THEIF I^ UIT IMI^^lTTJ^^L " Fruit of all kinds, in coat, Bough or smooth rind, or bearded husk or ahelL"—MiLTOW.
v.^^^^^5^ THE FRUIT MANUAL:THE FEUITS AND FEUIT TEEES OF GEEAT BEITAIN. Br EGBERT HOGG, LL.D., F.L.S., Viee-Prttident, and latt Secretary, of The Royal Horticultural Society ; Editor of the * Journal of horticulture," dtc, ±c., dte. FIFTH EDITION. JOURNAL OF HORTICULTUEE OFFICE, 171, FLEET STREET. 1884. p tfs i»^ flipfl i (^
Co t^t pernor; of i^t htt MR. THOMAS RIVERS, OF BAWBKIDOEWORTH, THIS FIFTH EDITION OF THE FRUIT MANUAL;NOT THAT HE REQUIRES A MEMORIAL OTHER THAN THAT WHICH HEHIMSELF HAS RAISED; BUT FOR FORTY YEARS WE WERE KNIT TOGETHERBY THE CLOSEST FRIENDSHIP, WORKING TOGETHER AND STIMULATING ONEANOTHER IN THE STUDY OF POMOLOGY: AND NOW THAT HE HAS PASSED AWAY ITHUS CHERISH IN MY MEMORY A SINCERE FRIEND AND A GOOD MAN. HE 3DIEID OOTOBER. IVth, ia7"7. Aged 80 Years. y/j
PREFACE.It is twenty-four years since this work was first published, andduring the first fifteen of that period it passed through threelarge editions. The fourth appeared nine years ago, and thathas long since been out of print. I have now finished the FifthEdition, in which will be found a great deal of new matter,enlarging the work to upwards of 150 pages more than therewere in the last. The increase in size is mainly due to the introduction ofadditional descriptions of Fruits which are actually existing inour Gardens and Orchards, as I have been desirous of putting onrecord a description of all the fruits generally cultivated in theUnited Kingdom so far as it was in my power to do so. I couldeasily have increased the size of this volume if I had been sodisposed by introducing fruits cultivated abroad or which aredescribed in foreign works; but this would have answered nouseful purpose, for until these have been grown in this countryw^e can form no idea of what their merits or demerits might be.Much harm has already been done and much disappointment hasbeen caused by the indiscriminate introduction and recommend-ation of foreign fruits with the merits they are reputed to possessin other soils and other climates. Fruits are so easily influencedby these two agencies that even in this country, in localities notfar distant from each other, we meet with the most conflictingresults. In the fertile valley of the Thames about Teddingtonand Twickenham every kind of hardy fruit might be expected to
Vlll PREFACE.be produced in its greatest perfection ; but the reports furnishedby that experienced cultivator and acute observer, Mr. R. D.Blackmore, which will be found in the descriptions of Peachesand Pears, are quite staggering, and destroy the long-cherishedopinion which some of us have held respecting our favouritefruits. The new Classification of the Apple upon which I have forsome years been engaged is another additional feature in thisvolume, and I trust that, when its principles have been mastered,it will be found of service in the identification of the differentvarieties. The same success that has attended my Classification of theApple has been denied me in my attempt to do the same for thePear. I have merely given a sketch of a system which I hopeto be able some day more fully to elaborate. If one could everyyear, or even at short intervals of years, ensure a crop of fruit thework might soon be accomplished ; but in this uncertain climatewe must be content to proceed by slow marches and wait withpatience till our opportunities arise. I have consented to a request which has been frequently madeto introduce descriptions of the leading kinds of Pine-apples. Since the large importations of this fruit from the West Indies and the Azores, where it is extensively grown for the supply of the European markets, the cultivation of the Pine-apple has fallen off in British gardens. Nevertheless, it is all the more needful that some convenient record should be accessible for the identification of those varieties which have been grown in the pine-stoves of our large establishments.
CONTENTS PAGEAlmonds 1 Classification of 1Apples 4 Classification of xi Lists of Select 253 The Best Dessert 257 The Best Kitchen 258 The Best Cideb 259Apricots 260 Synopsis of 260 Lists of Select 273Berberries 273Cherries 274 Synopsis of 274 Lists op Select 316Chestnuts 317Cranberries 317Currants 318 Lists of Select 322Figs 322 Synopsis of 322 Lists of Select 337Gooseberries 337 Synopsis of 337 Lists of Select 365 Table for Weights of 366Grapes 366 Synopsis op 366 Lists of Select 413Medlars 414Mulberries 414Nectarines 415 Synopsis of 415 List of Select 426Nuts and Filberts 426 Synopsis of 426 List of Select 433
X CONTENTS.Peaches .----*- Synopsis op PAGE 43H 43B List of Select 464Pears 465 Classification of 465Pine-apples ... Lists of Select The Best - 670 673 675 Synopsis of 675Plums 680 Synopsis of 680 Lists of Select 733 The Best Desseet 733Quinces 734Raspbeeries 734 Synopsis of 734 List of Select 739Strawbeeeies -- 739 List of Select 758Walnuts 758
CLASSIFICATION OF APPLES.Many attempts have been made to devise a classification for the Apple.Diel, Sickler, Dochnahl, Lucas, and others have each produced one,but they are all modifications or altered forms the one of the other,and the characters upon which they are constructed are too inconstantand indefinite to render their work of much practical utility. As theultimate design of classification is mainly to facilitate the identificationof the numerous objects that are the subject of inquiry, if it fails inthis, much of its usefulness is impaired. The systems to which Ihave alluded have all proved failures, and, with the exception ofDielsand Doehnahls, I am not aware that under either of them thenumerous varieties of Apples have ever been classified. In British Pomolof/y, which was published many years ago, Isuggested a classification for the Apple that was intended to lead tothe discovery of the names of the diflerent varieties described in thatwork, but its scope was too limited, and it consequently failed in itspurpose. Previous to this I had attempted to make use of Dielsarrangement, but without success, and then I resolved to search out formyself characters upon which to base a system that would accomphshwhat I had in view. In 1876 my earliest views of a new system were published in TheJournal of Horticulture. It appeared while I was absent from home,and was set up in so confused a manner that it called forth some well-merited criticism. I reconstructed it in what I conceived to be a bettershape, and it was printed in a tUstinct form as A New Classiji cation ofAjjples. This is the basis upon which my new and amended system isfounded. I find, however, that in this as in every other classificationof natural objects there are the usual difiiculties to contend with.Kature refuses to be bound, and will not submit to be confined, withinthe narrow limits that man would assign to her. There is still the debatable ground to deal with, where there arc no definite boundaries
—XU THE FRUIT MANUAL.and we are met on every hand by the difficulties experienced by M.Milne-Edwards, who says, " We sometimes see the transition of oneplan of structure to an entirely different scheme of organisation takeplace by degrees so completely shaded one into the other that itbecomes very difficult to trace the line of demarcation between thegroups thus connected ; " and it must always be so. No classificationof natural objects has yet been constructed on perfectly fixed principles,and we were to wait, expecting to arrive at that state of scientific ifaccuracy, we should continue waiting. Every system now in use hasbeen crude in its beginning. The natural system of botany, forinstance, which is now almost universally in use, was evolved, and isstill being evolved, out of one which "abounded in errors and imper-fections." I am not discouraged, therefore, when I meet with difficultiesin applying my system. I feel assured that after it has been put intooperation, and some of its imperfections have been discovered andhave disappeared, it will eventually be found to answer the purpose forwhich it is intended ; for I am convinced that the principles uponwhich it is founded are sound. The structural characters on which this classification is based are1. The Stamens; 2. The Tube; 3. The Carpels; and 4. The Sepals. When we make a longitudinal section of an Apple through thecentre of the eye to the stalk we see these various organs. At the topof the section are the calycine segments, or what is technically calledthe eye, and immediately below them there is a cavity called bybotanists the flower-tube. Inserted in this tube is a ring of smallbristle-like organs, which are the remains of the stamens, and theseoccupy three difierent positions. In some fruits they are very nearthe top of the tube ; in others they are lower down, and occupy aposition about the middle ; whilst in others they are very near thebase. The tube itself is of two forms —the conical and the funnel-shaped. Just below the tube is the core, composed generally of fivecells or carpels, and these assume four difierent forms —round, ovate,obovate, and elliptical and each of these varies in its relation to the ;axis of the fruit, some extending close to it and forming symmetricalcells, while others are distant from it and are unsymmetrical. These being the principal characters with which we have to deal, Ishall now proceed to treat of them individually.
CLASSIFICATION OF APPLES. XIU 1. The Stamens. — I have already stated that these occupy threedifferent positions in the tube, have adopted them as the primary and 1divisions of this system, having found by experience that they are onthe whole the most reliable characters where all are more or lesschangeable. The marjinal position is shown in Fim. 1, 2 a, 3, and4 a ; the median in Fif/s. 5 a, G a, and 7 and the basal in Figs. 8 a ;and 9 n. 2. The Tube. The tube— is of two distinct forms —the conical andhe funnel-shaped — and these are more or less modified in shape, as willbe seen on reference to the various diagrams. The outlines of theconical tube, as shown in F^s. 1, 2, 6, and 9, proceed from the baseof the sepals in a curved line downwards towards the core, forming aninverted cone. These curves are generally inwards, but occasionallythey are outwards, as in Fuj. 1, which has suggested to me the forma-tion of another division under the name of urn-shaped but it occurs;so seldom that no importance need be attached to it. The lines ofthe funnel-shaped tube proceed, like those of the conical, from thebase of the sepals, curving outwards in the same downward direction,and then, curving inwards, form a hump or shoulder which is higher orlower than the middle of the tube and this has the appearance of a ;funnel shape, as is shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 7, and 8. 3. The Cay-pels. — These constitute what is popularly called the coreof the apple. They are generally five, occasionally they are four,and I have seen only three, but this is very rarely met with. Thesecarpels or seed-cells vary in shape. If one is spht down the middleits walls or membranous lining will be either rounds as represented inFig. 2 b ; ovate, as in Fig. 6 b ; obovate, as in Fig. 9 6; or elliptical,as in Fig. 4 b. Then in relation to the axis of the fruit, they areeither axile or abaxile. When the walls extend to the axis, and thesecharacters will be best seen by making a transverse section of the fruit,the cells are symmetrical, as shown in Figs. 10 and 11, and then theyare said to be axile, whether they are open, as in Fig. 11, or closed, asin Fig. 10. When they are distant from the axis, and the cells areunsymmetrical, as shown in Fig. 12, they are called abaxile. 4. — The Sepals or Eye. These are a portion of the remains of theflower, which in their original form, when accompanied by the corolla,were uniformly expanded and spreading. After the petals drop, andas the fruit develops, they gradually assume various directions, andwhen it is perfectly matured we find them in four distinct forms.The first of these is shown in Fig. 13, where the segments are quitereflexed, frequently so much as to fall back flat on the fruit in tha
XIV THE FRUIT MANUAL. m y Fig. 1. Fig. 2. F g. 3. Fig. 6. Fig. 4. Fig. 7. 6- Fig. 6. Fig. 9. Fix. 8.
;XYl THE FBUIT MANUAL.form of a star; they are then said to be divergent. In Fig. 14 wehave another form, in which the segments are never reflexed, but areerect with their margins merely touching and their points divergentand these are erect convergent. Then there is the flat convergentposition [Figs. 15 and 16), in which the segments are flat, closing theeye, but with their margins merely touching and not overlapping eachother. And lastly we have the connivent form (Figs. 17 and 18), inwhich the segments are all close together, overlapping each other andforming a compact cone. The minor divisions require no great explanation. They classifythe fruit according to form as they are round or oblate, conical orovate, and these again are further divided according to their surfacecolouring. This latter character requires a little explanation. Whenfruit is said to be pale it signifies that it is of an uniform colour ofyellow or green, notwithstanding that it may be faintly tinged on theBun side with orange or pale red. It is said to be striped when theonly additional colour to that of the ground colour consists of distinctred stripes without any ground colour of red. It is said to be colouredwhen the skin is wholly or partially a decided red, and this may beaccompanied with stripes or with some russet. The 7usset skin is thatin which a russet coat prevails. When a russet coat has a brown orred cheek the fruit is not on that account to be classed in the colouredsection. In every case I have indicated the time of year during whichthe fruit is in use as a further help to the identification of it.
SYNOPSIS OF THE CLASSIFICATION. ANALYTICAL KEY.In all Apples the stamens are inserted either near the margin, in themiddle, or at the base of the tube and these characteristics constitute ;the three primary divisions of this classification. Stamens marpnal A. Stamens median B. Stamens basal C. A. STAMENS MARGINAL. Tube conical I. Tube funnel-shaped . . . .II. I. Tube Conical. Cells round, axile. Group Calyx divergent 1 Calyx erect convergent 2 Calyx flat convergent 3 Calyx connivent 4 Cells round, abaxile. * Calyx divergent 5 Calyx erect convergent 6 Calyx flat convergent 7 Calyx connivent 8 Cells ovate, axile. Calyx divergent 9 Calyx erect convergent 10 Calyx flat convergent 11 Calyx connivent 12 Cells ovate, abaxile. Calyx divergent 13 Calyx erect convergent 14 Calyx flat convergent 15 Calyx connivent 16 Cells obovate, axile. Calyx divergent 17 Calyx erect convergent 18 Calyx flat convergent 19 Calyx connivent 20 Cells obovate, abaxile. Calyx divergent 21 Calyx erect convergent 22 Calyx flat convergent 23 Calyx connivent .24 b