Fig. 10. When they are distant from the axis, and the cells areunsymmetrical, as shown in Fig. 12, they are called abaxile. 4. — The Sepals or Eye. These are a portion of the remains of theflower, which in their original form, when accompanied by the corolla,were uniformly expanded and spreading. After the petals drop, andas the fruit develops, they gradually assume various directions, andwhen it is perfectly matured we find them in four distinct forms.The first of these is shown in Fig. 13, where the segments are quitereflexed, frequently so much as to fall back flat on the fruit in tha
  • 16. XIV THE FRUIT MANUAL. m y Fig. 1. Fig. 2. F g. 3. Fig. 6. Fig. 4. Fig. 7. 6- Fig. 6. Fig. 9. Fix. 8.
  • 17. CLASSIFICATION OF APPLES. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fi?. 14. Fig. i;?v"-r -"-W- Fig. 16. Fig. 18.
  • 18. ;XYl THE FBUIT MANUAL.form of a star; they are then said to be divergent. In Fig. 14 wehave another form, in which the segments are never reflexed, but areerect with their margins merely touching and their points divergentand these are erect convergent. Then there is the flat convergentposition [Figs. 15 and 16), in which the segments are flat, closing theeye, but with their margins merely touching and not overlapping eachother. And lastly we have the connivent form (Figs. 17 and 18), inwhich the segments are all close together, overlapping each other andforming a compact cone. The minor divisions require no great explanation. They classifythe fruit according to form as they are round or oblate, conical orovate, and these again are further divided according to their surfacecolouring. This latter character requires a little explanation. Whenfruit is said to be pale it signifies that it is of an uniform colour ofyellow or green, notwithstanding that it may be faintly tinged on theBun side with orange or pale red. It is said to be striped when theonly additional colour to that of the ground colour consists of distinctred stripes without any ground colour of red. It is said to be colouredwhen the skin is wholly or partially a decided red, and this may beaccompanied with stripes or with some russet. The 7usset skin is thatin which a russet coat prevails. When a russet coat has a brown orred cheek the fruit is not on that account to be classed in the colouredsection. In every case I have indicated the time of year during whichthe fruit is in use as a further help to the identification of it.
  • 19. SYNOPSIS OF THE CLASSIFICATION. ANALYTICAL KEY.In all Apples the stamens are inserted either near the margin, in themiddle, or at the base of the tube and these characteristics constitute ;the three primary divisions of this classification. Stamens marpnal A. Stamens median B. Stamens basal C. A. STAMENS MARGINAL. Tube conical I. Tube funnel-shaped . . . .II. I. Tube Conical. Cells round, axile. Group Calyx divergent 1 Calyx erect convergent 2 Calyx flat convergent 3 Calyx connivent 4 Cells round, abaxile. * Calyx divergent 5 Calyx erect convergent 6 Calyx flat convergent 7 Calyx connivent 8 Cells ovate, axile. Calyx divergent 9 Calyx erect convergent 10 Calyx flat convergent 11 Calyx connivent 12 Cells ovate, abaxile. Calyx divergent 13 Calyx erect convergent 14 Calyx flat convergent 15 Calyx connivent 16 Cells obovate, axile. Calyx divergent 17 Calyx erect convergent 18 Calyx flat convergent 19 Calyx connivent 20 Cells obovate, abaxile. Calyx divergent 21 Calyx erect convergent 22 Calyx flat convergent 23 Calyx connivent .24 b
  • 20. .Ill THE FRUIT MANUAL. Cells elliptical, axile. Group Calyx divergent 25 Calyx erect convergent 26 Calyx flat convergent 27 Calyx connivent 28 Cells elliptical, abaxile. Calyx divergent 29 Calyx erect convergent 30 Calyx flat convergent 31 Calyx connivent 32 II. Tube Funnel-shaped. Cells round, axile. Calyx divergent 3$ Calyx erect convergent 34 Calyx flat convergent 35 Calyx connivent 36 Cells round, at) axile. Calyx divergent 37 Calyx erect convergent 38 Calyx flat convergent 39 Calyx connivent 40 Cells ovate, axile. Calyx divergent 41 Calyx erect convergent 42 Calyx flat convergent 43 Calyx connivent 44 Cells ovate, abaxile. Calyx divergent 45 Calyx erect convergent 46 Calyx flat convergent. iT Calyx connivent 48 Cells obovate, axile. Calyx divergent 49 Calyx erect convergent 50 Calyx flat convergent 51 Calyx connivent 52 Cells obovate, abaxile. Calyx divergent 53 Calyx erect convergent 54 Calyx flat convergent 55 Calyx connivent 56 Cells elliptical, axile. Calyx divergent 57 Calyx erect convergent 58 Calyx flat convergent 59 Calyx connivent 60 Cells elliptical, abaxile. Calyx divergent 61 Calyx erect convergent 62 Calyx flat convergent 63 Calyx connivent 64
  • 21. SYNOPSIS OF THE CLASSIFICATION. XIX B. STAMENS MEDIAN. Tube conical I. Tube funnel-shaped . . . .II. I. Tube Conical. Cells round, axile. Group Calvx divergent 65 Calyx erect convergent 66 Calyx flat convergent 67 Calyx connivent 68 Cells round, abaxile. Calyx divergent 69 Calyx erect convergent 70 Calyx flat convergent 71 Calyx connivent 72 Cells ovate, axile. Calyx divergent 73 Calyx erect convergent 74 Calyx flat convergent 75 Calyx connivent 76 Cells ovate, abaxile. Calyx divergent 77 Calyx erect convergent 78 Calyx flat convergent 79 Calyx connivent 80 Cells obovate, axile. Calyx divergent 81 Calyx erect convergent 82 Calyx flat convergent 83 Calyx connivent 84 Cells obovate, abaxile. Calyx divergent 85 Calyx erect convergent 86 Calyx flat convergent 87 Calyx connivent 88 Cells elliptical, axile. Calyx divergent 89 Calyx erect convergent 90 Calyx flat convergent 91 Calyx connivent 92 Cells elliptical, abaxile. Calyx divergent 93 Calyx erect convergent 94 Calyx flat convergent 95 Calyx connivent 96II. Tube Funnel-shaped. Cells round, axile. Calyx divergent 97 Calyx erect convergent 98 Calyx flat convergent 99 Calyx connivent 100
  • 22. XX THE FKUIT MANUAL. Cells round, abaxile. Group Calyx divergent 101 Calyx erect convergent 102 Calyx flat convergent 103 Calyx connivent 104 Cells ovate, axile. Calyx divergent 105 Calyx erect convergent 106 Calyx flat convergent 107 Calyx connivent 108 Cells ovate, abaxile. Calyx divergent 109 Calyx erect convergent 110 Calyx flat convergent Ill Calyx connivent 112 Cells ob ovate, axile. Calyx divergent 113 Calyx erect convergent 114 Calyx flat convergent 115 Calyx connivent 116 Cells obovate, abaxile. Calyx divergent 117 Calyx erect convergent 118 Calyx flat convergent 119 Calyx connivent 120 Cells elliptical, axile. Calyx divergent 121 Calyx erect convergent 122 Calyx flat convergent 123 Calyx connivent 124 Cells elliptical, abaxile. Calyx divergent 125 Calyx erect convergent 126 Calyx flat convergent 127 Calyx connivent 128 C. STAMENS BASAL. Tube conical I. Tube funnel-shaped . . . .II. I. Tube Conical. Cells round, axile. Calyx divergent 129 Calyx erect convergent 130 Calyx flat convergent 131 Calyx connivent 132 Cells round, abaxile. Calyx divergent 133 Calyx erect convergent 134 Calyx flat convergent 135 Calyx connivent .136
  • 23. SYNOPSIS OF THE CLASSIFICATION. XX Cells ovate, axile. Group Calyx divergent 137 Calyx erect convergent 138 Calyx flat convergent 139 Calyx connivent 140 Cells ovate, abaxlle. Calyx divergent 141 Calyx erect convergent 142 Calyx flat convergent 143 Calyx connivent 144 Cells obovate, axile. Calyx divergent 145 Calyx erect convergent 146 Calyx flat convergent 147 Calyx connivent 148 Cells obovate, abaxile. Calyx divergent 149 Calyx erect convergent 150 Calyx flat convergent 151 Calyx connivent 152 Cells elliptical, axile. Calyx divergent 153 Calyx erect convergent 154 Calyx flat convergent 155 Calyx connivent 156 Cells elliptical, abaxile. Calyx divergent 157 Calyx erect convergent 158 Calyx flat convergent 159 Calyx connivent 160II. Tube Funnel-shaped. Cells round, axile. Calyx divergent 161 Calyx erect convergent 162 Calyx flat convergent 163 Calyx connivent 164 Cells round, abaxile. Calyx divergent 165 Calyx erect convergent 166 Calyx flat convergent 167 Calyx connivent 168 Cellsovate, axile. Calyx divergent 169 Calyx erect convergent 170 Calyx flat convergent 171 Calyx connivent 172 Cells ovate, abaxile. Calyx divergent 173 Calyx erect convergent 174 Calyx flat convergent 175 Calyx connivent 176
  • 24. —xxu THE FEUIT MANUAL. Cells obovate, axile. Group Calyx divergent 177 Calyx erect convergent 178 Calyx flat convergent 179 Calyx connivent 180 Cells obovate, abaxile. Calyx divergent 181 Calyx erect convergent 182 Calyx flat convergent 183 Calyx connivent 184 Cells elliptical, axile. Calyx divergent 185 Calyx erect convergent 186 Calyx flat convergent 187 Calyx connivent " . 188 Cells elliptical, abaxile. Calyx divergent 189 Calyx erect convergent 190 Calyx flat convergent 191 Calyx connivent 192 A. STAMENS MARGINAL. I. Tube Conical. Cells round, axile. (4) Calyx connivent. * Fruit round or oblate. (1) Calyx divergent. Pale. * Fruit round or oblate. Early Julyan, Aug. Pale. Coloured. Grosse Casseler Eeinette, Nov. — Bastard Foxwlielp, Oct. Dec. — ^Jan. Cornish Mother, Oct. Nov.— Striped. Kerry Pippin, Sep.— Oct. Haffners Gold Eeinette, Nov. Striped. Dec. Slack my Girdle, Oct. — Dec. ** Fruit conical or ovate. ** Fruit conical or ovate. Pale. Coloured. Vale Mascal Pearmain, Dec- Beachamwell, Dec. —Mar. Feb. (2) Calyx erect convergent, Cells round, abaxile. * Fruit round or oblate. (5) Calyx divergent. Pale. None. Leyden Pippin, Aug. (6) Calyx erect convergent. Coloured. * Fruit conical or ovate. Lord Burghley, Dec. —May. Coloured. Melon, Dec. Corn Apple, Oct. — Dec. Sops in Wine, Oct. (7) Calyx flat convergent. Surrey Flatcap, Oct. —Jan. * Fruit round or oblate. (3) Calyx flat convergent. Pale. None. Hawthornden, Oct. — Dec.
  • 25. — — — — STAMENS MARGINAL. XXlll (8) Calyx connivent. Cells ovate, abaxile. * Fruit round or oblate. (13) Calyx divergent. Pale. None. New Hawthomden, Sep. —Oct. (14) Calyx erect convergent. Russian Transparent, Nov. None. Jan. Striped. (15) Calyx flat convergent. Frogmore Prolific, Sep. — Dec. None. (16) Calyx connivent. Cells ovate, axile. * Fruit round or oblate. (9) Calyx divergent. Pale. * Fruit round or oblate. Maidens Blush, Sep. —Oct. Pale. ** Fruit conical or ovate. Flat Nonpareil, Oct. Jan. — Pale. Coloured, Nanny, Oct. Dutch Codlin, Aug. Sep.— ** Fruit conical or ovate. — Lord Grrosvenor, Sep. Nov. Coloured. Striped. Royal Somerset, Nov. — Mar. Sheeps Nose, Oct. —Nov.(10) Calyx erect convergent. Cells obovate, axile. * Fruit round or oblate. (17) Calyx divergent. Pale. Keddleston Pippin, Nov. — May. * Fruit round or oblate. Striped. Pale. Nonesuch, Sep. Oct. — Burr-Knot, Oct. —Nov. Jiusset. Cambusnethan Pippin, Oct. Martin Nonpareil, Dec. — Mar. Nov. Christies Pippin, Dec. —Feb. ** Fruit conical or ovate. Coloured. Bringewood Pippin, Jan. Mar.— Reinette Blanche dEspagne, Tom Putt, Nov. — Dec. Apr.(11) Calyx flat convergent. Ronaldss Grooseberry Pippin, * Fruit round, roundish or oblate. Nov.—Feb. Smalls Golden Pippin, Dec. jRusset. Jan. St,Edmunds Pippin, Oct. Waltham Abbey Seedling, Sep. Acklam Russet, Nov. Mar. — —Dec.(12) Calyx connivent. Coloured. *Fruit round or oblate. Allens Everlasting, Nov. — Pale. May. Early Julyan, Aug. Cherry Apple, Oct. Nov.— Green Norman, Oct. Dec. — Uellners Gold Reinette, Jan. Ringer, Nov. Feb. — May. Russet. Striped. Ringer, Nov. Feb. — Caraway Russet, Nov. —Feb. Coloured. Pitmaston Nonpareil, Dec. Jan. Devonshire Quarrenden, Aug. Sept. Sam Young, Nov. —Feb. Busset. Screveton Golden Pippin, Dec. Royal Russet, Nov. —May. — Apr. ** Fruit conical or ovate. ** Fruit conical or ovate. Colimred. Coloured. Handsome Norman, Oct. —Jan. Rosemary Russet, Dec. —Feb. Red Foxwhelp, Oct. —Nov. Tulip, Nov. —Apr.
  • 26. — —XXIV THE FRUIT MANUAL. (18) Calyx erect convergent. ** Fruit;conical, oblong or obovate. * Fruit round or oblate. Pale. Pale. Edmund Jupp, Sep.— Dec. Whiting Pippin, Oct. Jan. — Coloured. Gralloway Pippin, Nov. Jan. — Goose Apple, Oct. —Jan. Keddleston Pippin, Nov. Mar. — Cornish Gilliflower, Dec. — May. Coloured. Ords, Jan. De Neige, Nov. Jan. — Lord Burghley, Dec. May. — Cells obovate, abaxile. Marriage-maker, Oct. Dec. — (21) Calyx divergent. Teams Pippin, Nov. ^Feb. — * Fruit round or oblate. Russet. Pale. Ashmeads Kernel, Dec. —May. No Core, Sep. Sweeny Nonpareil, Jan. —^Apr. (22) Calyx erect convergent. ** Fruit conical or ovate. * Fruit round, roundish or oblate. Coloured. Pale. Lewiss Incomparable. Shoreditch White, Sep. —Nov.(19) Caljrx flat convergent. (23) Calyx flat convergent. * Fruit round or oblate. * Fruit round or ovate. Pale. Pale. Hunts Green Newtown Pippin, Hawthomden, Oct. — Dec. — Dec. Mar. North End Pippin, Apr. —May. (24) Calyx connivent. * Fruit round or oblate. Coloured. Kadford Beauty, Oct. Dec. — Pale. — Kymer, Oct. Dec.— Jolly Beggar, Aug. Oct. Huntingdon Codlin, Aug. Sep. — ** Fruit conical or ovate. — Grenadier, Sept. Oct. Mark Pale. Marshall. Pottss Seedling, Sept. Oct. — . Curl Tail, Oct.—Jan.(20) Calyx connivent. Calville Blanche dHiver, Jan. * Fruit round or oblate. —Apr. Coloured. Pale. Malakovna, Oct. Dec. — Early Julyan, Aug. — Annie Elizabeth, Dec. Mar. — Ringer, Nov. Feb. — Dec. Early Nonpareil, Oct. Kentish Fillbasket, Nov. Jan. — ** Fruit conical or ovate. Striped. Dutch Mignonne, Dec. — May. Pale. Pomeroy of Hereford, Sep. Springrove Codlin, Sep. — Oct. Oct. Coloured. Winter Strawberry, Dec. —Mar. Cornish Gilliflower, Dec. — May. Coloured. Cells elliptical, axile. Early Harvest, Aug. Hawkridge, Aug. (25) Calyx divergent. * Fruit conical or ovate. Mr. Gladstone, Aug. Irish Peach, Aug. Coloured. Kerry Pippin, Sep. Oct. — Ladys Finger of Hereford. Joeby Crab, Oct. Dec. — Oct. —Jan. Philip Maundy, Oct.— Dec. Brabant Bellefleur, Nov. —Apr. Api, Oct. —Apr. (26) Calyx erect convergent. Cherry Norman, Oct. Dec. — None. Musset. Pomeroy of Hereford, Sep. (27) Calyx flat convergent. * Fruit conical or ovate. Oct. Greenwood Eusset, Nov. Feb. — Pale. New Rock Pippin, Jan. May. — Hunthouse, Dec. Mar.
  • 27. — STAMENS MARGINAL. XXV Coloured. (30) Calyx erect convergent. Bennet, Oct. — Dec. None.(28) Calyx connivent. (31) Calyx flat convergent. * Fruit round or ovate. * Fruit conical or ovate. Pale. Pale. Croft Peannain, Oct. — Dec. Melrose, Oct. —Jan. White Norman, Oct. — Dec. Coloured. (32) Calyx connivent. Handsome Norman, Oct. — Dec. * Fruit round or oblate. Royal Wildinf^, Oct. — Dec. Pale. Cells elliptical, abaxile. New Hawthornden, Sep. — Oct.(29) Calyx divergent. Grenadier, Sep. — Oct. None. II. Tube Funnel-shaped. Cells round, axile. Coloured.(33) Calyx divergent. Annat Scarlet. Aug.* Fruit round, roundish or oblate. Isle of Wight Pippin, Sep. Jan. — Siegende Reinette, Dec. Mar. — Pale. Frogmore Nonpareil, Oct. — London Pippin, Nov. Apr. — Nov. ** Fruit conical or ovate. Colo^ired. Pale. Lucombes Seedling, Oct. —Feb. Lucombes Pine, Oct. — Dec. Iiui(i<et. Queen Cells round, abajcile. of the Pippins, Oct. Dec. (37) Cal3rx divergent. ** Fruit conical or ovate. None. Pale. (38) Calyx erect convergent. Isleworth Crab, Oct. * Fruit round or oblate. Coloured. Ruxset. Barchards Seedling, Oct. Buffcoat, Nov. May. —(34) Calyx erect convergent. •• Fruit conical or ovate. * Fruit round or oblate. Coloured. Pale. Com Apple, Dec. Leyden Pippin, Aug. (39) Calyx flat convergent. CoUmred. None. Baumanns Reinette, Nov. Nonpareil, Jan. May. — (40) Calyx connivent. None.(35) Calyx flat convergent. * Fruit round or oblate. Cells ovate, axile. Pale. (41) Calyx divergent. Oslin, Aug. — Sep. * Fruit round or oblate. Lord Clyde, Dec. —Mar. Pale. Coloured. Frogmore Nonpareil, Oct. — St. Albans Pippin, Oct. Nov. Vineyard Pippin, Oct. Dec. — — Golden Pippin, Nov. Apr,(36) Calyx connivent. — Golden Nonpareil, Jan. Feb. * Fruit round or oblate. Royal Somerset, Nov. — Mar. Pale. Coloured. Early Julyan, Aug. Scarlet Nonpareil, Jan. — Mar. Gennet Moyle, Oct. Dec. — Russet. Penhallow Pippin, Oct. Jan. — Nonpareil.
  • 28. — —XXVI THE FRUIT MANUAL. ** Fruit conical or ovate. (48) Calyx connivent. Coloured. * Fruit round or oblate. Queen of Sauce, Nov. —Jan. Russet. (42) Calyx erect convergent. Burntisland Pippin, Oct. ** Fruit conical or ovate. * Fruit round or oblate. Pale. Pale. Keddleston Pippin, Nov. Mar. — Keswick Codlin, Aug. — Sep. Hughess Grolden Pippin, Dec. Coloured. Feb. Devonshire Queen, Oct. Coloured. Amassia, Oct. Jan.— Morning Pippin, Dec. —Mar. Northern Spy, Dec. May. — Russet. Cells obovate, axile. Byson Wood, Dec. Feb. — (49) Calyx divergent. ** Fruit conical or ovate. * Fruit round or oblate. Coloured. Pale. Pigeonnet. Evargil, Sep.(43) Calyx flat convergent. Morriss Court of Wick, Oct.— None. Feb. Downton Pippin, Nov.— Jan.(44) Calyx connivent. Squires Pippin, Dec. May. — * Fruit round or oblate. Coloured. Pale. Early Red Calville, Oct.— Nov. Early Julyan, Aug. Orange Goff, Oct. Jan. — Striped. Golden Reinette, Nov. Apr. — Hoary Morning, Oct. — Dec. Brickley Seedling, Jan. Apr. — Nonesuch, Sep. —Oct. Russet. Coloured. Reddings Nonpareil, Oct. Dec. — Ked Astrachan, Aug. Screveton Golden Pippin, Dec. Devonshire Quarrenden, Aug, —Apr. Ten Commandments, Nov. Sitchampton Russet, Nov. — Feb. Knights Russet. Lemon Caraway Russet, Nov. —Feb. Royal Russet, Nov. Pippin. —May. Powells Russet, Nov. Jan. — ** Fruit conical or ovate. ** Fruit conical or ovate. Pale. Pale. Red Norman, —Nov. Oct. King Harry, Oct. —Jan. White Astrachan, Aug. — Sep. Coloured. Barchards Seedling, Oct. Coloured. Frogmore Golden Pippin, Nov. Hutton Square, Nov. — Mar. — Jan. Cells ovate, alDaxile. Crimson Quoining, Dec. Mar. —(45) Calyx divergent. (50) Calyx erect convergent. None. * Fruit round or oblate. Pale.(46) Calyx erect connivent. Oakley Grove Pippin, Oct. * Fruit round or oblate. Dec. Pale. Dredges Fame, Dec. —Mar. Golden Noble, Sep. — Dec. Coloured.(47) Calyx flat convergent. — Algarkirk Beauty, Sep. Oct. Cowarne Red, Oct. Dec. — * Fruit round or oblate. Coxs Orange Pippin, Oct. — Pale. Feb. Woodleys Favourite, Oct. — — Lanes Prolific, Oct. Jan. Dec. Fearns Pippin, Nov. Feb.—
  • 29. — — — STAMENS MARGINAL. XXVll •• Fruit conical or ovate. • Fruit conical or ovate. Pale. Pale. Coes Golden Drop, Nov. — May. Lincoln Codlin, Oct. Jan. — Hubbards Pearmain, Nov. Ncthcrton Late Blower, Oct. Apr. Dec. Striped. Doctor Harvey, Oct.— Jan. College Apple, Oct.— Dec. Cockpit, Nov. Dec. — Coloured. Winter Majetin, Jan. — May. Summer Pearmain, Sep. — Oct. Coloured. — New German, Oct. Dec. — Worcester Sep. Pearmain, Aug. Rosemary Russet, Dec— Feb. Busset. Upright French, Oct. — Dec. John Gidley Pearmain, Nov. Hunts Duke of Gloucester, Mar. Dec. — Feb. Hard Bearer, Oct.— Dec.(61) Calyx flat convergent. Cornish Gilliflower, Dec. — May. Russet. Fruit round or oblate. Pale. Leathercoat, Nov. — Feb. Green Balsam, Oct. Feb. — Cells o"bovate, abaxile. Hunts Green Newtown Pippin, (63) Calyx divergent. Dec. — Mar. • Fruit round or oblate. Striped. Pale. Orange Pippin, Nov. — Dec. Gravenstein, Oct. Dec. — Coloured. Fruit conical or ovate. Redstreak, Oct. Nov. — Striped. Peasg<XKisNonesuch,Oct. — Dec. White Paradise, Oct. Haggerston Pippin, Dec. —Apr. (64) Calyx erect convergent. •• Fruit conical or ovate. • Fruit round or oblate. Coloured. Pale. Pearmain, Oct. Dec. — Golden Noble, Sep.— Dec. Rugset. Striped. King Charles, Nov.— Mar. New — Dec. Cockpit, Oct. Coloured.(52) Calyx connivent. Northern Sweet, Oct. —Nov. Fruit round or oblate. •* Fruit conical or ovate. Pale. Striped. Joaneting, July. Smarts Prince Arthur, Dec. Early Harvest, July— Aug. Mar. Early Julyan, Aug. Coloured. Early Nonpareil, Oct. Dec. — Cowans Seedling, Oct. Gennet Moyle, Oct.— Dec. Schoolmaster, Oct. Dec. — (65) Calyx flat convergent. None. Striped. Hoary Morning, Oct, Dec. — (68) Calyx connivent. • Fruit round or oblate. Winter Strawberry, Dec— Mar. Coloured. Coloured. — Dec. Izards Kernel, Oct. Oaken Pin, Oct. —Jan. Mabbots Pearmain, Oct. —Jan. •* Fruit conical or ovate. Northern Greening, Nov. — Apr. Pale. Forge, Oct. — Jan. Manks Codlin, Aug. Nov. — Browns Seedling, Oct. — Feb. Springrove Codlin, Oct, Sturmer Pippin, Feb. —June. Morgans Sweet, Nov. Dec. — Russet. Coloured. Redleaf Russet, Dec— Feb. Cornish Gilliflower, Dec. — May.
  • 30. — THE FRUIT MANUAL. Cells elliptical, axile. ** Fruit conical or ovate.(v7) Calyx divergent. Coloured. * Fruit round or oblate. Borden Pippin, Dec. —Jan. Pale. Court of Wick, Oct.— Mar. Cells elliptical, abaxile. Coloured. Court of Wick, Oct. Mar.— (61) Calyx divergent. Scarlet Nonpareil, Jan. Mar. — None.(68) Calyx erect convergent. (62) Calyx erect convergent. * Fruit round or oblate. * Fruit round or oblate. Coloured. Greenups Pippin, Sep. —Jan. Pale. Alfriston, Nov. —Apr. Fox -whelp, Oct.—Jan. ** Fruit conical or ovate. (63) Calyx flat convergent. Russet. Cockles Pippin, Jan. —Apr. * Fruit conical or ovate.(59) Calyx flat convergent. Pale. * Fruit conical or ovate. — Melrose, Oct. Jan. Pale. Hunthouse, Dec. —Mar. (64) Calyx connivent. * Fruit conical or ovate.(60) Calyx connivent. Pale. * Fruit round or oblate. French Codlin, Aug. Coloured. Newland Sack, Oct. —Feb. Coloured. Styre, Oct. — Dec. Granges, Oct. — Jan. B. STAMENS MEDIAN. I. Tube Conical. (67) Calyx erect convergent. Cells round, axile. * Fruit round or oblate.(65) Calyx divergent. Russet. * Fruit round or oblate. Old Middlemas, Jan. Striped. Embroidered Pippin, Dec. —Jan. (68) Calyx connivent. Coloured. * Fruit round or oblate. * Cellini, Oct.—Nov. Pale. Amphletts Favourite, Oct. Walsgrove Wonder, Oct. — Dec. Dec. Bascombe Mystery, Nov. — Dec. Russet. Busty Coat, Oct. —Nov. Coloured. Kerry Pippin, Sep. Oct. —(66) Calyx erect convergent. Eldon Pippin, Dec. Apr. — * ** Fruit conical or ovate. Fruit round or oblate. Pale. Striped. Leyden Pippin, Aug. Winter Marigold, Oct. — Dec. Coloured. Winter Colman, Nov. — ^Apr. Cells round, abaxile. Melon, Dec. (69) Calyx divergent. Lord Burghley, Dec. —May. None.
  • 31. — — — — STAMENS MEDIAN. XXIX(70) Calyx erect convergent. Coloured. * Fruit conical. Black Crab, Oct.—Jan. Pale. Black Norman, Oct. Jan. — Ten Shillings, Nov. Pine-apple, Oct. Russet.(71) Calyx flat convergent. Brownleess Russet, Jan. May. None. Royal Russet, Nov. Mar.—(72) Calyx connivent. ** Fruit conical or ovate. None. Pale. Cells ovate, axile. Green Wilding, Oct. — Dec.(78) Calyx divergent. Striped. * Fruit round or oblate. — Flower of Herts, Nov. Dec. Pale. — Longvilles Kernel, Aug. Sep. Golden Pearmain, Nov. — Mar. Coloured. StHped. Esopus Spitzenberg, Nov. — Feb. Prince of Wales, Oct. —Jan. Margil, Nov. —Feb. Coloured. Cells ovate, abaxile. Braddicks Nonpareil, Nov. Apr. (77) Calyx divergent. ** Fruit conical or ovate. * Fruit conical or ovate. Pale. Pale. Wormsley Pippin, Sep. Oct. Cat«head, Oct. Jan. StHped. (78) Calyx erect convergept. Royal Somerset, Nov. — Mar. None. Coloured. Fox Kernel, Oct. Jan. — (79) Calyx flat convergent. First and Last, Sep. May. — * Fruit round or oblate. Winter Pearmain, Dec. Apr. — Pale. Russet. Murfitts Seedling, Oct.— Jan. Morriss Nonpareil Russet, May (80) Calyx connivent. —June. * Fruit round or oblate.(74) Calyx erect convergent. Pale. * Fruit round or oblate. Ecklinville, Oct.— Dec. Pale. Lord Derby, Oct. Dec. — Paradise, Aug. ** Fruit conical or ovate. Coloured. Pale. Queen, Oct. —Nov. Lord SuflSeld, Aug. Sep.— Calville —Nov. Rouge dAutomne, Oct. Keswick Codlin, Aug. Sep. — St. Sauveur, Oct. Russet. Royal Codlin, Oct. St. Edmunds Pippin, Oct. Coloured. ** Fruit conical or ovate. Warners King. Coloured. Cells obovate, axile. Emperor Alexander, — Dec. Sep. Kentish Pippin, Oct. —Jan. (81) Calyx divergent. * Fruit round or oblate.(75) Calyx flat convergent. None. Pale. White Whorle, Oct.— Dec.(76) Calyx connivent. Wyken Pippin, Dec. —Apr. * Fruit round or oblate. Winter Peach, Nov. —Apr. Striped. Striped. Sack and Sugar, July — Sep. Cooles Seedling.
  • 32. — —XXX THE FRUIT MANUAL. Coloured. Ribston Pippin, Nov. —Mar. Oct.—Nov. Cellini, Fairy, Dec. Apr. — Lamb Abbey Pearmain, Jan. Russet. Apr. Pomeroy, Sep. — Oct. ** Fruit conical or ovate. ** Fruit conical or ovate. Pale. Pale. Golden Pearmain, Nov. — Dec. Sussex Mother, Aug. Waltham Abbey Seedling, Sep. Striped. —Dec. Winter Marigold, Oct. — Dec. Coloured. Loans Pearmain, Nov. — Feb. Coloured. Comey Norman, Oct. —Jan. Kosemary Russet, Dec. — Feb. Styre Wilding, Oct.— Dec. (82) Calyx erect convergent. Black Fox-whelp, Oct. —Jan. * Fruit round or oblate. Cornish Gilliflower, Dec. — May. Watsons Dumpling, Oct. — Feb. Coloured. Coxs Pomona, Oct. Cells obovate, abaxile. Norfolk Bearer, Dec. Jan. — Norfolk Beefing, Jan. June. — (85) Calyx divergent. ** Fruit conical or ovate. * Fruit round or oblate. Pale. Pale. Sussex Mother, Aug. Gloria Mundi, Oct. Jan. — Striped. Lady Henniker, Oct. Feb. — Margaret, Aug. Coloured. Russet. Newtown Spitzenberg, Nov. Grolden Russet, Dec. —Mar. Feb. ** Fruit conical or ovate. (83) Calyx flat convergent. Coloured. * Fruit round or oblate. Gilliflower, Oct. Coloured. — Adamss Pearmain, Dec. —Feb. Rymer, Oct. Dec. Millers Glory, Oct.— Feb. (86) Calyx erect convergent. Norfolk Beefing, Jan. June. — * Fruit round or oblate. Russet. Pale. Golden Knob, Dec— Mar. Stirling Castle, Aug. Sep.— * Fruit conical or ovate. Pomme Poire, Oct. Jan. — Pale. ** Fruit conical or ovate. Mark Marshall, Oct.— Dec. Pale. Striped. — Castle Major, Oct. Jan. Granges Pearmain, Nov. —Feb. Tower of Glammis, Nov. —Feb. Doctor Hogg, Nov. —Feb. (8i) Calyx connivent. Coloured. * Fruit round or oblate. South Queening, Oct. —Nov. Pale. Beauty of Kent, Oct.—Feb. Early Harvest, July—Aug. Calyx flat convergent. (87) Early Julyan, Aug. Rhode Island Greening, Nov.— * Fruit round or oblate. Apr. Pale. Newtown Pippin, Dec—Apr. Hawthornden, Oct. —Dec. Striped. Striped. Pomeroy, Sep. Oct. — Yorkshire Greening, Oct. —Jan. Coloured, Calyx connivent. (88) Irish Peach, Aug. Maundy, Oct.— Dec. * Fruit round or oblate. Philip Winter Pippin, Oct.— Dec Pale. Cornish Aromatic, Oct. Jan. — Curl Tail, Oct.— Feb.
  • 33. — — STAMENS MEDIAN. XXXI striped. ** Fruit conical or ovate. Flanders Pippin, Oct. —Nov. Coloured. Coloured. Golden Bittersweet, Oct. —Jan. Malakovna, Oct. Dec. — Graham, Oct. Feb.— Cells elliptical, abazile. Hambledon Deux Ans, Jan. (93) Calyx divergent. May. * Fruit conical or ovate. Fruit conical or ovate. Pale. Pale. Harveys Wiltshire Defiance, — Dec. Wilding BittersweetjOct. Oct. —Jan. Coloured. Stoup Leadington, Nov. —Jan. Winter Quoining, Nov. — May. (94) Calyx erect convergent. Cornish Gilliflower, Dec. —May. * Fruit round or oblate. Cells elliptioal, azile. Pale. Winter Hawthomden, Nov.(89) Calyx divergent. Dec. Fruit conical or ovate. Coloured. Colo^ired. American Mother, Oct. Hunthouse, Dec. —Mar. (95) Calyx flat convergent.(90) Calyx erect convergent. None. Fruit conical or ovate. (96) Calyx connivent. Striped. * Fruit conical or ovate. Baron Ward, Jan. — May. Pale.(91) Calyx flat convergent. Sugar-loaf Pippin, Aug. None. Domino, Sep. Oct. — Royal Codlin, Oct.(92) Calyx conn i vent. St. Sauveur, Oct. Fruit round or oblate. Natural Pocket, Oct. Dec. — Pale. Coloured. Loddington, Oct. —Nov. — Summer Gilliflower, Sep. Oct. Striped. Ru^get. Summer Strawberry, Sep. Grey Leadington, Nov.—Jan. II. Tube Funnel-shaped. Cells ronnd, axile. (98) Calyx erect convergent.(97) Calyx divergent. * Fruit round or oblate. * Fruit round or oblate. Pale. Pale. Leyden Pippin, Aug. Eggleton Styre, Oct. —Jan. CoUmred. — Betsey, Nov. Jan. Bramleys Seedling, Oct. Jan. — Striped. ** Fruit conical or ovate. Formosa Nonpareil. Coloured. Coloured. Barcelona Pearmain, Nov. Cellini, Oct.—Nov. Mar, Russet. Herefordshire Pearmain, Nov. Guernsey Pippin, Dec. —Feb. — Mar. ** Fruit conical or ovate. (99) Calyx flat convergent. Coloured. * Fruit round or oblate. Challenge Pippin, Oct. Jan. — Pale. Rosemary Russet, Oct. Dec. — Oslin, Aug. Herefordshire Pearmain, Nov. Lodgemore Nonpareil, Feb. —Mar. June.
  • 34. — — — —XXXll THE FRUIT MANUAL. Coloured. ** Fruit conical or ovate. Ked Splash, Oct. — Dec. Pale. ** Fruit conical or ovate. Headcrofts Seedling, Oct. Coloured. Dec. Eostocker, Nov. May. — Coloured. Holberts Victoria, Dec-(100) Calyx connivent. Firstand Last, Sep. May. — * Fruit round or oblate. — Winter Pearmain, Dec. Apr. Pale. Russet. Calville Blanche dEt^, Aug.— Formans Crew, Nov. —Apr. Sep. (106) Calyx erect convergent, Walsgrove Wonder, Oct. — Dec. * Fruit round or oblate. Coloured. Hunts Early, Aug. Coloured. Kerry Pippin, Sep. Oct. — Black Taunton, Oct. Jan. — Cherry Pearmain, Oct. Jan. — ** Fruit conical or ovate. Koyal Shepherd, Nov. Dec. — Pale. ** Fruit conical or ovate. Bartods Incomparable, Oct. Pale. Feb. Lucombes Seedling, Oct. — Dec. Coloured. Margaret, Aug. Coloured. Cornish Gilliflower, Dec. —May. Emperor Alexander, Sep. Dec. — Herefordshii-e Costard, Nov. Jan. Cells round, abaxile. Bess Pool, Nov. Mar. —(101) Calyx divergent. (107) Calyx flat convergent. None. * Fruit round or oblate.(102) Calyx erect convergent. Pale. * Fruit round or oblate. White Nonpareil, Dec. —Feb. Striped. Strqjed. Shepherds Newington. Winter Whorle, Nov. —Mar. ** Fruit conical or ovate.(103) Calyx flat convergent. None. Coloured. Belle et Bonne, Oct. —Jan.(104) Calyx connivent. (108) Calyx connivent. * Fruit conical or ovate. * Fruit round or ovate. Coloured. Cornish G-illiflower. Pale. Yellow Ingestrie, Sep. Oct. — White Star, Oct.— Dec. Cells ovate, axile. Striped.(105) Calyx divergent. Duchess of Oldenburg, Aug. * Fruit round or oblate. Coloured. Pale. Red Astrachan, Aug. Golden Pippin, Nov. Apr. — Russet. London Royal Russet, Oct. Duke of Gloucester, Dec. Marble Pippin, Nov. Jan. — Dec. — Royal Somerset, Nov. Mar. — Dundee, Dec. Jan. Wheelers Russet, Nov. —Apr. Coloured. Kingston Black, Oct. Dec. — Royal Russet, Nov. —May. Bulls Golden Reinette, Dec. ** Fruit conical or ovate. Jan. Striped. Russet. Granny Giffard, Nov. —Apr. Pitmaston Golden Pippin, Dec. Sams Crab, Oct. —Nov. —Feb. Hangdown, Nov. —Feb.
  • 35. — — STAMENS MEDIAN. XXXIU Coloured. Bustet. Haymaker, Aug. Burchardts Reinette,Oct. Dec. — Cluster Golden Pippin, Nov. Cells ovate, abaxile. Mar. Pine Golden Pippin, Oct. Nov. —(109) Calyx divergent. Robinsons Pippin, Dec. Feb. — * Fruit conical or ovate. Morriss Russet, Oct. Feb. — Pale. Golden Harvey, Dec. May. — — Catshead, Oct. Jan. Ross Nonpareil, Nov. Feb. — • Fruit conical or ovate.(110) Calyx erect convergent. Pale. * Fruit conical or ovate. — Betsey, Nov. Jan. Cohmred. Striped. Bess Pool, Nov. Mar.— Goodyear Pippin, Sep.(111) Calyx flat convergent. Coloured. None. Herefordshire Pearmain, Nov. — Mar.(112) Calyx connivent. Pignose Pippin, Oct. Dec. — * Fruit round or oblate. Rosemary Russet, Dec. Feb. — Pale. (114) Calyx erect convergent. Lord Derby, Oct. Dec. — * Fruit round or oblate. Coloured. Birdstowe Wasp, Sep. Oct. — Pale. ** Fruit conical or ovate. Smalls Admirable, Nov. — Dec. Pale. Striped. Warners King, Nov. — Mar. Cooks Kernel, Oct. —Jan. Coloured. Cells obovate, axile. Coxs Orange Pippin, Oct. Feb.(113) Calyx divergent. Mosss Incomparable, Jan. * Fruit round or oblate. Apr. Norfolk Bearer, Dec. —Jan. Pale. —Jan. — Premier, Oct. Dec. Downton Pippin, Nov. — Wareham Russet, Oct. Dec. Birmingham Pippin, Jan. — Sweet Lading, Oct. Dec. June. —July. — Wanstall, May June. Gooseberry, Nov. — Norfolk Beefing, Jan. June. Striped. Red Splash, Oct.— Dec. Formosa Nonpareil, Nov. —Jan. Russet. Coloured. — Corras Pippin, Oct. Jan. Broad-eyed Pippin, Sep. Jan. — Reinette Grise, Nov. May.— — Borsdorfer, Nov. Jan. Sykehouse Russet, Oct. Feb. — Blenheim Pippin, Nov, Feb. — *• Fruit conical or ovate. Court of Wick, Oct. — Mar. Pale. Duchesss Favourite, Nov. Jan. Lemon Pippin, Oct. — Apr. — Maggie, Oct. Dec. Hubbards Pearmain, Nov. Pearsons Plate, Dec. Mar. — Apr. Striped. Lamb Abbey Pearmain, Jan. Apr. Claygate Pearmain, Nov. — Mar. Margaret, Aug. Scarlet Golden Pippin, Nov. Apr. Coloured. Cellini, Oct.—Nov. Pomeroy of Somerset, Oct. Gipsy King, Oct. — Dec. Dec. Hermanns Pippin, Oct. —Jan. Herefordshire Pearmain, Nov. Betty Geeson, Apr. — May. —Mar. C
  • 36. —XXXIV THE FRUIT MANUAL.(115) Calyx flat convergent. Cells olDOvate, a"baxile. * Fruit round or oblate. (117) Calyx divergent, Pale. * Fruit round or oblate. Forester, Oct.—Jan. Pale. Hormead Pearmain, Oct.— Mar. Golden Ducat, Oct.—Nov. Lady Henniker, Oct.—Feb. Coloured. Fall Pippin, Oct. — Dec. Benoni, Sep. ** Fruit conical or ovate. Ked Royal, Oct.—Nov. Lord Lennox, Oct. Jan. — Colour-ed. Brockhead, Nov. Jan. — Adamss Pearmain, Norfolk Beefing, Jan.— June. (118) Calyx erect convergent. Busset. * Fruit round or oblate. Golden Knob, Dec— Mar. Coloured.(116) Calyx connivent. Longstart, Oct, Dec. — * Fruit round or oblate. ** Fruit conical or ovate. Pale. Nelson Codlin, Sep.—Jan. Early Harvest, July— Aug. Doctor Hogg, Nov.— Feb. Early Julyan, Aug. convergent. (119) Calyx flat Edinburgh Cluster, Nov.— Jan. Winter Greening, Nov.—June. * Fruit round or oblate. Nonesuch Park, Nov.— Feb. Coloured. Coloured. Ribston Pearmain, Nov. —Jan. Irish Peach, Aug. Calyx connivent. (120) Royal Redstreak, Oct.—Nov. Chaxhill Red, Oct.— June. * Fruit round or oblate. Dredges Queen Charlotte, Dec. Striped. — Mar. Round Winter Nonesuch, Nov. Red Styre, Oct.— Dec. — Mar. Cornish Aromatic, Oct.— Jan. King of Tompkins County, Dec. Ribston Pippin, Nov.— Mar. —Mar. Maltster, Oct.— Dec. Coloured. Manningtons Pearmain, Nov. New Bess Pool, Oct.—Feb. — Mar, Malakovna, Oct. Dec, — — Forge, Oct. Jan. ** Fruit conical or ovate, Busset. Princess Royal, Oct. —Jan. Strqjed. Smarts Prince Arthur, Dec. Redleaf Russet, Dec— Feb. Mar. ** Fruit conical or ovate. Coloured. Cornish Gilliflower, Dec— May. Pale. Winter Quoining, Nov.— Mar. Pine-apple Russet, Sep.— Oct. Coloured. Cells elliptical, axile. Margaret, Aug. Calyx divergent. (121) Cornish Gilliflower, Dec— May. Herefordshire Spice, Oct.— Nov. * Fruit round or oblate. Jonathan, Dec—Apr, Pale. Skyrmes Kernel, Oct.— Dec. Court of Wick, Oct,— Mar. Spreading Norman, Oct,— Dec. Strijycd. Plum, Oct,— Dec. King of the Pippins, Oct.— Dec. Fishs Pippin, Nov, —Jan. ** Fruit conical or oblate. Busset. Pale. Fitmaston Pine-apple, Dec- —Mar. Claygate Pearmain, Nov. Jan.
  • 37. STAMENS BASAL. XXXV(122) Calyx erect convergent. Cells elliptical, abaxile. * Fruit round or oblate. (125) Calyx divergent. None. Coloured. Greenups Pippin, Sep. —Jan. (126) Calyx erect convergent. Winter Pomeroy, Dec. —Jan. * Fruit round or oblate. ** Fruit conical or ovate. Pale. Winter Hawthomden, Nov.- Russet. Dec. — Rough Pippin, Oct. Jan. — Cockles Pippin, Jan. Apr. (127) Calyx flat convergent. * Fruit conical or ovate.(123) Calyx flat convergent. Striped. * Fruit round or oblate. Kitchen Door, Oct. Jan. — Russet. (128) Calyx connivent. Brenchley Pippin, Nov. — May. * Fruit round or oblate.(124) Calyx connivent. Coloured. * Fruit round or oblate. Munns Red, Oct. — Dec. ** Fruit conical or ovate. Pale. Pale. Charlemagne, Aug. Domino, Sep. —Oct. Striped. — Dec. Deans Codlin, Nov. Feb. — Yellow Styre, Oct. Iron Pin, Jan. Feb. — Russet. Striped. Boston Russet. Hodgess Seedling, Oct. —Jan. ** Fruit conical or ovate. Coloured. July Pippin, Aug. Coloured. Grey Leadington, Nov. —Jan. Haymaker, Aug. Russet. Sack, Oct.—Nov. Grey Leadington, Nov. —Jan. London Pearmain, Oct. —Jan. Royale, Oct. — Dec. C. STAMENS BASAL. I. Tube Conical. Cells round, axile. (132) Calyx connivent. None.(129) Calyx divergent. Cells round, abaxile. * Fruit conical or ovate. (183) Calyx divergent. Striped. Shepherds Fame, Oct. — Mar. * Fruit round or oblate. Pale.(130) Calyx erect convergent. Gravenstein, Oct. — Dec. * Fruit round or oblate. (184) Calyx erect convergent. Pale. None. Devonshire Buckland, Oct.- (135) Calyx flat convergent. Feb. * Fruit round or oblate. Coloured. Winter Colman, Nov. —Apr. Coloured. Melon, Dec. Mere de Manage, Oct. Jan. — Russet. (136) Calyx connivent. Melcombe Russet, Oct. —Jan. * Fruit conical or ovate.(131) Calyx flat convergent. Pale. None. Sugar-loaf Pippin, Nov. — Dec.
  • 38. — — — — THE FRUIT MANUAL. Cells ovate, axile. Cells obovate, axile.(137) Calyx divergent. (145) Calyx divergent. * Fruit round or oblate, * Fruit round or oblate. ColouTed. Pale. Braddicks Nonpareil, White Musk, Oct.— Dec. Nov. Apr. Queen Caroline, Oct. Nov. — MinchuU — Crab, Nov. Mar.(138) Calyx erect convergent. Dumelows Seedling, Nov. Mar. * Fruit round or oblate. — Mar. Bringewood Pippin, Jan. Pale. Striped. Franklins Grolden Pippin, Oct. Green Woodcock, Oct. —Jan. —Dec. Coloured. Cellini, Oct.—Nov. Coloured. Calville Eouge dAutomne, Oct. (146) Calyx erect convergent. —Nov. * Fruit round or oblate. ** Fruit conical or ovate. Pale. Franklins Golden Pippin, Oct. Coloured. —Dec. Emperor Alexander, Sep. Coloured. Dec. Duke of Bedford, Dec— Feb. Striped Beefing, Oct. — May.(139) Calyx flat convergent. None. DArcy Spice, Nov. —May. Pusset.(140) Calyx connivent. Ostrogotha, Oct. —Jan. * Fruit round or oblate. ** Fruit conical or ovate. Pale. Pale. Sussex Mother, Sep. Sack and Sugar, July — Sep. Coloured. Coloured. Cowarne Quoining, Oct. —Jan. Ten Shillings, Nov. Woodcock, Oct. Dec. — (147) Calyx flat convergent. * Fruit round or oblate. Cells ovate, abaxile. Pale. Fair Maid of Taunton, Nov.(141) Calyx divergent. Feb. None. ** Fruit conical or ovate.(142) Calyx erect convergent. Striped. None. Roundway Magnum Bonum,(143) Calyx flat convergent. Nov. —Apr. None. Coloured. Tylers Kernel, Oct. —Jan.(144) Calyx connivent. DArcy Spice, Nov. —May. * Fruit round or oblate. (148) Calyx connivent. Pale. * Fruit round or oblate. Warners King, Nov. —Jan. Pale. Coloured. Clarkes Pippin, Oct. Dec. — Hollandbury, Oct. —Jan. Rhode Island Greening, Nov. Apr. ** Fruit conical or ovate. Eeinette de Canada, Nov. Pale. Apr. Transparent Codlin, Sep. Striped. Nov. Sack and Sugar, July Sep. —
  • 39. — — STAMENS BASAL. XXXVll Colmbred. ** Fruit conical or ovate. Dr. Hares, Nov. May. — Pale. Gloucestershire Quoining, Oct. — Jan. English Codlin, Aug. —Sep. Ribston Pippin, Nov. Mar. — Coloured. Cullen, Oct.— Dec. ** Fruit conical or ovate. Harveys Reinette, Oct. — Dec. Pale. Hanwell Souring, Dec. —Mar. Cells elliptioal, axile. Coloured. (153) Calyx divergent. Cullen, Oct.— Dec. None. Riverss Nonesuch, Nov. —Jan. (154) Calyx erect convergent. Cells obovate, abaxile. None.(149) Calyx divergent. (155) Calyx flat convergent. * Fruit round or oblate. None. Pale. (156) Calyx connivent. Breitling, Sep. Jan. — Gloria Mundi, Oct. Dec. — * Fruit conical or ovate. Dumelows Seedling, Nov. Pale. Mar. Hanwell Souring, Dec. Mar. — Coloured. Colo^ired. M6re de Manage, Oct. Jan. — Gloucestershire Costard, Oct. ** Fruit conical or ovate. Jan. Pale. Bedfordshire Foundling, Nov. Cells elliptical, abaxile. — Mar. (157) Calyx divergent.(160) Calyx erect convergent. * Fruit round or oblate. * Fruit round or oblate. Pale. Coloured. Gravenstein, Oct. — Dec. Striped Beefing, Oct. —May. ** Fruit conical or ovate.(151) Calyx Pale. flat convergent. * Fruit round or oblate. Golden Spire, Oct. —Jan. Coloured. (158) Calyx erect convergent. M^re de Manage, Oct. Jan. — * Fruit conical or ovate. ** Fruit conical or ovate. Pale. Coloured. Castle Major, Oct. —Jan. Tylers Kernel, Oct. —Jan. Coloured.(152) Calyx connivent. Tibbetts Pearmain, Oct. — Dec. * Fruit round or oblate. (159) Calyx flat convergent. Pale. None. Severn Bank, Oct. (160) Calyx connivent. Coloured. Flower of Kent, Oct.—Jan. * Fruit round or oblate. Hambledon Deux Ans, Jan. Pale. May. Sugar-loaf, Nov. — Dec. II. Tube Funnel-shaped. Cells round, axile. (162) Calyx erect convergent.(161) Calyx divergent. None. (163) Calyx flat convergent. * Fruit round or oblate. * Fruit round or oblate. Russet. Coloured. Federal Pearmain, Dec- Mar. Prince Bismark, Oct. Jan. —
  • 40. — — — —XXXVIU THE FRUIT MANUAL. ** Fruit conical or ovate. Striped. Coloured, Puffin, Oct. Rockleys, Oct. Cells ob ovate, axile.(164) Calyx connivent. None. (177) Calyx divergent. * Fruit round or oblate. Cells round, abaxile. Pale.(165) Calyx divergent. Fall Pippin, Oct.— Feb. * Fruit round or oblate. Dumelows Seedling, |iNov. Mar. Pale. Gravenstein, Oct. Dec. — Coloured. Oct.—Nov. Cellini,(166) Calyx erect convergent. Strawberry Norman, Oct. — Dec. None. ** Fruit conical or ovate.(167) Calyx flat convergent. Coloured. None. Golden Winter Pearmain, Oct.(168) Calyx connivent. — Jan. — None. Scarlet Pearmain, Oct. ^Jan. Baxters Pearmain, Nov. Mar. — Cells ovate, axile, (178) Calyx erect convergent.(169) Calyx divergent. * Fruit round or oblate. * Fruit round or oblate. Coloured. Coloured. Herefordshire Beefing,_Oct. Dymock Eed. Jan.(170) Calyx erect convergent. Penlee Pippin, Nov. Apr. — * Fruit conical or ovate. (179) Calyx flat convergent. Coloured. * Fruit round or oblate. Emperor Alexander, Sep. Coloured. Dec. Trumpington, Sep. Dec. —(171) Calyx flat convergent. Prince Bismark, Oct. Jan. — None. Captain Kernel, Oct. Jan. —(172) Calyx connivent. Bromley, Oct.— Feb. * Fruit round or oblate. (180) Calyx connivent. Striped. * Fruit round or oblate. Duchess of Oldenburg, Aug. Pale, Sep. Withington Fillbasket, Sep. Coloured. Oct. Wadhurst Pippin, Oct.—Feb. Coloured. Russet. Gloucester Quoining, Oct. Jan. — Eeinette Van Mons, Dec. — May. Kibston Pippin, Nov. Mar. — Russet. Cells ovate, abaxile. Eeinette Van Mons, Dec. —May.(173) Calyx divergent. ** Fruit conical or ovate. None. Pale.(174) Calyx erect convergent. Hanwell Souring, Dec— Mar. None.(175) Calyx flat convergent. Cells obovate, abaxile. None. (181) Calyx divergent.(176) Calyx connivent. * Fruit round or oblate. * Fruit round or oblate. Pale. Pale. Dumelows Seedling, Nov.— Warners King, Nov. Jan. Mar.
  • 41. — STAMENS BASAL. XXXIX(182) Calvx erect convergent. CoUmred. None. Washington, Oct. — Dec.(183) Calyx flat convergent. Cells elliptical, abaxile. None. (189) Calyx divergent.(184) Calyx connivent. * Fruit round or oblate. None. Pale. Cells elliptical, axile. Gravenstein, Oct. — Dec. ** Fruit conical or ovate.(185) Calyx divergent. Pale. * Fruit round or oblate. Winter Codlin, Sept.— Feb. Pale. Red Ingestrie, Oct. —Nov. (190) Calyx erect convergent. None.(186) Calyx erect convergent. None. (191) Calyx flat convergent. * Fruit round or oblate.(187) Calyx.flat convergent. Coloured. None. Meads Broading.(188) Calyx^connivent. (192) Calyx connivent. * Fruit round or oblate. * Fruit round or oblate. Coloured. Pale. Manningtons Pearmain, Oct.- Mar. Sugar-loaf Pippin, Nov. Dec. — ** Fruit conical or ovate. ** Fruit^conical or ovate. Coloured. Pale. Hanwell Souring, Dec. —Mar. Lanes Prince Albert, Oct. Mar.
  • 42. THE FRUIT MANUAL ALMONDS. CLASSIFICATION OF ALMONDS. 1.—FRUIT, A THIN SPONGY HUSK. A. KERNELS SWEET. Shell Hard anrfj Woody, Shell Tender, Common Sweet. Tender-Shelled Sweet Lar^j^e Fruited Sweet. Sultane. Pistache. B. KERNELS BITTER. Shell Hard and Woody, Shell Tender. Common Bitter. Am^re a Noyau Tendre. Large Fraited| Bitter. 2.—FRUIT, A THICK SUCCULENT FLESH. Peach Almond. » Abellan. See Tender-Shelled, A Coque Tendre. See Tender- Shelled, A Coque Tendre et a Fruit Douce. See Tender- Shelled, > A Gros Fruit. See Large Fruited Sweet. A Noyau Tendre. See Tender -Shelled, A Petit Fruit. See Common Sweet, A Petit Fruit Douce. See Common Sweet. A Petit Fruit et Noyau Tendre. See Sultana. Common. See Common Sweet. COMMON SWEET A Petit Fruit ; Commune ; A Petit (Common ;Fruit Douce ; Douce Gemeine HartschaWje : Siisse Mandel ; Kleine Siisse ;Steinmandel). — Fruit, one inch and a quarter to one inch and three-quarteru long, one inch and a half wide, and one inch and a quarter thick. 1
  • 43. 2 THE FRUIT MANUAL.Skin, pale green, and covered with a thick down. Stone, very hard andthick, furrowed Hke that of a peach. Kernel, sweet, and terminated bya sharp point. It ripens in the end of August. The flowers are alwaysproduced before the leaves, and are very pale, nearly white. Commune. See Common Sweet. Damen. See Tender- Shelled. Des Dames. See Tender Shelled. Douce. See Common Sweet. Douce a Coque Dur. See Lair/e Fruited Sweet. Douce a la Peau Molle. See Tender- Shelled. Doux a Coque Tendre. See Tende?-- Shelled. Gemeine Hartschalige. See Common Sweet. Grosse Siisse. See Large Fruited Siveet, Jordan. See Tender- Shelled. Kleine Siisse. See Common Siveet. Kleine Siisse Krachmandel. See Sultana. Ladies Thin-shell. See Tender- Shelled. LAKGE FRUITED SWEET {Sweet ; Long Hard-shell ; A Gros —Fruit; Douce d, Coque Dur ; Grosse Siisse). Fruit, large, about twoinches long, and an inch and a quarter broad, terminated at the pointby a nipple, and marked on one side with a deep suture, and coveredwith a pretty thick down. Stalk, thick and short, placed on one sideof the base, and inserted in a deep and furrowed cavity. Stone, thickand hard. Kernel, large, about an inch and a half long, sweet, and ofan excellent flavour. It ripens in the beginning of October. Long Hard-shell. See Large Fruited Sweet. — PEACH (Peche). This, which is of no real value, is singular frombeing a hybrid between the almond and the peach, and possessing agreat deal of the character of both parents. It is covered with a verythick and fleshy rind, which is charged with a bitter acid but in some ;parts of France it acquires in warm seasons considerable succulenceand fla.vour ; even in the neighbourhood of Paris it attains as greatperfection as the Peches de vigne. The shell is very hard and thick,as much so as that of the peach. Kernel, large, long, and pointed,yellowish-white, and with a half-sweet, half-bitter flavour. It ripens inthe end of October. This is a very old variety, beinf; mentioned by Camerarius, Gesner, Matthiolas,end John and Caspar Bauhin, under the names of Amygdalo-Persicus, PersicaAmygdaloides, &c., Ac. PISTACHE (Pistachia Sweet; Pistazien Mandel). Fruit, small, less —so than the Sultana, about an inch and a quarter long, terminating in
  • 44. ; ALMONDS. 3a blunt point, and covered with fine down. The stone terminates in asharp point, and is about the size and shape of a Pistachia, hence thename ; it is tender, but not so easily broken between the fingers as theTender-Shelled. The kernel is sweet and well-flavoured. It ripens inthe end of August. This, of all others, is most esteemed in Provence and the southern departmentsof France, particularly when it is green, as being then more relishing. Pistachia Sweet. See Pistache. Pistazien Mandel. See Pistache. Princesse. See Tender- Shelled. Prinzessia See Tender- Shelled. Soft-Shelled Sweet. See Tender- Shelled, Sultan. See Sultana. SULTANA {A Petit Fruit et Noyau Tendre ; Sultane ; Sultana Sweet —Sultan ; Kleine Susse Krachmandel). This is larger than the Pistache,but much smaller than the Tender- Shelled Almond, of which it is avariety, and possesses the same delicate shell. The kernel is sweetand well-flavoured. It ripens in the beginning of September. Sultana Sweet. See Sultana, Sultane. See Sultana. Sultane a Coque Tendre. See Tender- Shelled. Siisse Elrachmandel. See Tender-Shelled. Siisse Mandel. See Common Sweet. Sweet. See Large Fruited Sweet. TENDER-SHELLED (A Coque Tendre; A Noyau Tendre; Doux dCoque Tendre ; Sultan a Coque Tendre ; Des Dames ; A Coque Tendreet h Fruit Douce ; Douce d la Peau Molle ; Soft- Shell Sweet ; Ladie^Thin-Shell ; Jordan ; Damen ; Prinzessin ; Siisse Krachmandel ; Abel-Ian : Princesse). — Fruit, above one inch and a half long, and one inchwide ; rather oval, at least more so than any of the other varieties,convex on one side, and almost straight on the other, terminated witha small point, and marked with a suture, which is higher on one sidethan the other. Stalk, inserted in a plain cavity. Shell, very tender,consisting of a network of large fibres, which are easily removed,because the exterior layer is more tender than the interior, so much sothat it may be broken between the finger and thumb, and so porous asto be easily rubbed to dust. Kernel, large, white, sweet, and relishing.It ripens in the end of August and beginning of September. The tree attains a good size, is vigorous, and bears well the flowers ;are very small, and of a pale red colour, and are produced at the sametime as the leaves. This is the Sweet or Jordan Almond of the fruit shops. It very frequently hasa double kernel.
  • 45. ;4 THE FKUIT MANUAL. BITTER ALMONDS. —Besides the common, there are severalvarieties of Bitter Almond, such as the Large Fruited, the Tender-Shelled, and the Amandier dltalie, but as they cannot be regarded asesculent fruit, and as they are not likely ever to be cultivated in Britishfruit gardens, even as objects of curiosity, it is foreign to the design ofthis work to introduce them here. APPLES. ACKLAM RUSSET {Aclemy Russet).— Fvmi, below the mediumsize, two inches and a quarter wide, and two inches high round and ;somewhat flattened, and bluntly angular. Skin, pale yellow tingedwith green, and covered with thin grey russet, particularly on the sideexposed to the sun, and sometimes it is quite covered with russet, somuch so that only small spots of the ground is visible. Eye, smalland closed, with flat convergent segments, set in a smooth, round, andshallow basin. Stamens, marginal tube, short, conical. ; Stalk, short,inserted in a moderately deep cavity. Flesh, white with a greenishtinge, firm, crisp, juicy, and highly flavoured. Cells, ovate axile, slit. ; A dessert apple of first-rate quality ripe in November, and will ;keep under favourable circumstances till March. The tree is veryhardy, and an excellent bearer. It succeeds best in a dry soil, and iswell adapted for espalier training. This variety originated at the village of Acklam, in Yorkshire. Ackland Vale. See Orange Gof. Aclemy Russet. See Acklam Russet. ADAMSS PEARMAIN (Hanging Pearmain; Norfolk Pippin).—Fruit, large, varying from two inches and a half to three inches high,and about the same in breadth at the widest part ; pearmain-shaped,very even, and regularly formed. Skin, pale yellow, tinged with green,and covered with delicate russet on the shaded side but deep yellow ;tinged with red, and delicately streaked with livelier red, on the sidenext the sun. Eye, small and open, with acute erect divergent seg-ments, set in a narrow, round, and plaited basin. Stamens, mediantube, funnel-shaped, sometimes conical. Stalk, varying from halfan inch to an inch long, obliquely inserted in a shallow cavity,and generally with a fleshy protuberance on one side of it. Flesh,yellowish, crisp, juicy, rich, and sugary, with an agreeable and plea-santly perfumed flavour. Cells, obovate abaxile. ; A dessert apple of first-rate quality in use from December to ;February. It is a very handsome variety, and worthy of general
  • 46. APPLES. 5cultivation. The tree is a free and healthy grower, i)roducing longslender shoots, by which, and its spoon-shaped ovate leaves, it is easilydistinguished. It is an excellent bearer, even in a young state,particularly on the paradise or doucin stock, and succeeds well asan espalier. I have endeavoured unsuccessfully to discover the origin of this valuable apple.The name of Adams is that of a gentleman who, about the year 1826, gavescions of it to the Horticultural Society of London under the name of NorfolkPippin, because he had received them from Norfolk. No evidence can be foundof its having at any time been considered a Norfolk apple ;and it was not till Iattended the first Pomological Meeting of the Woolhope Club at Hereford that Iobtained a clue as to its history. I there found it exhibited in almost everycollection as the Hanging Pearmain, and so widely is it grown in the county,there cannot be any doubt that it is originally a Ilerefordshire apple. It is alsocalled Ladys Finger in the county, but as there is also a cider Ladys Finger, thesynonyme should be suppressed. -^sopus Spitzenberg. See Esopus Spitzenberg. Alexander. See Emperor Alexander, ALEXANDRA — {Bumjards Seedliruj). ^Fruit, small, roundish, ofthe shape of Golden Harvey, even and regular in its outline. Skin,yellowish, and covered with a thin coat of pale russet, with a blushof orange on one side. Eye, small and half open, set in a wide basin.Stalk, nearly an inch long, slender. Flesh, tender, very juicy, and veryrichly flavoured, with a fine aroma. This is a delicious little early apple ripe in the first week of ;September. It was raised by Messrs. Bunyard & Son, nurserymen, Maidstone, and firstfruited in 1868. ALFRISTON {Lord Gwydijrs Newtoum Pippin ; Oldakers New ;Shepherds Pipjnn ; Shepherds Seedling). — Fruit of the largest size,generally about three inches and a half wide, and from two and three-quarters to three inches high roundish and angular on the sides. ;Skin, greenish yellow on the shaded side, and tinged with orange nextthe sun, covered all over with veins, or reticulations of russet. Eye,open, with erect convergent segments, set in a deep and uneven basin.Stamens, marginal tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, short, inserted in a ;deep cavity. Flesh, yellowish white, crisp, juicy, sugary, and brisklyflavoured. Cells, elliptical ; abaxile. This is one of the largest and best culinary apples. It comes intouse in the beginning of November and continues till April. The tree is a strong and vigorous grower, very hardy, and an abundant bearer, but on strong soils that are not well drained it is apt tocanker. This variety was raised by a person of the name of Shepherd, at Uckfield, inSussex, and has for many years been extensively cultivated in that county, underthe names of Shepherds Seedling and Shepherds Pippin. Some years ago a Mr.,Brooker, of Alfriston, near Hailsham, sent specimens of the fruit to the LondonHorticultural Society, and being unknown, it was called the Alfriston, a name bywhich it is now generally known. By some it is erroneously called the Baltimoreand Newtown Pippin.
  • 47. ;6 THE FRUIT MANUAL. ALGARKIRK BEAUTY (Algarkirk Seedling).— Fxuii, small, twoinches and a quarter wide, and an inch and three-quarters high;roundish oblate, even and symmetrical in its outline. Skin, entirelycovered with brilliant crimson, which is streaked with darker crimsonexcept a small patch on the shaded side, which is orange. Eye, small,half open, with erect convergent segments set in a shallow wide basin.Stamens, marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped, deep. Stalk, from half aninch to an inch long, slender, set in a round russety cavity. Flesh,yellowish, very tender, sweet, juicy, of good flavour, and with apleasant perfume. Cells, obovate axile, slit or closed. ; A very beautiful apple for the dessert. It is not of the first quality,but is well worth growing for the fine appearance it has on the table.It would be a very attractive market apple. Ripe in September. ALLENS EVERLASTING.— Fruit, rather below medium size, twoinches and three-quarters wide, and two inches high ; oblate, even andregular in its outline. Skin, greenish yellow, becoming clearer yellowas it ripens, and with a few faint streaks of red or a red cheek showingthrough the russet coat sometimes it has a bright deep crimson ;cheek next the sun, which extends almost all over the shaded side,where it is paler, and also marked with a good deal of rough brownrusset. Stamens, marginal tube, conical. Eye, large and open, set ;in a wide and pretty deep round basin. Stalk, half an inch long,slender, set in a wide deep cavity. Flesh, yellowish, tender, sweet,crisp, juicy, and richly flavoured, with a fine bouquet. Cells, obovateaxile. A very useful apple either for the dessert or kitchen use. It keepswell till May. Althorp Pippin. See Marmalade Pippin. AMASSIA. — Fruit, small, two inches and a quarter wide, and thesame high ; narrowing abruptly to the conical, like a small Codlin,eye, where forms a sort of snout. Skin, smooth, greenish yellow iton the shaded side, and washed with red, which is streaked withbright crimson next the sun. Eye, very small and closed, set in anarrow puckered basin surrounded with small knobs or ridges.Stamens, marginal tube, deep wide funnel-shaped. ; Stalk, from ahalf to three-quarters of an inch long, set in a pretty deep cavity.Flesh, white, crisp, tender, very juicy, and pleasantly flavoured.Cells, wide open, ovate oblong abaxile. ; A It is excellent in a tart, and requires fine apple for kitchen use.no sugar. It does not cook to a pulp, the pieces retain the shape intowhich they are cut. This is a very beautiful and ornamental apple. On some soils, whenthe fruit is much exposed to the sun, it is bright crimson all over,marked with broken streaks on a bright yellow ground. It is theapple most generally grown in Asia Minor, on the shores of theMediterranean.
  • 48. APPLES. 7 American Fall Pippin. See Fall Pippin, AMERICAN GOLDEN RUSSET.—Fruit, about the size of GoldenHarvey. In form it is roundish ovate, even and regular in its outline.Skin, yellow when ripe, and covered with patches of pale brown, orrather ashen grey russet. Eye, closed, set in a narrow and shallowbasin. Stalk, an inch long and slender. Flesh, yellowish, very tenderand fine grained, juicy, rich, and with an aromatic flavour. This is a very valuable dessert apple, and is in use from October toJanuary. The origin of this variety is unknown, but it has long existed in America, beingmentioned by Coxe in 1817. AMERICAN MOTHER {Mother Ajiple ; Queen Anne ; GardenersAj)ple). — Fniit, mediumtwo inches and three-quarters wide, and size,the same in height conical, even, and slightly undulating on its sur- ;face, and generally longer on one side of the axis than the other.Skin, golden yellow, covered with mottles and streaks of crimson onthe side next the sun, and strewed with russet dots. Eye, small,closed and tapering, set in a narrow basin. Stamens, median ; tube,conical, inclining to funnel-shape. Stalk, half an inch long, veryslender, inserted in a deep cavity. Flesh, yellowish white, remark-ably tender, crisp, and breaking, very juicy, sweet, and with a balsamicaroma. Cells, elliptical abaxile, wide and Codlin-like. ; One of the finest dessert apples in October. In shape it resemblesAdamss Pearmain. Thisis an American apple, and one of the few that ripen well in this country.I may here state that the indiscriminate introduction and recommendation ofAmerican fruits have led to grievous disappointment, and growers cannot exercisetoo much caution in the reception of advice on this subject. I have distinguishedthis as the " American " Mother Apple, as there are other varieties in this countryknown as the Mother Apple. It originated at Bolton, Massachusetts. American Newtown Pippin. See Newtown Pippin, American Plate. See Golden Pipjnn, AMERICAN SUMMER PEARMAIN {Early Summer Pearmain).— ^Fruit, medium obloug, regularly and handsomely shaped. sized,Skin, yellow, covered with patches and streaks of hght red, on theshaded side, and streaked with fine bright red, interspersed withmarkings of yellow, on the side next the sun. Eye, set in a wide anddeep basin. Stalk, slender, inserted in a round and deep cavity.Flesh, yellow, very tender, rich, and pleasantly flavoured. An excellent early apple, either for dessert or kitchen use. It isripe in the end of August, and will keep till the end of September. The tree is a healthy grower, a prolific bearer, and succeeds wellon hght soils. AMPHLETTS FAVOURITE.—Fniit, two inches and a half wide,
  • 49. ; ;8 THE FRUIT MANUAL.and two inches high roundish oblate, prominently ribbed on the ;sides, and with five prominent ridges round the crown. Skin, brightred on the side next the sun, and striped with darker red, but whereshaded it is yellow with a greenish tinge over the base it is covered ;with thin pale grey russet. Eye, with long, pointed, somewhatdivergent segments, set in a deep angular basin. Stamens, mediantube, conical. Stalk, short, and very slender, inserted its whole lengthin the cavity. Flesh, yellowish white, juicy, and of good flavour.Cells, round; axile, open. A culinary apple of Herefordshire in use during the autumn and upto Christmas. Anglesea Pippin. See Red Astrachan. ANNAT SCAKLET. — Fruit, two inches wide, and an inch and a.half high roundish oblate, even and regular in its outline, and bear- ;ing a close resemblance to Devonshire Quarrendon, both in shape andcolour. The flesh is also stained with red, but it is inferior in flavourto Devonshire Quarrendon. Stamens, marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped.Cells, closed, round. It was raised by Mr. A. Gorrie, at Annat,Perthshire. ANNIE ELIZABETH.—Fruit, large, round, widest at the base,prominently ribbed or angular. Skin, pale yellow on the shaded side,,streaked and spotted on the side next the sun with bright crimson.Eye, with connivent segments, deeply set in an irregular angularbasin. Stamens, median ; tube, deep conical. Stalk, short, deeplyset, frequently with a swelling on one side of it. Flesh, white, andof firm, yet crisp and tender texture, with a fine, brisk, sprightlyflavour. Cells, obovate abaxile. ; An excellent late kitchen or dessert apple. Aseedling raised by Messrs. Harrison & Sons, of Leicester. Keceived a FirstClass Certificate from the Royal Horticultural Society, 1868. API (Lady Apple ; Api Rouge ; Pomme dApi ; Petit Api RougeApi Petit). — Fruit, small, oblate. Skin, thick, smooth, and shining,yellowish green in the shade, changing to pale yellow as it attainsmaturity, and deep glossy red, approaching to crimson, on the sidenext the sun. Eye, small, set in a rather deep and plaited basin.Stalk, short, and deeply inserted. Stamens, marginal tube, conical-;Flesh, white, crisp, tender, sweet, very juicy, and slightly perfumed.Cells, obovate ; axile, slit. A beautiful dessert apple in use from October to April. little Itshould be eaten with the skin on, as it is there that the perfume is.contained. The skin is very sensitive of shade, and any device may beformed upon it, by causing pieces of papers, in the form of the designrequired, to adhere on the side exposed to the sun, before it has-attained its deep red colour. The tree is of a pyramidal habit of growth, healthy, and an abundant
  • 50. — APPLES. 9bearer. It succeeds well in almost any situation, provided the soil isrich,loamy, and not too light or dry ; and may be grown with equalsuccess either on the doucin or crab stock. When worked on theFrench paradise it is well adapted for pot culture. The fruit is firmlyattached to the spurs and forcibly resists the effects of high winds. It has been asserted that apple was brought from Peloponessus to Rome by thisAppius Claudius. Whether this be true or not, there can be no doubt it is of greatantiquity, as all the oldest authors regard it as the production of an age prior totheir own. Dalechamp and Harduin are of opinion that it is the Tetisia ofPliny ; but J. Baptista Porta considers it to be the Appiana of that author, whothus describes it, "Odor est his cotoneorum magnitudo quee Claudianis, colorrubens."* From this description it is evident that two varieties are referred to,the Appiana and Claudiana. Such being the case, J. Baptista Porta says, * duosunt apud nos mala, magnitudine, et colore paria, et preciosa, quorum unumodorem servat cotoneorum, alterum minimd. Quod odore caret, vulgo dictumMelo rosa. Id roseo colore perfusum est, mira teneritudine et sapore, rainimefugax, pomum magnitudine media, ut facile cum ceteris de principatu certet, neeindignum Claudii nomine. Hoc Claudianum dicerem."t This Melo Rosa maypossibly be the Pomme Rose or Gros Api ; and if so, we may infer that the Apiis the Appiana, and the Gros Api the Claudiana of Pliny, This, however, maybe mere conjecture, but as the authority referred to was a native of Naples, andmay be supposed to know something of the traditionary associations of the Romanfruits, I have deemed it advisable to record his opinion on the subject. According to Merlet, the Api was first discovertd as a wilding m the Forest ofApi, in Brittany. Although mentioned by most of the early continental writers, the Api does notappear to have been known in this country till towards the end of the 17thcentury. It is first mentioned by Worlidge, who calls it "Pomme Appease, acurious apple, lately propagated ; the fruit is small and pleasant, which theMadams of France carry in their pockets, by reason they yield no unpleasantscent." Lister, in his Journey to Paris, 1698," speaking of this as being one ofthe apples served up in the dessert, says, " Al.»o the Pome dApis, which is servedhere more for show than for use ; being a small flat apple, very beautiful, andvery red on one side, and pale or white on the other, and may serve the ladies attheir toilets as a pattern to paint by." De Quintinye calls it * Une Pomme desDamoiselles de bonne compagnie." et Under the name of Lady Apple, large quantities of the Api are annuallyimported to this country from the United States, where it is grown extensivelyand profitably, as it always commands the highest price of any other fancy applein the market. In the winter months they may be seen encircled with variouscoloured tissue papers, adorning the windows of the fruiterers in Covent GardenMarket. There are other varieties mentioned by J. Baptista Porta as belonging to the Apifamily ; one which ripened in August, in size like the Claudiana already men-tioned, and commonly called Melo Appio Bosso, because it retained the scent ofthe Api this is probably the Rother Sommer-api of Diel. ; There is another, ofwhich he says, " Assererem tuto esse Melapium Plinii," and which was held insuch estimation as to give rise to the proverb " Omme malum malum praeter appium malum.** — API ETOILLE {Pomme EtoilUe ; Sternapfel). This is a variety ofthe Api, from which it is distinguished by being very much flattened,and furnished with five very prominent angles on the sides, which giveit the appearance of a star, hence its name. Skin, of a deep yellow on • Plinii Hist. Nat. Lib. xt., cap. 14. t Villa, p. 278.
  • 51. —10 THE FRUIT MANUAL.the shaded side, and reddish orange next the sun. It is a well-flavouredapple, but only of second-rate quality ; and ripens about the middle orend of September. The variety received under this name by the London Horticultural Society musthave been incorrect, as in the last edition of their catalogue it is made synonymouswith Api Petit. API GROS {Pomme Rose; Fomme dApi Gros ; Fasse-rose). —Fruit, below medium size, two inches and three-quarters wide, andtwo inches high ; oblate. Skin, pale green, changing as it ripens topale 3^ellow on the shaded side, and pale red, mottled with green,where exposed to the sun. Eye, small and closed, set in a shallowand plaited basin. Stalk, short, inserted in a wide, rather deep, andrussety cavity. Flesh, greenish, tender, crisp, very juicy, and brisklyflavoured. Suitable either for the dessert, or for culinary purposes ; it is inferiorto the Api and not a first-rate apple. In use from December to March.The tree has much similarity to the Api in its growth, and is a goodbearer. This is a variety of Api, and closely resembles it in all its parts, exceptthat it is much larger. "La Pomme Kose resemble extremement partout sonexterieur a la Pomme d*Apis, mais a mon godt elle ne la vaut pas quoy quepuissent dire les curieux du Rhone, qui la veulent autant elever aussi au dessusdes autres, quils elevent la Poire Chat au dessus des autres Poires." DeQuintinye. — API NOIR. Fruit, small, but a little larger and somewhat flatterthan the Api, to which it bears a close resemblance. Skin, tender,smooth, and shining as if varnished, and almost entirely covered, whereexposed to the sun, with very dark crimson, almost approaching toblack, like the Pomme Violette, but becoming paler towards the shadedside, where there is generally a patch of light j^ellow it is strewed ;with fawn-coloured dots, and some markings of russet. Eye, verysmall, set in a pretty deep and plaited basin. Stalk, slender, aboutthree-quarters of an inch long, inserted in a rather deep, wide, andfunnel-shaped cavity, which is slightly marked with russet. Flesh,pure white, firm and juicy, tinged with red under the skin, and witha pleasant, vinous, and slightly perfumed flavour. A dessert apple, inferior to the Api, and cultivated merely forcuriosity. It is in use from November to April, but is very apt tobecome mealy. The habit of the tree is similar to that of the Api,but it is rather a larger grower. Api Petit. See Api. Api Rouge. See Api. Aporta. See Emperor Alexander. Arbroath Pippin. See Oslin. Arley. See Wyken Pij>pin.
  • 52. APPIJ2S. 11 AROMATIC RUSSET.—Fruit, medium sized, two inches and ahalf wide, and about two inches and a quarter high roundish ovate, ;and flattened atboth ends. Skin, greenish yellow, almost entirelycovered with brownish grey russet, strewed with brownish scales onthe shaded side, and slightly tinged with brownish red, strewed withsilvery scales on the side exposed to the sun. Eye, small and open,with broad recurved segments, and set in a rather shallow basin.Stalk, short, inserted in a deep and round cavity. Flesh, greenish and richly aromatic.yellow, firm, crisp, brisk, sugary, A very richly flavoured dessert apple of the first quality, in use fromDecember to February. The tree is very hardy, and an abundant bearer. The Golden Russet is often confounded with this, but the former is covered withcinnainun-coloored russet and has often a bright red cheek next the sun as ifvarnished. ASHMEADS KERNEL.—Fruit, below medium size, two inchesand a half to two and three-quarters wide, and two and a quarter totwo and a half high, round and flattened, but sometimes considerablyelongated. Skin, light greenish yellow, covered with yellowish brownrusset, and a tinge of brownish orange next the sun. Eye, small andpartially open, placed in a moderately deep round and plaited basin.Stamens, marginal tube, conical. Stalk, short, inserted in a round ;and deep cavity. Flesh, yellowish, firm, crisp, juicy, sugary, rich,and highly aromatic. Cells, obovate axile, slit. ; A dessert apple of the very first quality, possessing all the richnessof the Nonpareil, but with a more sugary juice. It comes into use inNovember, and is in greatest perfection from Christmas till May. The tree is very hardy, an excellent bearer, and will succeed insituations unfavourable to the Nonpareil, to which its leaves and shootsbear such a similarity as to justify Mr. Lindley in believing it to be aseedling from that variety. I have seen an apple called Improved Ashmeads Kernel^ which is noimprovement at all. It is much like the old one, and has more orangenext the sun. This delightful apple was raised at Gloucester, about the beginning of lastcentury, by Dr. Ashmead, an eminent physician of that city. The original treeexisted within the first quarter of the present century, in what had originallybeen Dr. Ashmeads garden, but was destroyed in consequence of the groundbeing required for building. It stood on the spot now occupied by Clarence Street. It is difficult to ascertain the exact period when it was raised ; but the late Mr.Hignell, an orchardist at Tewkesbury, in Gloucestershire, informed me in 1840that the first time he ever saw the fruit of Ashmeads Kernel was from a tree inthe nursery of Mr. Wheeler, of Gloucester, in the year 1796, and that the tree inquestion had been worked from the original, and was at that time upwards ofthirty years old. From this it may be inferred that the original tree had attainedsome celebrity by the middle of last century. Ashmeads Kernel has long been afavourite apple in all the gardens of West Gloucestershire, but it does not seem tohave been known in other parts of the country. Like the Ribston Pippin it appearsto have remained long in obscurity, before its value was generally appreciated ; it
  • 53. 12 THE FRUIT MANUAL.isnot even mentioned in the catalogue of the extensive collection which was cul-tivated by Miller and Sweet, of Bristol, in 1790. I find it was cultivated in theBrompton Park Nursery in 1780, at which time it was received from Mr. Wheeler,nurseryman, of Gloucester, who was author of " The Botanists and GardenersDictionary," published in 1763, and great-grandfather of the present proprietor ofthe nursery. Astrachan. See White Astrachan. AUGUSTUS PEARMAIN.—Fruit, below medium size ; pearmain-shaped, regular and handsome. Skin, thick and membranous, yellowin the shade, and marked with a few broken stripes of red ; but red,streaked all over with deeper red, on the side next the sun it is ;dotted with grey dots, and sometimes marked with patches of grey-coloured russet, which is strewed with scales of a darker colour. Eye,small and closed, with long segments, set in a narrow and even basin.Stalk, very short, not protruding beyond the base, and having theappearance of a knob obliquely attached. Flesh, tender, juicy, brisk,and vinous, with a pleasant aromatic flavour. A dessert apple, generally of only second-rate quality ; but in someseasons it is and of first-rate quality. of a rich flavour It is in use from November to Christmas. Aurore. See Golden Reinette. Autumn Calville. See Calville Rouge dAutomne. Autumn Bed Calville. See Calville Rouge d Automne, Autumn Pearmain. See Summer Pearmain, — BACHELORS GLORY. Fruit large, three inches wide, and twoand three-quarters high roundish and irregularly ribbed, generally ;higher on one side of the eye than on the other. Skin, smooth andshining, striped with deep golden yellow, and crimson stripes. Eye,closed, with broad flat segments, and set in a plaited, irregular, andangular basin. Stalk, about half an inch long, deeply inserted in afunnel-shaped cavity, which is lined with rough scaly russet. Flesh,yellow, tender, juicy, and pleasantly flavoured. A second-rate fruit, suitable either for the dessert or culinary pur-poses ; in use from October to November. This is a variety grown in the neighbourhood of Lancaster, where it is muchesteemed, but in the southern districts, where the more choice varieties can bebrought to perfection, it can only rank as a second -rate Iruit. Baches Kernel. See Best Bache. Baddow Pippin. See DArcy Spice. BALCHINS PEARMAIN. — medium size, two inches Fruit, aboutand three-quarters wide, and the same high. Roundish in shape, butnarrowing a little towards the apex, one side of which is higher thanthe other. Skin, smooth and lemon yellow, with a few scatteredbroken streaks of pale crimson on the shaded side, and a light crimson
  • 54. APPLES. IBcheek marked with broken stripes of darker crimson on the sideexposed to the sun the whole surface is strewed very thinly with ;small brown dots. Eye, small and open, with erect pointed segments,and set in a deep and wide basin. Stalk, short and slender, the cavityof which is very shallow and straight, not unlike that of Kerry Pippin.Flesh, white, firm, crisp, very juicy, sugary, and well-flavoured. An excellent apple, either for the dessert or kitchen purposes, thegreat recommendation of which is that it keeps in sound condition tillMay. So highly was it appreciated by the Fruit Committee of theHoyal Horticultural Society that it was awarded a first-class certificatein 1867. This was raised by Mr. Balchin, Master of the Union, Dorking. BALDWIN (Red Baldwin; Butters; Woodpecker). Fruit, large, —three inches and a half wide, and about three inches high ovato- ;conical. Skin, smooth, yellow on the shaded side, and on the sidenext the sun deep orange, covered with stripes of bright red, whichsometimes extend over the whole surface to the shaded side, andmarked with large russety dots. Eye, closed, set in a deep, narrow,and plaited basin. Stalk, about an inch long, slender, and inserted ina deep cavity, from which issue ramifying patches of russet. Flesh,yellowish, crisp, juicy, and pleasantly acid, with a rich and agreeableflavour. A culinary apple, in season from November to March. The tree isvigorous, and an abundant bearer ; but, like the generality of theAmerican sorts, it does not attain the size or flavour in this countrywhich it does in its native soil. This isconsidered one of the finest apples in the Northern States of America,and is extensively grown in Massachusetts, for the supply of the Boston market. Balgone Pippin. See Golden Pippin. Baltimore. See Gloria Mundi. BANK APPLE. —Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three-quar-ters wide, and about two inches and a half high roundish-ovate, ;regularly and handsomely formed. Skin, greenish yellow, with ablush and faint streaks of red next the sun, dotted all over withminute dots, and marked with several large spots of rough russet ; the base is covered with a coating of russet, strewed with silvery scales. Eye, large and open, set in a shallow and plaited basin. Stalk, half an inch long, obliquely inserted by the side of a fleshy prominence. Flesh, firm, crisp, brisk, juicy, and pleasantly acid, resembUng the Winter Greening in flavour. It is an excellent culinary apple, in use from November to February but as it has nothing to recommend it, in preference to ; other varieties already in cultivation, it need only be grown in largecolietitions. The original tree was produced from a pip, accidentally sown in the home
  • 55. 14 THE FRUIT MANUAL.nursery of Messrs. Konalds, of Brentford, and from growing on a bank by the sideof a ditch, it was called the Bank Apple. BARCELONA PEARMAIN (.Speckled Golden Beinette ; SpeckledPearmain ; Polinla Pearmam). Fruit, below medium — size, twoinches and a half wide, and the same high ovate. ; Skin, clear paleyellow, mottled with red in the shade, but dark red next the sun, thewhole covered with numerous star-like russety specks, those on theshaded side being brownish, and those next the sun yellow. Eye,small and open, with erect acuminate segments, and set in a round,even, and pretty deep basin. Stamens, median ; tube, funnel-shaped.Stalk, about an inch long, slender, inserted in a rather shallow cavity,which is lined with russet. Flesh, yellowish white, firm, crisp, veryjuicy, and with a rich, vinous, and highly aromatic flavour. Cells,roundish oblate ; axile, Oneof the best dessert apples, and equally valuable for culinarypurposes. It comes to perfection about the end of November, andcontinues in use till March. The tree is a free grower, but does not attain the largest size. It isvery hardy, an abundant bearer, and succeeds well either as a standardor an espalier. In the third edition of the Horticultural Societys Catalogue, this is said to bethe same as Reinette Rouge. I do not think that it is the Reinette Rouge of theFrench, which Duhamel describes as being white, or clear yellow in the shade,having often prominent ribs round the eye, which extend down the sides, so as torender the shape angular ; a character at variance with that of the BarcelonaPearmain. But I have no doubt of its being the Reinette Rousse of the same author,which is described at page 302, vol. i., as a variety of Reinette Franche, and whichhe says is of an elongated shape, skin marked with a great number of russety spots,the most part of which are of a longish figure, so much so, when it is ripe, itappears as if variegated with yellow and red ; a character in every way applicableto the Barcelona Pearmain. BARCHARDS SEEDLING. —Fruit, below medium size ; roundishovate, with broad obtuse angles on the sides, terminating in knobsround the crown. Skin, clear greenish yellow on the shaded side, andlemon yellow, striped and suffused with bright crimson, on the sidenext the sun and all the exposed parts. Eye, wide open, set in arather deep plaited basin. Stamens, marginal tube, funnel-shaped. ;Stalk, half an inch to an inch long, slender, deeply set. Flesh,yellowish white, firm, crisp, sweet, and with a fine brisk sub-acidflavour, like that of Manks Codlin. Cells, round or obovate axile, ;sht. An excellent culinary or dessert apple ; ripe in October. The tree isa constant bearer. It is now much grown in some of the market gardens about London,its fine colour making it attractive in the markets. In shape and incolour it has a resemblance to the Nonesuch. This was raised by Mr. Higgs, gardener to R. Barchard, Esq., Putney Heath,Surrey, and was brought into notice by being exhibited by Mr. Alexander Dancer,of Fulham, at a meeting of the British Pomological Society, in 1856.
  • 56. ; APPLES. 15 — BARON "WARD. Fruit, small, two and a quarter inches wide, andtwo inches high roundish ovate. Skin, smooth and shining, of a fine ;uniform deep yellow colour, marked with broken streaks of pale redDext the sun. Eye, slightly open, and not much depressed, set in ashallow plaited basin. Stamens, median tube, conical. ; Stalk, veryshort. Flesh, tender, crisp, juicy, and agreeably acid. Cells, ellipticalaxile. This is an excellent apple for culinary purposes, but its small size isa great objection to it. It is in use from January till May. This was raised, from Dumelows Seedling, in 1850, by Mr. Samuel Bradley,at Elton Manor, Nottingham, and first exhibited at the British Pomological Society,May 5th, 1859. BARTONS INCOMPARABLE.—Fruit, below medium size; inshape somewhat like a Golden Pippin, ovate or conical, with obtuseribs on the sides, which terminate in ridges round the eye. Skin,yellowish green, covered with patches of pale brown russet, thicklystrewed with large russety freckles, like the Barcelona Pearmain, andtinged with orange next the sun. Eye, small, open, with erect seg-ments, which are reflexed at the tips, set in a narrow and angular basin.Stamens, median tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, nearly three-quarters ;of an inch long, inserted in a narrow and round cavity. Flesh, yel-lowish white, tender, crisp, brittle, very juicy, and when eaten is quitea mouthful of lively, vinous juice. Cells, roundish ovate axile, open. ; A dessert apple of the highest excellence ; in use from October toFebruary. The tree is a good and healthy grower, attains a considerable size,and is an excellent bearer. This variety seems to be but little known, and, considering its excellence, toorarely cultivated. I am not aware that it exists in any of the nurseries, or that itwas at any period extensively propagated. The only place where I ever met withit was in the private garden of the late Mr. Lee, of Hammersmith, whence I pro-cured grafts