Native Plants of East Central Illinois and their Preferred Locations

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Native Plants of East Central Illinois and their Preferred Locations

  1. 1. O T B R20 C O E 07
  2. 2. Native Plants at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Campus: A Sourcebook for Landscape Architects and Contractors James Wescoat and Florrie Wescoat with Yung-Ching Lin Champaign, IL October 2007 Based on “Native Plants of East Central Illinois and their Preferred Locations” An Inventory Prepared by Dr. John Taft, Illinois Natural History Survey, for the UIUC Sustainable Campus Landscape Subcommittee - 1 -
  3. 3. 1. Native Plants and Plantings on the UIUC CampusThis sourcebook was compiled for landscape architects working on projects at the Universityof Illinois at Urbana-Champaign campus and the greater headwaters area of east centralIllinois. 1 It is written as a document that can be distributed to persons who may be unfamiliarwith the local flora and vegetation, but its detailed species lists and hotlinks should be usefulfor seasoned Illinois campus designers as well.Landscape architects increasingly seek to incorporate native plants and plantings in campusdesigns, along with plantings that include adapted and acclimatized species from other regions.The term “native plants” raises a host of fascinating scientific, aesthetic, and practicalquestions. What plants are native to East Central Illinois? What habitats do they occupy?What communities do they form? What are their ecological relationships, aestheticcharacteristics, and practical limitations? As university campuses begin to incorporateincreasing numbers of native species and areas of native planting, these questions will becomeincreasingly important.We offer preliminary answers to these questions, and a suite of electronic linkages to databasesthat provide a wealth of information for addressing more detailed issues. We begin with abrief introduction to the importance of native plants in the campus environment, and thechallenges of using them effectively, followed by a description of the database, onlineresources, and references included below.2. The Historical Importance of Native Plants in the Campus EnvironmentThe current wave of interest in native plants at the University of Illinois has a long history. Infact, it begins in prehistory with Native American uses and modification of native vegetationfor food, medicine, and spiritual purposes. Despite extensive clearing of the prairies followingEuropean settlement (McManis, 1964), some early plant uses continue to the present day asdocumented in ethnobotanical studies such as Kelly Kindscher’s Medicinal Wild Plants of thePrairie (1992) and Edible Wild Plants of the Prairie (1987).Wilhelm Miller (1915) was an early advocate for landscape architects who used and drewinspiration from prairie vegetation. In the early 20th century landscape architect Jens Jensenand others founded “Friends of our Native Landscape” (Jensen, 1956). While the “prairiestyle” persisted through the mid-20th century in the work of Alfred Caldwell (Domer, 1997), itencountered strong resistance from both picturesque and modern traditions of landscapearchitecture that emphasized mown lawns and exotic ornamental introductions (e.g., seeJenkins, 1994; and Teyssot, 1999). Criticism of slavish and superficial approaches to nativeplanting continues in the work of German landscape architects Groning and Wolschke-Bulmahn (1992) and insightful editorial essays in Ecological Restoration (cf. Elliot, 1997). But1 Prepared at the request of the UIUC Sustainable Campus Landscape Subcommittee, using the headwaters areainventory of native plants compiled by Dr. John Taft of the Illinois Natural History Survey; and Dr. KennethRobertson’s “Considerations Regarding Landscaping with Natives on the U of I Campus” (2004). We aregrateful to Drs. Taft and Robertson for their input to this sourcebook. - 2 -
  4. 4. overall, native plant movements have been gaining popular, scientific, and design support inrecent decades.The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign has a strong record of research on nativevegetation. The websites of taxonomist Dr. Kenneth Robertson contain a wealth ofinformation about pragmatic as well as scientific and aesthetic aspects of prairie vegetation andplanting (http://www.inhs.uiuc.edu/~kenr/prairienativelinks.html). At a larger scale,Southern Illinois University professor Robert Mohlenbrock produced the superb IllustratedFlora of Illinois volumes.Many individual native specimens on the UIUC campus, with fine results, but few nativeplantings have been established. For example, prairie plantings were installed at the HeleneGateway several years ago, but were reportedly removed within weeks for being too “messyand weedy” looking. Professor Terry Harkness and his students have recently installed a hillprairie planting on the west side of Temple Hoyne Buell Hall (2007) to demonstrate a nativeplant aesthetic for the university and wider community. Individual native specimens andsmall plantings occur across campus, but they are rarely woven within a broadly native or evennaturalistic planting aesthetic. The same trends apply to the wider landscapes of east centralIllinois. Only a few remnants of our native landscape survive on campus.The value of native plantings is manifold (see also Robertson, 2004). It includes: • Expansion of native flora, associated habitats, and biodiversity • Educational opportunities for the university community, including service learning by student groups, e.g., Red Bison. • Cultivation of aesthetic enjoyment of the plants specific to this area. • Reduced lawn chemical application, mowing costs, and other functional requirements.This sourcebook compiles information for those who seek to achieve these values in design,construction, and maintenance of native and naturalistic plantings on campus.3. Native Plants in the Design ProcessLandscape architect Terry Harkness and others present a basic design approach that hasapplication to native, and more generally sustainable, plantings. He suggests that designersdevelop “landscape models” (e.g., ecological communities such as upland forest, hill prairie,savanna, etc.) and “plant lists” of species that fit the site and model. The designer strives tointegrate these models and plant species choices and compositions in ways that creativelyaddress site conditions and program requirements (fig. 1). 2The best published example of this approach is Judith Phillips’ two-volume work, Natural byDesign and Plants for Natural Gardens. Although focused on New Mexico, it elegantly presents2 This simplified representation of the design process indicates in general terms how native plant species listssuch as those in this sourcebook are used along with other information. For much more detailed informationabout prairie design, construction, maintenance, and long-term management see references such as Packardand Mutel, 1997. - 3 -
  5. 5. the natural landscapes and how they have been adapted in planting design in volume 1, andprovides a rich description of native plant species useful for achieving those aims in volume 2.While there is no comparable publication for landscape architecture in Illinois, the IllinoisNatural History Survey has prepared valuable reports on (1) remnant nature preserves thatmay serve as ecological landscape design models; and (2) a detailed list of plant species that arenative to the “headwaters area” of east central Illinois. Landscape Site and Plant Models Program Species (e.g., ecological Analysis Lists communities) Alternative Planting Design Concepts Fig. 1: Simplified model of planting designA. Ecological Landscape Models -- Directory of Illinois Nature PreservesThe INHS Directory of Illinois Nature Preserves identifies many of the small remnant areas ofwoodland, prairie, savannas, and wetlands in the state. To give a sense of the magnitude ofvegetation change at UIUC, only one preserve is listed in Champaign County (Tomlinsonprairie). There are other parcels of woodland, wetland, and constructed prairie in ChampaignCounty, which are managed by the park districts, forest preserve, and private landowners – butthey represent a tiny fraction of the land area. Thus, to gain a broad perspective on “naturalvegetation models”, the INHS Directory is a useful source.B. Species Lists–“Native Plants of East Central Illinois and their Preferred Locations”Defining plants regarded as “native” has human as well as ecological dimensions. Dr.Robertson (2004, 1-2) highlights the following criteria and considerations: 1. Political boundaries – are sometimes used to inventory native plants, in part because management and funding are provided by those jurisdictions (e.g., Champaign County; or Illinois as in Mohlenbrock’s Vascular Flora of Illinois [2002]). 2. Ecological boundaries – provide a scientific basis for describing native vegetation, though it should be recognized that these distributions vary in space and time (e.g. - 4 -
  6. 6. Grand Prairie section and division of the Midwestern Tallgrass Prairie; or the Headwaters watershed area used in John Taft’s survey). 3. Genotypes associated with local niches –sometimes referred to as “ecotypes”, denote genetic variation of a native species within a region. Genotypes are particularly important for plant and seed collection strategies in ecological restoration planting. 4. Cultivars of native plants – are not strictly “native” to any area, but they may be all that is commercially available and have desirable (or undesirable) ornamental and/or practical characteristics.As Robertson (2004) underscores, the definition of what is native usually depends on severalof these factors. Designers should indicate the criteria used to develop a plant list, especiallywhen it expands the list of “approved plants” to include more native plants (UIUC Facilitiesand Services, 2007).Native Plants of East Central Illinois and their Preferred Locations. In 2003, Dr. JohnTaft prepared an Excel spreadsheet of 695 species observed in the “headwaters areaassessment,” that is, in the counties of east central Illinois that comprise the headwaters of theSangamon, Embarras, and Vermillion rivers that discharge into tributaries of the Mississippiand Ohio River basins. The Illinois Plant Information Network lists 1,190 records forChampaign County http://www.fs.fed.us/ne/delaware/ilpin/c19.dat.Dr. Taft’s Excel spreadsheet (in the attached CD) contained two lists, one sorted by Latinplant names and the other by common names. The spreadsheet further designated specieslocations by the following major habitat classes (i.e., forest, prairie, savanna, and wetland),subclasses, and moisture conditions: 1. Forest a. Upland (dry, dry-mesic, mesic, and wet-mesic) b. Floodplain (mesic, wet-mesic, wet) 2. Prairie a. Prairie (dry-mesic, mesic, wet-mesic, wet) b. Hill Prairie (glacial drift hills) 3. Savanna a. Savanna 4. Wetlands a. Seep b. Marsh c. Other (streams, ponds) 5. Cultural (all community types)This last, cultural, category consists largely of native ruderal (weed) species that thrive in areasdisturbed by construction, compaction, and other human activities, though these conditionsare not well-defined. 3 The term “weed” is more problematic: for it can refer to non-compact3 As the entire campus landscape is affected by disturbance of different sorts and to greater or lesser degrees,this category deserves detailed treatment in future studies. - 5 -
  7. 7. plant forms, disturbance tolerance, invasiveness, or undesirable impacts on other species. Theinventory indicates exotic species with an asterisk that have naturalized and proliferated in thearea.This list is valuable for the number of plants listed, and for its designation of preferredvegetation communities and moisture conditions. These categories can serve as a partial basisfor the native planting design concepts and species lists described above.C. Limitations of the Full DatabaseHowever, the original full matrix presents landscape architects with a number of challengesbeginning with the number of species which are listed in alphabetical order. As noted above,the list does not differentiate among “cultural” situations that range from disturbance to issuesof compatibility with different aspects of human activities and preferences. It does notindicate how the moisture categories of forests compare with those of prairies, or how theserelative conditions should be determined in the field.Finally, the raw matrix does not include plant characteristics that landscape architects need toknow when selecting species. These include major characteristics such as plant type -- tree,shrub, grass, herb, etc. Landscape architects also consider a host of detailed plant qualities --ranging from plant height and form to flowering time, color, and fragrance; fruiting qualities;leaf and branching texture; growth rate; soil tolerance; microclimate preferences; diseaseproblems; wildlife and insect associations; and maintenance requirements – clearly far morethan would be possible to include in any single matrix or even anticipate (though see Time-Life plant books of the 1970s for attempts of this sort).These limitations notwithstanding, “Native Plants of East Central Illinois and their PreferredLocations” is a good starting point for landscape professionals working on the UIUC campusand surrounding areas, and for that reason its entire list is included as an attachment.D. Organizing and Expanding the Database for Landscape Architectural UseTo make the database more useful for campus landscape architectural projects, we modified itin four initial ways: 1. Addition of a Plant Types Classification – i.e., tree, shrub, vine, grass, and herbaceous plants categories commonly used by landscape architects. 4 2. Sorting and Listing by Plant Types and Habitats (included in this document and on CD) 5 a. Lists of plant types (e.g., trees) for different habitats b. Lists of different plant types for each major habitat (e.g., hill prairies)4 Future editions should add plant sizes, e.g., small, medium, and large trees; short, medium, and tall grasses;etc.5 Future editions should differentiate lists by moisture conditions, esp. dry and wet preferences. - 6 -
  8. 8. 3. Weblinks to Four On-line Databases – to provide ready access to the wealth of additional species characteristics listed above. 6 a. USDA Plants database -- http://plants.usda.gov/index.html -- the most comprehensive on-line botanical database b. Kemper Center for Home Gardening (MOBOT) – a detailed garden website http://www.mobot.org/gardeninghelp/plantfinder/serviceplantfinder.shtml 7 c. UI Plants [Kling] -- http://woodyplants.nres.uiuc.edu/ -- the best website on woody ornamentals for landscape architects d. Illinois Wildflowers [Hilty] -- http://www.illinoiswildflowers.info/ -- the most detailed, searchable, website for native herbaceous plants in east central Illinois. 4. Culling of Exotic, Invasive, and Less Well-Known Species. As this document focuses on native plants that have promise for landscape architecture, it strives for a balance between maximizing the plant palette and identifying a practical list of plants. The criteria for culling were: a. Plants identified as exotic * were dropped b. Plants that were only listed on the USDA site were dropped (i.e., not on any of the MOBOT, Kling, or Hilty specialized and ornamental lists). These steps reduced the total plant list from 695 to 438, which remains a large but more tractable and useful database. 8E. A “Reverse-Lookup” ToolIllinois does not have a search engine for native plants that have specific landscape traits, e.g.,“1 to 3 foot perennials that prefers moist sunny conditions and has yellow flowers.” Howeverthe MOBOT Kemper site allows that type of search for Missouri natives, some of which mayoverlap with the east central Illinois flora (see search interface below and its “Missouri Native”box). http://www.mobot.org/gardeninghelp/plantfinder/Search.asp6 These websites were selected for national, regional, and local expertise; and search tools.7 When Kemper-MOBOT did not list the species, we linked the plant to the Lady Bird Johnson WildflowerCenter or the UW Stevens Point Herbarium.8 Further culling is warranted as some aggressive and disturbance-intolerant species remain on the list. - 7 -
  9. 9. With these tools in hand, landscape architects can utilize lists of native plants organized byhabit and community type, and bring up three electronic reference sources that havephotographs and the fine-grained information needed to select plants for a design project.F. Conclusion -- Using the Native Species ListsThe plant lists appended below are only the first step toward native plant species selection anddesign on campus. Some of the additional steps needed to make the lists more useful havebeen mentioned in the footnotes. The three most important issues that require concurrentattention at this point are: • First, for designers to absorb the wealth of native plant species and vegetation knowledge that is already available to achieve excellence in campus planting design, which no amount of lists and websites can adequately convey. • Second, for plant ecologists and designers to study the dynamics of human experience, disturbance, and microclimates that affect the effectiveness and enjoyment of native vegetation in the campus environment. • Third, for university facilities planners to encourage experimentation with and expansion of the “Approved Plant List” to encompass the widest possible palette of native plants that fulfill campus design goals, standards, and natural heritage.When these two longer-term commitments are pursued, the campus will begin to movetoward a more dynamic harmony between the people and mission of the university and theirnative, naturalized, and adaptive vegetation systems. 93. REFERENCES AND ADDITIONAL RESOURCESDarke, Rick. 2002. The American Woodland Garden: Capturing the Spirit of the Deciduous Forest.Portland: Timber Press. This volume gets to a deep level of understanding the woodland garden, i.e., in different contexts, successional stages, seasons, and times of day. It is relevant for translating upland forest and floodplain forest flora into planting design concepts.Dirr, M.A. 1998. Manual of Woody Landscape Plants: Their Identification, OrnamentalCharacteristics, Culture, Propagation, and Uses. Fifth Edition. Champaign, Illinois: StipesPublishing,Dirr, M.A. 1997. Dirrs Hardy Trees and Shrubs: An Illustrated Encyclopedia. Portland,Oregon: Timber Press.9 On timescales of decades, in the context of climate change, native and invasive plant lists will change aswill human needs, wants, and tastes. - 8 -
  10. 10. Domer, Dennis. 1997. Alfred Caldwell: The Life and Work of a Prairie School Landscape Architect.Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Biography of the mid-20th century legacy of prairie landscape architecture and its strong links with modern architecture.Druse, Ken. 1994. The Natural Habitat Garden. New York: Clarkson Potter. This volume covers the full spectrum of woodland, grassland, dryland, and wetland gardens. It has less depth and detail for each of these types, and is thus a good first reference.Ecological Restoration – oldest journal of restoration theory and practice. Published by theSociety for Ecological Restoration International and the University of Wisconsin Press.Gobster, Paul H.; Haight, Robert G. 2004. From Landscapes to Lots: Understanding and ManagingMidwestern Landscape Change. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-245. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department ofAgriculture, Forest Service, North Central Research Station. Regional perspective on and strategies for landscape change in the Midwest, from a office for urban ecological research in the USFS.Groening, Gert; and J. Wolschke-Bulmahn. 1992. “Some Notes on the Mania for NativePlants in Germany,” Landscape Journal 11, 2: 116–26. Critique by: Kim Sorvig, “Natives andNazis: An Imaginary Conspiracy in Ecological Design. Commentary on G. Groening and J.Wolschke-Bulmahn’s ‘Some Notes on the Mania for Native Plants in Germany, ”LandscapeJournal 13, 1 (1994), 58. Reply by G. Groening and J. Wolschke-Bulmahn, “Response: If theShoe Fits, Wear It!” Landscape Journal 13, 1 (1994). And more!Harkness, T.G. 1970. “A Landscape in Evolution: The Graphic History of Champaign andPiatt Counties from 70,000 B.C. to A.D. 1860.” M.L.A. Thesis. Urbana: City Planning andLandscape Architecture Library.Harkness, T.G. 1990. “Garden from Region,” in The Meaning of Gardens, 110-19. Ed. M.Francis and R.T. Hester. Cambridge: MIT Press.Hightshoe, G. L. 1988. Native Trees, Shrubs, and Vines for Urban and Rural America: APlanting Design Manual for Environmental Designers. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York,New York.Jenkins, Victoria. 1994. The Lawn: History of an American Obsession. Washington DC:Smithsonian Institution.Jensen, Jens. 1956/1990. Siftings. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.Kindscher, Kelly. 1987. Medicinal Wild Plants of the Prairie. Lawrence: University Press ofKansas. - 9 -
  11. 11. Kindscher, Kelly. 1992. Medicinal Wild Plants of the Prairie. Lawrence: University Press ofKansas.Kovacic, D. et al., “Effectiveness of constructed wetlands in reducing nitrogen andphosphorus export from agricultural tile drainage,” Journal of Environmental Quality 29:1262-74Ladd, Doug; and Oberle, Frank et al. 1995. Tallgrass Prairie Wildflowers. Guilford, CT: TheGlobe Pequot Press.Landscape Ecology – published by International Association for Landscape Ecology (IALE);journal for ecologists, biogeographers, landscape architects, and environmental planners.McFall, Don and Karnes, Jean. Eds. 1995. A Directory of Illinois Nature Preserves. 2 vols.Springfield, IL: Illinois Department of Natural Resources.McManis, Douglas R. 1964. The Initial Evaluation and Utilization of the Illinois Prairies, 1815-1840.Research Paper #94. Chicago: University of Chicago, Department of Geography.Miller, Wilhelm. 1915. The Prairie Spirit in Landscape Gardening: What the People of Illinois have Doneand Can Do toward Designing and Planting Public and Private Grounds for Efficiency and Beauty.Circular 184. Urbana: University of Illinois.Mohlenbrock, Robert H. various. The Illustrated Flora of Illinois. 15 vols. Carbondale: SouthernIllinois University Press.Mohlenbrock, R. H. 2002. Vascular Flora of Illinois. Southern Illinois University Press,Carbondale and Edwardsville.Nowakowski, Keith G. 2004. Native Plants for the Home Landscape in the Upper Midwest. Circular1381. Urbana: University of Illinois Extension.Packard, Stephen and Cornelia Mutel, ed. 1997. Tallgrass Restoration Handbook: For Prairies,Savannas and Woodlands. Washington, DC: Island Press. Excellent source for east central Illinois, including sections on: goals and plans; seeds and planting; management and monitoring; and associated wildlife management. Many useful appendices.Phillips, Judith. 1995. Natural by Design: Beauty and Balance in Southwest Gardens. Santa Fe:Museum of New Mexico Press. Although focused on the southwest, the logic of this book and its companion plant volume is exemplary. Phillips identifies four natural types of vegetation—the upland, the high plains grassland, the desert shrubland, and the oasis. She captures the - 10 -
  12. 12. aesthetic qualities of these natural vegetation types in photographs, and then shows how they have been translated into the built environment.Phillips, Judith. 1995. Plants for Natural Gardens: Southwestern Native and Adaptive Trees, Shrubs,Wildflowers and Grasses. Santa Fe: Museum of New Mexico Press. Organized by habitat – upland, shrub desert, grassland, oasis – this book is organized as a plant encyclopedia with notable characteristics, adaptations, landscape use and care, propagation, and related species.Prince, Hugh. 1997. Wetlands of the American Midwest: A Historical Geography ofChanging Attitudes. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Restoration Ecology – journal of the Society for the Society of Ecological RestorationRock, H. 1981. Prairie Propagation Manual, Sixth edition. Wehr Nature Center, HalesCorner, Wisconsin.Schmid, James. 1975. Urban Vegetation. Research Paper no. 161. Chicago: University ofChicago, Department of Geography. [detailed surveys of metropolitan Chicago].Teyssot, Georges. 1999. The American Lawn. New York: Princeton Architectural Press.Tishler, William H. ed. 2000. Midwestern Landscape Architecture. Urbana: University of IllinoisPress. [includes essays on Cleveland, Jensen, Olmsted, Simonds, and others].UIUC. Office for Project Planning and Facility Management. 1999. Design Guidelines.http://www.fs.uiuc.edu/pdfs/Guidelines5.pdf.UIUC. 2007. Facilities Standards. 3 vols. http://www.fs.uiuc.edu/uiucapp/UIUCNative2.cfm.Includes: Section 02930 – Exterior Plants; Exhibit 02930-1 -- Approved plant list;Maintenance; and Impact on Surrounding Environment sections.Wescoat, James L. Jr. 1979. Naturalistic Plantings in the Cultural Landscape. M.A. thesis. Chicago:University of Chicago, Department of Geography [compares prairie and desert revegetationmovements].-----------------------Selected Internet Resources: There are many websites on native vegetation in Illinois,especially prairies. Some that are relevant for east central Illinois and the wider region include:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and related local websites: UIUC Prairie Web Sites: http://www.inhs.uiuc.edu/~kenr/prairielinks.html List of Native Prairie Plants for Use Along Roadsides in Illinois. http://www.inhs.uiuc.edu/~kenr/prairietable1.html - 11 -
  13. 13. http://www.inhs.uiuc.edu/~kenr/shrubstable.html http://www.inhs.uiuc.edu/~kenr/treetable.html Red Bison, Registered Student Organization https://netfiles.uiuc.edu/ro/www/RedBison/ Grand Prairie Friends -- http://www.prairienet.org/gpf/ List of nurseries: http://www.prairienet.org/gpf/nurseries.php Illinois Wildflowers [John Hilty] -- http://www.illinoiswildflowers.info/ Meadowbrook Park prairie -- http://www.prairienet.org/meadowbrook/ Prairie Wildflowers of Illinois (photos and text) http://www.illinoiswildflowers.info/ INHS Gallery of Illinois Plants --- http://www.inhs.uiuc.edu/cwe/illinois_plants/ UIUC Weed Science: http://weeds.cropsci.uiuc.edu/index.htm UIUC Facilities Standards -- http://www.fs.uiuc.edu/uiucapp/UIUCNative2.cfm Campus Committee for a Sustainable Environment – Blue Illinois http://www.fs.uiuc.edu/blue/sustainable_campusenvironment.htmChicago Botanic Garden -- http://www.chicagobotanic.org/Chicago Wilderness -- http://www.chicagowilderness.org/Eastern Illinois University – Prairie Restoration (including sources) http://www.eiu.edu/~prairie/Illinois Invasive Plants List. http://www.vplants.org/documents/plants_invasive.xlsIllinois Native Plant Society -- http://www.ill-inps.org/index.htm Includes invasives list and seed sources: http://www.ill- inps.org/index_files/Page560.htmIllinois Plant Information Network -- http://www.fs.fed.us/ne/delaware/ilpin/ilpin.htmlMissouri Botanic Garden -- http://www.mobot.org/Morton Arboretum -- http://www.mortonarb.org/Southern Illinois University – Phytoimages http://131.230.176.4/index.htmlU.S. Environmental Protection Program – Greenacres program. http://epa.gov/greenacres/U.S. National Park Service – Plant Conservation Alliance. http://www.nps.gov/plants/University of Wisconsin Arboretum (Curtis prairie) -- http://uwarboretum.org/index.phpWild Ones -- http://www.for-wild.org/. Several Illinois chapters. - 12 -
  14. 14. TREES by Habitat in East Central Illinois NATIVE PLANT LISTS FOR UIUC–TABLE OF CONTENTS 101. Trees by Habitat in East Central Illinois................................................................. 14 Trees with a Wide Range of Habitats.........................................................................................................14 Trees of Upland Forest Habitats ................................................................................................................14 Trees of Floodplain Forest Habitats ..........................................................................................................15 Trees of Savanna Habitats ...........................................................................................................................16 Trees of Wetland Habitats ...........................................................................................................................162. Shrubs by Habitat in East Central Illinois .............................................................. 17 Shrubs with a Wide Range of Habitats.....................................................................................................17 Shrubs of Upland Forest Habitats..............................................................................................................17 Shrubs of Floodplain Forest Habitats........................................................................................................17 Shrubs of Hill Prairie Habitats ....................................................................................................................18 Shrubs of Prairie Habitats ............................................................................................................................18 Shrubs of Savanna Habitats.........................................................................................................................18 Shrubs of Wetland Habitats.........................................................................................................................183. Vines by Habitat in East Central Illinois................................................................. 19 Vines with a Wide Range of Habitats .......................................................................................................19 Vines of Upland Forest Habitats ................................................................................................................19 Vines of Floodplain Forest Habitats ..........................................................................................................19 Vines of Hill Prairie Habitats ......................................................................................................................19 Vines of Prairie Habitats ..............................................................................................................................19 Vines of Wetland Habitats...........................................................................................................................194. Grasses and Sedges by Habitat in East Central Illinois.......................................... 20 Grasses and Sedges with a Wide Range of Habitats...............................................................................20 Grasses and Sedges of Upland Forest Habitats........................................................................................20 Grasses and Sedges of Floodplain Forest Habitats .................................................................................20 Grasses and Sedges of Hill Prairie Habitats..............................................................................................21 Grasses and Sedges of Prairie Habitats......................................................................................................21 Grasses and Sedges of Savanna Habitats...................................................................................................22 Grasses and Sedges of Wetland Habitats ..................................................................................................225. Herbaceous Plants by Habitat in East Central Illinois........................................... 23 Herbaceous Plants with a Wide Range of Habitats ................................................................................23 Herbaceous Plants of Upland Forest Habitats .........................................................................................23 Herbaceous Plants of Floodplain Forest Habitats...................................................................................26 Herbaceous Plants of Hill Prairie Habitats ...............................................................................................26 Herbaceous Plants of Prairie Habitats .......................................................................................................27 Herbaceous Plants of Savanna Habitats ....................................................................................................29 Herbaceous Plants of Wetland Habitats....................................................................................................3010 Important Notes: 1) Scientific and common names are drawn from Taft (1997); see USDA Plants forsynonyms and updates. 2) The plant lists are as inclusive as possible. They do not omit wild species thatmay not be appropriate for heavily-used areas of campus, but valuable additions to wilder edges and openspaces of campus and environs. Some rare and/or invasive herbaceous species were deleted on Dr.Robertson’s recommendation. Hotlinks provide detailed information on species requirements and uses.UIUC Native Plants Sourcebook 13 10/12/2007
  15. 15. TREES by Habitat in East Central Illinois1. TREES by Habitat in East Central IllinoisUSDA Plants Weblink Kemper MOBOT Weblink Kling link Alt = Lady Bird Center Alt = Hilty linkTrees with a Wide Range of HabitatsAcer saccharum sugar maple KAmelanchier arborea shadbush --Cercis canadensis redbud KCorylus americana hazelnut KCrataegus crus-galli cockspur hawthorn KJuglans nigra black walnut KJuniperus virginiana red cedar KPlatanus occidentalis sycamore KPopulus deltoides cottonwood KPrunus serotina black cherry HQuercus alba white oak KQuercus imbricaria shingle oak KQuercus macrocarpa bur oak KQuercus prinoides var. acuminata chinquapin oak (dwarf) --Quercus velutina black oak KTrees of Upland Forest HabitatsAcer nigrum black maple KAcer saccharum sugar maple KAesculus glabra Ohio buckeye KAmelanchier arborea shadbush --Asimina triloba – shrub/tree paw paw H, KCarpinus caroliniana blue beech KCarya cordiformis bitternut hickory --Carya laciniosa kingnut hickory KCarya ovata shagbark hickory KCarya tomentosa mockernut hickory KCeltis occidentalis hackberry HCercis canadensis redbud KEuonymus atropurpureus wahoo HFagus grandifolia beech KFraxinus americana white ash KFraxinus quadrangulata blue ash KJuglans cinerea butternut KJuglans nigra black walnut KJuniperus virginiana red cedar KUIUC Native Plants Sourcebook 14 10/12/2007
  16. 16. TREES by Habitat in East Central IllinoisLiriodendron tulipifera yellow poplar KMalus coronaria wild sweet crab apple --Malus ioensis Iowa crabapple KMorus rubra red mulberry --Ostrya virginiana hop hornbeam KPopulus deltoides cottonwood KPrunus americana wild plum HPrunus serotina black cherry HPrunus virginiana common choke cherry KPtelea trifoliata wafer ash --Quercus alba white oak KQuercus bicolor swamp white oak KQuercus coccinea scarlet oak KQuercus imbricaria shingle oak KQuercus macrocarpa bur oak KQuercus prinoides var. acuminata chinquapin oak (dwarf) --Quercus rubra red oak KQuercus velutina black oak KSassafras albidum sassafras KStaphylea trifolia bladdernut HTilia americana basswood KUlmus americana American elm KUlmus rubra slippery elm HZanthoxylum americanum prickly ash --Cornus drummondii (shrub-tree) rough leaved dogwood HCornus florida flowering dogwood KCrataegus crus-galli cockspur thorn KCrataegus mollis red haw KTrees of Floodplain Forest HabitatsAcer negundo (caveat) box elder KAcer saccharinum silver maple KAcer saccharum sugar maple KAesculus glabra Ohio buckeye KCarya cordiformis bitternut hickory --Carya tomentosa mockernut hickory KCeltis occidentalis hackberry HCercis canadensis redbud KCrataegus mollis red haw KFraxinus pennsylvanica green ash KGleditsia triacanthos honey locust KGymnocladus dioicus Kentucky coffee tree KUIUC Native Plants Sourcebook 15 10/12/2007
  17. 17. TREES by Habitat in East Central IllinoisJuglans cinerea butternut KJuglans nigra black walnut KPlatanus occidentalis sycamore KPopulus deltoides cottonwood KPrunus serotina black cherry HQuercus bicolor swamp white oak KQuercus imbricaria shingle oak KQuercus macrocarpa bur oak KQuercus palustris pin oak KQuercus prinoides var. acuminata chinquapin oak (dwarf) --Quercus rubra red oak KStaphylea trifolia bladdernut HTilia americana basswood KUlmus americana American elm KUlmus rubra slippery elm HZanthoxylum americanum prickly ash --CC Trees of Savanna HabitatsCarya ovata shagbark hickory KPrunus serotina black cherry HQuercus alba white oak KQuercus imbricaria shingle oak KQuercus macrocarpa bur oak KQuercus velutina black oak KCorylus americana hazelnut KTrees of Wetland HabitatsAcer saccharum sugar maple KAmelanchier arborea shadbush --Juglans nigra black walnut KPlatanus occidentalis sycamore KPopulus deltoides cottonwood KSalix discolor – tree/shrub pussy willow --Cornus alternifolia alternate leaved dogwood KUIUC Native Plants Sourcebook 16 10/12/2007
  18. 18. SHRUBS by Habitat in East Central Illinois2. SHRUBS by Habitat in East Central IllinoisUSDA Plants Weblink Kemper MOBOT Weblink Kling link Alt = Lady Bird Johnson Center Alt = HiltyShrubs with a Wide Range of HabitatsAmorpha canescens leadplant HCeanothus americanus New Jersey tea HCornus racemosa gray dogwood KRibes missouriense Missouri gooseberry HRosa carolina pasture rose HRubus allegheniensis common blackberry HSalix humilis prairie willow HSambucus canadensis elderberry HShrubs of Upland Forest HabitatsAsimina triloba – shrub/tree paw paw H, KCeanothus americanus New Jersey tea HCornus racemosa gray dogwood KCorylus americana hazelnut KHamamelis virginiana witch hazel HHydrangea arborescens wild hydrangea KLindera benzoin spicebush KRhus glabra -- shrub/tree smooth sumac HRibes americanum American black currant --Ribes missouriense Missouri gooseberry HRosa carolina pasture rose HRosa setigera prairie rose HRubus allegheniensis common blackberry HRubus flagellaris dewberry HRubus occidentalis black raspberry HSambucus canadensis elderberry HSymphoricarpos orbiculatus buckbush KViburnum lentago nannyberry KViburnum prunifolium black haw HShrubs of Floodplain Forest HabitatsAsimina triloba paw paw H, KCornus racemosa gray dogwood KLindera benzoin spicebush KRibes missouriense Missouri gooseberry HRubus allegheniensis common blackberry HSambucus canadensis elderberry HUIUC Native Plants Sourcebook 17 10/12/2007
  19. 19. SHRUBS by Habitat in East Central IllinoisSymphoricarpos orbiculatus buckbush KShrubs of Hill Prairie HabitatsAmorpha canescens leadplant HCeanothus americanus New Jersey tea HCorylus americana hazelnut KRhus glabra smooth sumac HRosa carolina pasture rose HSalix humilis prairie willow HViburnum prunifolium black haw HShrubs of Prairie HabitatsAmorpha canescens leadplant HCeanothus americanus New Jersey tea HCornus racemosa gray dogwood KCorylus americana hazelnut KRibes missouriense Missouri gooseberry HRosa carolina pasture rose HRubus allegheniensis common blackberry HRubus occidentalis black raspberry HSalix humilis prairie willow HShrubs of Savanna HabitatsAmorpha canescens leadplant HCeanothus americanus New Jersey tea HRosa carolina pasture rose HSalix humilis prairie willow HSambucus canadensis elderberry HShrubs of Wetland HabitatsAmorpha fruticosa false indigo bush --Cephalanthus occidentalis button bush KRibes americanum American black currant --Salix humilis prairie willow HUIUC Native Plants Sourcebook 18 10/12/2007
  20. 20. VINES by Habitat in East Central Illinois3. VINES by Habitat in East Central IllinoisUSDA Plants Weblink Kemper MOBOT Weblink Kling link Alt1 = Lady Bird Johnson Center Alt = Hilty Alt2 = UW-StevensPt HerbariumVines with a Wide Range of HabitatsCelastrus scandens bittersweet HVitis riparia riverbank grape HVines of Upland Forest HabitatsCampsis radicans trumpet creeper HCelastrus scandens bittersweet HMenispermum canadense moonseed HParthenocissus quinquefolia Virginia creeper HSmilax hispida bristly catbrier HVitis aestivalis summer grape --Vitis riparia riverbank grape HVines of Floodplain Forest HabitatsHumulus lupulus American hop HParthenocissus quinquefolia Virginia creeper HSmilax hispida bristly catbrier HVitis riparia riverbank grape HVines of Hill Prairie HabitatsCelastrus scandens bittersweet HVines of Prairie HabitatsCampsis radicans trumpet creeper HCelastrus scandens bittersweet HVitis riparia riverbank grape HVines of Wetland HabitatsVitis riparia riverbank grape HUIUC Native Plants Sourcebook 19 10/12/2007
  21. 21. GRASSES and SEDGES by Habitat in East Central Illinois4. GRASSES and SEDGES by Habitat in East Central IllinoisUSDA Plants Weblink Kemper MOBOT Weblink Kling link Alt1 = Lady Bird Johnson Center Alt = Hilty Alt2 = UW-StevensPt HerbariumGrasses and Sedges with a Wide Range of HabitatsCarex davisii awned graceful sedge HCarex pensylvanica savanna sedge HPanicum virgatum prairie switchgrass HSchizachyrium scoparium little blue stem HSorghastrum nutans Indian grass HCarex grayi common bur sedge HGrasses and Sedges of Upland Forest HabitatsCarex albursina broad-leaved sedge HCarex artitecta sedge --Carex blanda common wood sedge HCarex davisii awned graceful sedge HCarex gracilescens sedge --Carex grayi common bur sedge HCarex grisea wood gray sedge HCarex hirtifolia hairy wood sedge HCarex jamesii grass sedge HCarex pensylvanica savanna sedge HCinna arundinacea stout wood reed HDiarrhena americana beak grass --Dichanthelium acuminatum var. hairy panic grass H fasciculatumElymus hystrix bottlebrush grass HElymus villosus slender wild rye HElymus virginicus Virginia wild rye HFestuca obtusa nodding fescue HJuncus tenuis path rush HLeersia virginica white grass HPanicum capillare witch grass HPoa sylvestris woodland blue grass HGrasses and Sedges of Floodplain Forest HabitatsCarex davisii awned graceful sedge HCarex frankii sedge HCarex granularis meadow sedge HCarex grayi common bur sedge HUIUC Native Plants Sourcebook 20 10/12/2007
  22. 22. GRASSES and SEDGES by Habitat in East Central IllinoisCarex grisea wood gray sedge HCarex shortiana sedge HCarex tribuloides awl-fruited sedge HCinna arundinacea stout wood reed HElymus virginicus Virginia wild rye HGlyceria striata fowl manna grass HLeersia virginica white grass HMuhlenbergia frondosa common satin grass HGrasses and Sedges of Hill Prairie HabitatsAndropogon gerardii big bluestem HBouteloua curtipendula side-oats grama HBromus kalmii prairie brome HCarex pensylvanica savanna sedge HElymus canadensis Canada wild rye HPanicum virgatum prairie switchgrass HSchizachyrium scoparium little blue stem HSorghastrum nutans Indian grass HGrasses and Sedges of Prairie HabitatsAndropogon gerardii big bluestem HCarex bebbii Bebb’s oval sedge --Carex bicknellii copper shouldered oval sedge HCarex brevior plains oval sedge --Carex cristatella sedge HCarex lanuginosa sedge HCarex meadii Mead’s stiff sedge HCarex molesta sedge HCarex vulpinoidea fox sedge --Dichanthelium acuminatum var. hairy panic grass H fasciculatumDichanthelium oligosanthes var. Scribner’s panic grass H scribnerianumElymus canadensis Canada wild rye HKoeleria macrantha crested hair grass HPanicum virgatum prairie switchgrass HSchizachyrium scoparium little blue stem HScirpus pendulus red bulrush HSorghastrum nutans Indian grass HSpartina pectinata prairie cord grass HSporobolus asper rough dropseed HSporobolus heterolepis prairie dropseed --UIUC Native Plants Sourcebook 21 10/12/2007
  23. 23. GRASSES and SEDGES by Habitat in East Central IllinoisGrasses and Sedges of Savanna HabitatsAndropogon gerardii big bluestem HCarex bicknellii copper shouldered oval sedge HCarex cephalophora rough clustered sedge HCarex davisii awned graceful sedge HCarex lanuginosa sedge HCarex meadii Mead’s stiff sedge HCarex pensylvanica savanna sedge HDichanthelium oligosanthes var. Scribner’s panic grass H scribnerianumElymus hystrix bottlebrush grass HPanicum virgatum prairie switchgrass HSchizachyrium scoparium little blue stem HAgrostis perennans autumn bent grass HGrasses and Sedges of Wetland HabitatsAgrostis alba red top HBromus kalmii prairie brome HCarex annectens sedge HCarex conjuncta bristly sedge HCarex cristatella sedge HCarex davisii awned graceful sedge HCarex frankii sedge HCarex granularis meadow sedge HCarex grayi common bur sedge HCarex hystricina bottlebrush sedge HCarex tribuloides awl-fruited sedge HCarex trichocarpa hairy fruited lake sedge HEchinochloa muricata barnyard grass HEleocharis obtusa spike rush HGlyceria striata fowl manna grass HJuncus torreyi torrey rush HLeersia oryzoides rice cutgrass HPhragmites australis common red reed HScirpus pendulus red bulrush HSorghastrum nutans Indian grass HUIUC Native Plants Sourcebook 22 10/12/2007
  24. 24. HERBACEOUS Plants by Habitat in East Central Illinois5. HERBACEOUS Plants by Habitat in East Central IllinoisUSDA Plants Weblink Kemper MOBOT Weblink Kling link Alt1 = Lady Bird Johnson Center Alt = Hilty Alt2 = UW-StevensPt HerbariumHerbaceous Plants with a Wide Range of HabitatsAllium canadense wild garlic HAntennaria neglecta everlasting HAquilegia canadensis columbine HAsclepias verticillata horsetail milkweed HChaerophyllum procumbens wild chervil HCoreopsis tripteris tall coreopsis HDodecatheon meadia shooting star HEuphorbia corollata flowering spurge HFragaria virginiana wild strawberry HLiatris pycnostachya prairie blazing star HParthenium integrifolium feverfew HPolygonatum commutatum Solomons seal HPycnanthemum tenuifolium slender mountain mint HPycnanthemum virginianum common mountain mint HRudbeckia hirta black-eyed Susan HSilphium perfoliatum cup plant HSilphium terebinthinaceum prairie dock HSmilacina racemosa false Solomons seal HSmilacina stellata small false Solomons seal HTaenidia integerrima yellow pimpernel HThaspium barbinode hairy meadow parsnip HHerbaceous Plants of Upland Forest HabitatsAcalypha rhomboidea three seeded mercury HActaea pachypoda dolls eyes HAdiantum pedatum maidenhair fern HAgastache nepetoides yellow giant hyssop HAllium canadense wild garlic HAllium tricoccum wild onion HAnemone virginiana thimbleweed HAntennaria neglecta everlasting HAquilegia canadensis columbine HArabis laevigata smooth rock cress HArisaema dracontium green dragon HArisaema triphyllum Jack-in-the pulpit HAsarum canadense wild ginger HUIUC Native Plant Sourcebook 23 10/12/2007
  25. 25. HERBACEOUS Plants by Habitat in East Central IllinoisAsplenium platyneuron ebony spleenwort --Aster ontarionis Ontario aster HAster pilosus hairy aster HAster sagittifolius arrowleaf aster HAster shortii Shorts aster HBidens vulgata sticktight HBlephilia hirsuta pagoda plant HCacalia atriplicifolia Indian plantain HCardamine pensylvanica bitter cress HCaulophyllum thalictroides blue cohosh --Chaerophyllum procumbens wild chervil HChenopodium standleyanum goosefoot HCircaea lutetiana enchanters nightshade HClaytonia virginica spring beauty HCollinsia verna blue-eyed Mary HConopholis americana cancer-root HCryptotaenia canadensis honewort HCypripedium pubescens yellow ladys slipper orchid HCystopteris protusa fragile fern HDelphinium tricorne dwarf larkspur HDentaria laciniata toothwort HDicentra cucullaria dutchmans breeches HDodecatheon meadia shooting star HErythronium albidum white trout lily HEupatorium purpureum green stemmed Joe Pye weed --Eupatorium rugosum white snakeroot --Floerkea proserpinacoides false mermaid HFragaria virginiana wild strawberry HGalium circaezans broad leaved galium --Galium obtusum stiff bedstraw HGalium triflorum – trailing perennial sweet-scented bedstraw HGeranium maculatum wild geranium HHelianthus divaricatus woodland sunflower --Hepatica nobilis var. acuta liverleaf HHybanthus concolor green violet HHydrastis canadensis goldenseal HHydrophyllum appendiculatum waterleaf HHydrophyllum virginianum Virginia waterleaf HImpatiens pallida pale touch-me-not HIodanthus pinnatifidus purple rocket HIsopyrum biternatum false rue anenome --Liatris cylindracea cylindric blazing star HLilium michiganense wild lily HUIUC Native Plant Sourcebook 24 10/12/2007
  26. 26. HERBACEOUS Plants by Habitat in East Central IllinoisLithospermum latifolium American gromwell HLobelia inflata Indian tobacco HLysimachia ciliata fringed loosestrife HMertensia virginica blue bells HMimulus alatus monkey flower HOsmorhiza longistylis anise-root HOxalis violacea purple oxalis HPanax quinquefolius ginseng --Parietaria pensylvanica pellitory HParthenium integrifolium feverfew HPenstemon digitalis foxglove beard tongue HPenstemon pallidus pale beard tongue --Phlox divaricata common phlox HPodophyllum peltatum mayapple HPolygonatum commutatum Solomons seal HPolymnia canadensis leafcup HPolystichum acrostichoides Christmas fern HPrenanthes alba lions paw HPrenanthes altissima tall white lettuce HPycnanthemum pilosum hairy mountain mint HRanunculus recurvatus hooked buttercup HRudbeckia hirta black-eyed Susan HRuellia strepens smooth ruellia HSanguinaria canadensis bloodroot HScrophularia marilandica late figwort HScutellaria incana downy skullcap HSilene stellata starry catchfly HSilene virginica firepink HSmilacina racemosa false Solomons seal HSmilacina stellata small false Solomons seal HSolidago caesia bluestem goldenrod HSolidago ulmifolia elm-leaved goldenrod HTaenidia integerrima yellow pimpernel HThalictrum dioicum early meadow rue HThaspium barbinode hairy meadow parsnip HTradescantia virginiana Virginia spiderwort HTrillium flexipes white trillium HTrillium recurvatum red trillium HUvularia grandiflora yellow bellwort HVerbesina helianthoides yellow crown beard HViola pubescens var. eriocarpa smooth yellow violet HUIUC Native Plant Sourcebook 25 10/12/2007
  27. 27. HERBACEOUS Plants by Habitat in East Central IllinoisHerbaceous Plants of Floodplain Forest HabitatsArisaema triphyllum Jack-in-the pulpit HAster lateriflorus side flowered aster HCampanula americana tall bellflower HCardamine douglasii northern bittercress HChaerophyllum procumbens wild chervil HCircaea lutetiana enchanters nightshade HCryptotaenia canadensis honewort HDelphinium tricorne dwarf larkspur HDentaria laciniata toothwort HDicentra cucullaria dutchmans breeches HHelenium autumnale sneezeweed HHydrastis canadensis goldenseal HHydrophyllum virginianum Virginia waterleaf HImpatiens capensis spotted touch-me-not HLobelia siphilitica blue lobelia HMertensia virginica blue bells HMimulus alatus monkey flower HPhlox divaricata common phlox HPodophyllum peltatum mayapple HPolygonatum commutatum Solomons seal HRanunculus septentrionalis swamp buttercup HRudbeckia laciniata goldenglow HRudbeckia triloba brown eyed Susan HSanguinaria canadensis bloodroot HSaururus cernuus lizards tail HSilphium perfoliatum cup plant HSmilacina racemosa false Solomons seal HTeucrium canadense wood sage HTradescantia subaspera spiderwort HVerbena urticifolia white vervain HVerbesina alternifolia yellow ironweed HHerbaceous Plants of Hill Prairie HabitatsAgalinis tenuifolia slender false fox-glove HAllium canadense wild garlic HAnemone virginiana thimblweed HAntennaria neglecta everlasting HApocynum cannabinum Indian hemp HAquilegia canadensis columbine HAsclepias verticillata horsetail milkweed HAsclepias viridiflora green milkweed HAster azureus sky-blue aster --UIUC Native Plant Sourcebook 26 10/12/2007
  28. 28. HERBACEOUS Plants by Habitat in East Central IllinoisAster ericoides heath aster HAster pilosus hairy aster HBlephilia ciliata pogoda plant HBrickellia eupatorioides false boneset HCastilleja coccinea Indian paintbrush --Comandra umbellata bastard toadflax HCoreopsis tripteris tall coreopsis HDalea purpurea purple prairie clover HEchinacea pallida pale purple coneflower HEquisetum hyemale scouring rush HEupatorium altissimum tall boneset HEuphorbia corollata flowering spurge HFragaria virginiana wild strawberry HHelianthus occidentalis western sunflower --Hypoxis hirsuta yellow star grass HLespedeza capitata bush clover HLespedeza virginica slender bush clover HLiatris cylindracea cylindric blazing star HLiatris pycnostachya prairie blazing star HLinum sulcatum yellow flax --Lithospermum canescens hoary puccoon HParthenium integrifolium feverfew HPedicularis canadensis lousewort HPhlox pilosa prairie phlox HPycnanthemum tenuifolium slender monutain mint HPycnanthemum virginianum common mountain mint HRatibida pinnata drooping coneflower HRudbeckia hirta black-eyed Susan HSilphium integrifolium rosinweed HSilphium terebinthinaceum prairie dock HSisyrinchium albidum blue-eyed grass HSmilacina racemosa false Solomons seal HSmilacina stellata small false Solomons seal HSolidago nemoralis field goldenrod HSolidago ulmifolia elm-leaved goldenrod HTaenidia integerrima yellow pimpernel HThaspium barbinode hairy meadow parsnip HHerbaceous Plants of Prairie HabitatsAllium canadense wild garlic HAnemone canadensis meadow anenome --UIUC Native Plant Sourcebook 27 10/12/2007
  29. 29. HERBACEOUS Plants by Habitat in East Central IllinoisAnemone cylindrica candle anemone HAntennaria neglecta everlasting HAsclepias sullivantii prairie milkeed HAsclepias tuberosa butterfly weed HAsclepias verticillata horsetail milkweed HAsclepias viridiflora green milkweed HAster ericoides heath aster HAster laevis smooth blue aster HAster novae-angliae New England aster HAster ontarionis Ontario aster HBaptisia lactea white wild indigo --Baptisia leucophaea cream wild indigo --Calamagrostis canadensis blue joint grass --Camassia scilloides wild hyacinth --Comandra umbellata bastard toadflax HCoreopsis tripteris tall coreopsis HDalea candida white prairie clover HDalea purpurea purple prairie clover HDesmodium canadense showy tick trefoil HDesmodium illinoense Illinois tick trefoil HDodecatheon meadia shooting star HEchinacea pallida pale purple coneflower HErigeron strigosus daisy fleabane HEryngium yuccifolium rattlesnake master HEupatorium altissimum tall boneset HEuphorbia corollata flowering spurge HEuthamia graminifolia grass leaf golderod HFragaria virginiana wild strawberry HGaura biennis biennial gaura HGentiana andrewsii closed gentian HGentiana puberulenta downy gentian HHelianthus grosseserratus saw-toothed sunflower HHelianthus mollis downy sunflower HHelianthus tuberosus Jerusalum artichoke HHeliopsis helianthoides false sunflower HHeuchera richardsonii prairie alumroot HHypoxis hirsuta yellow star grass HLespedeza capitata bush clover HLiatris aspera rough blazing star HLiatris pycnostachya prairie blazing star HLilium philadelphicum prairie lily --Lithospermum canescens hoary puccoon HLysimachia lanceolata lance-leaved loosestrife HUIUC Native Plant Sourcebook 28 10/12/2007
  30. 30. HERBACEOUS Plants by Habitat in East Central IllinoisLythrum alatum winged loosestrife HMonarda fistulosa wild bergamont HOenothera biennis evening primrose HOxalis violacea purple oxalis HParthenium integrifolium feverfew HPedicularis canadensis lousewort HPenstemon digitalis foxglove beard tongue HPenstemon pallidus pale beard tongue --Perideridia americana thicket parsley HPhlox glabberima smooth phlox HPhlox pilosa prairie phlox HPhysostegia virginiana false dragonhead HPotentilla simplex common cinquefoil HPrenanthes alba lions paw HPrenanthes aspera rough wild lettuce HPycnanthemum tenuifolium slender monutain mint HPycnanthemum virginianum common mountain mint HRatibida pinnata drooping coneflower HRudbeckia hirta black-eyed Susan HRuellia humilis wild petunia HSilphium integrifolium rosinweed HSilphium laciniatum compass plant HSilphium terebinthinaceum prairie dock HSisyrinchium albidum blue-eyed grass HSolidago juncea early goldenrod HSolidago missouriensis Missouri goldenrod HSolidago nemoralis field goldenrod HSolidago speciosa showy goldenrod HTradescantia ohiensis Ohio spiderwort HVernonia missurica Missouri ironweed HVeronicastrum virginicum culvers root HViola pedatifida prairie violet HZizia aurea golden Alexander HHerbaceous Plants of Savanna HabitatsAllium canadense wild garlic HAster sagittifolius arrowleaf aster HAstragalus canadensis Canadian milk vetch HCacalia atriplicifolia Indian plantain HCamassia scilloides wild hyacinth --Dodecatheon meadia shooting star HEuphorbia corollata flowering spurge HFragaria virginiana wild strawberry HUIUC Native Plant Sourcebook 29 10/12/2007
  31. 31. HERBACEOUS Plants by Habitat in East Central IllinoisGeranium maculatum wild geranium HHeliopsis helianthoides false sunflower HMonarda fistulosa wild bergamont HOenothera biennis evening primrose HParthenium integrifolium feverfew HPerideridia americana thicket parsley HPolygonatum commutatum Solomon’s seal HRanunculus fascicularis early buttercup --Scrophularia marilandica late figwort HSilene stellata starry catchfly HSilphium perfoliatum cup plant HSmilacina stellata small false Solomon’s seal HSolidago speciosa showy goldenrod HTaenidia integerrima yellow pimpernel HThaspium barbinode hairy meadow parsnip HTradescantia ohiensis Ohio spiderwort HTradescantia virginiana Virginia spiderwort HTriodanis perfoliata Venus’s looking glass HHerbaceous Plants of Wetland HabitatsAlisma plantego-aquatica var. common water plantain -- parviflorumAngelica atropurpurea angelica --Apocynum cannabinum Indian hemp HAquilegia canadensis columbine HArabis shortii toothed cress HAsclepias incarnata swamp milkweed HAsclepias verticillata horsetail milkweed HAster lateriflorus side flowered aster HBidens cernua nodding beggar ticks HBidens frondosa common begger ticks HBidens vulgata sticktight HBoehmeria cylindrica false nettle HCaltha palustris cowslip HCardamine pensylvanica bitter cress HCassia marilandica Maryland senna --Castilleja coccinea Indian paintbrush --Chaerophyllum procumbens wild chervil HChelone glabra white turtlehead HCoreopsis tripteris tall coreopsis HDesmodium canadense showy tick trefoil HEpilobium coloratum cinnamon willow herb HEquisetum arvense common horestail HUIUC Native Plant Sourcebook 30 10/12/2007
  32. 32. HERBACEOUS Plants by Habitat in East Central IllinoisEquisetum hyemale scouring rush HErigeron philadelphicus marsh fleabane HEupatorium maculatum spotted Joe-Pye weed HEupatorium perfoliatum common boneset HGratiola neglecta clammy hedge hyssop HHelianthus grosseserratus saw-toothed sunflower HImpatiens capensis spotted touch-me-not HIris shrevei blue flag HLemna minor duckweed --Liatris pycnostachya prairie blazing star HLiatris spicata marsh blazing star HLinum medium wild flax --Lobelia siphilitica blue lobelia HLycopus americanus common water horehound HLysimachia lanceolata lance-leaved loosestrife HMarsilea quadrifolia waterclover --Mentha arvensis var. villosa field mint HOnoclea sensibilis sensitive fern HPenthorum sedoides ditch stonecrop HPycnanthemum tenuifolium slender mountain mint HPycnanthemum virginianum common mountain mint HRanunculus septentrionalis swamp buttercup HRorippa sessiliflora sessile flowered yellow cress HRudbeckia hirta black-eyed Susan HSagittaria latifolia arrowleaf HSaururus cernuus lizards tail HScutellaria lateriflora blue skullcap HSenecio aureus golden ragwort HSicyos angulatus bur cucumber HSilphium perfoliatum cup plant HSilphium terebinthinaceum prairie dock HStachys tenuifolia smooth hedge nettle HSymplocarpus foetidus skunk cabbage HTeucrium canadense wood sage HThalictrum revolutum waxy meadow rue HTypha latifolia common cat-tail HVerbena hastata blue vervain HVerbesina alternifolia yellow ironweed HUIUC Native Plant Sourcebook 31 10/12/2007
  33. 33. 1 Considerations Regarding Landscaping with Natives on U of I Campus Kenneth R. Robertson Illinois Natural History Survey November 2004I. Introduction Prior to European settlement, the vegetation of Illinois was a shifting mosaic of prairie, forest,savanna, and wetlands. These vegetation types were controlled largely by the frequency of fire, soil parentmaterials, and hydrology. As a result of this shifting mosaic and local ecological conditions, a great variety ofnatural community types developed including sand dunes, beaches, peatlands, sedge meadows, marshes,forests, savannas, glades, cliffs, and a wide variety of prairie types. Vast areas of tallgrass prairie occupiedcentral Illinois, with isolated wooded groves interspersed like islands. Southern Illinois had stately baldcypress and tupelo swamps, hardwood forests containing large trees, prairie-like glades, and canyons withcliffs of limestone and sandstone (Jeffords, Post, and Robertson 1995; Robertson, Anderson, and Schwartz1997). A result of this ecological diversity is a rich palette of native plant species - trees, shrubs, woody andherbaceous vines, spring woodland wildflowers, prairie forbs and grasses, and wetland and aquatic species(Robertson, 1994, 2004a). Many of these plants have ornamental qualities for landscaping purposes(Nowakowski 2004, Hightshoe 1988). Most of the trees planted along streets are species native to Illinois, and many prairie forbs arecultivated as herbaceous perennials. Today, there is a growing interest in expanding the use of native plantsin landscaping (Robertson 2004b). Cost savings can result from the generally lower maintenance needs ofnative species. The amount of mowing and applications of water, fertilizer, and pesticides decrease as agreater portion of the landscape is established with genotypes specific to a region and particular siteconditions. When developing guidelines for the selection of species and species assemblages to be used whenlandscaping with native species, some broad considerations must be addressed. These considerations involvedefining “native” and detailing the goals of the landscaping plan. Determining which species are included as“native” requires attention to the geographic and ecological scales of consideration. Goals of the landscapingplan can range from aesthetic, educational, and/or functional (e.g., soil stabilization, tolerance to foot traffic)and often the goals are multiple. Further considerations can involve plant architecture and strategies forachieving desired form, genotype of the material used, advantages of species diversity, and intended oranticipated human interactions. These considerations are discussed in more detail below.II. What is Native? A. Political boundaries The species to be considered could be determined from those known to occur spontaneously andconsidered native to a particular region defined by political boundaries. For example, this could includemidwestern states (Gleason and Cronquist 1991, Steyermark 1963, Deam 1940), the state of Illinois(Mohlenbrock 2002), or Champaign County (Iverson et al. 1999). Considerations at any finer scale mostlycan not be done with precision. Using the flora of Illinois as a basis, there would be approximately 2,200native taxa (species and varieties) from which to select. These would include many not found naturallyoccurring in Champaign County (e.g., black gum, red maple, Canada yew, white cedar, bald cypress, white
  34. 34. 2pine, and a great many herbaceous species); however, there are about 900 native species reported fromChampaign County (Iverson et al. 1999) providing a rich palette from which to chose. B. Ecological boundaries Species selection could take an ecological perspective and include only those known to be native tothe regional ecosystem (e.g., Tallgrass Prairie), natural division and section (e.g, Grand Prairie Section of theGrand Prairie Natural Division [Schwegman et al., 1973]), or boundaries of the watershed-based EcosystemPartnership (e.g., Headwaters Ecosystem Partnership [Taft 1997a]). A combination of these approacheswould include only species known to be locally native (e.g., Champaign County) that based on localconditions (e.g, soil type, hydrology) could be assumed to have been present in the landscaping area. Thiswould involve some speculation. Past disturbance regime particularly if related to the maintenance ofparticular species assemblages (e.g., fire in tallgrass prairie) also need advanced consideration. Such anapproach has merit in terms of ecological factors, but may rule out particular species, that while native toIllinois and perform adequately on campus are not found naturally occurring in the Grand Prairie region (e.g.,sweet gum, yellowwood, choke cherry, shrubby cinquefoil, and all evergreen trees and shrubs other thanEastern red cedar).III. Genetic Considerations A. Genotype Due to adaptations to local environmental conditions, local genotypes of species may haveperformance advantages over stock derived from outside the region (citation?). Using local genotypes mayhave long-term cost advantages due to improved survival and longer life compared with species or ecotypesfrom regions outside the tallgrass prairie ecosystem. Individual species will vary in this regard. Often it isuseful to specify that the original source for cultivated native plants come from within a certain radius, suchas 50 miles. Many plants sold as “native” in garden centers are not of local genotype. B. Cultivars There are many named cultivars (cultivated varieties) of some native species. An example is floweringdogwood, which has over a hundred cultivars. Under which conditions cultivars of natives are acceptable is afurther consideration. Many cultivars express characteristics not typical for the local variety. However, forsome species, local genotypes may not be available and cultivars may be all that is available. Some cultivarsmay have higher maintenance requirements. There may be instances where certain traits are desirable from adesign point of view - trees that have purple leaves, variegated leaves, or a columnar habitat. Cultivars ofnative species are often available that meet these requirements.IV. Values of Diversity Increased diversity of species assemblages have advantages in terms of long-term sustainability.Diversity in a species assemblage has natural protection against the impacts of diseases, insect herbivory, oroutbreaks of epidemics that can dramatically affect monocultures. Ecological research also suggests diversespecies assemblages have advantages over lower diversity assemblages in terms of redundancy of functionalgroups. If a species declines, there are others to replace some of the ecological functions of the decliningspecies. Diverse assemblages also tend to have aesthetic advantages due in part to staggered phenologicaldevelopment (i.e., species blooming throughout the growing season) and a well-integrated design based on arich assortment of species can have a very pleasing appearance. Diversity also may limit opportunities forinvasion by non-native species.
  35. 35. 3V Educational Resources Among the foremost benefits from using native species may be education. Landscaping with nativeshelps activate local interest in environmental issues and stimulate grassroots efforts for an environmentallysound Illinois including interest and support for natural areas and nature preserves. Exposure to the richfloristic diversity of Illinois, or the Grand Prairie region, through landscaping with native species has theadditional advantage of instilling the opportunities available to the transient campus community. Whenpeople leave the region, having been exposed to landscaping strategies integrated with the local naturalhistory, citizens will be more likely to take this message to other regions leading to stronger considerations intheir personal landscaping options. The urgent problems associated with exotic species that invade natural areas or become aggressivepests in the landscape also can be addressed. Landscaping with natives can become a demonstration projectto highlight the alternatives to the common non-native (exotic) species used in landscaping. The long-termbenefits of creating demands for native species and reducing the demand for exotics and the impacts on thelandscape of reducing the inputs from propagules of exotic species can only just be imagined but thepossibilities are great and worthy of promotion. There is a very great potential with landscaping to provide resources for training and research. Zonescould be dedicated to serving as demonstration areas for reconstructing natural communities native to Illinoisor, more narrowly the campus area, in order to enhance educational potential. A great variety of naturalcommunities have been identified in Illinois and could provide the basis for selecting demonstrationreconstructions. Examples likely present in Champaign County and the campus area include mesic tallgrassprairie, wet-mesic prairie, mesic savanna, and marsh. The reconstruction projects would be ideal researchopportunities for undergraduate, graduate students and faculty. Examples of natural communities from otherregions of Illinois also could be considered (e.g., sand prairie, graminoid fen, mesic forest). Results from suchresearch could be extended to inform selection of species assemblages in landscaping settings. However, theinformation gained from experimental approaches to natural community reconstructions would have a verygreat practical value when applied to restorations throughout the State and Midwest.VI. Aesthetics, Form, and Function Finding native species similar to cultivated or exotic species depends largely on how “similar” isdefined. Generally, species can be selected among native species that share similar architecture of exoticspecies including those common in landscaping, but whether one perceives them to be aesthetically similarwill be a matter of personal preference. Native species are available among all growth form categoriesincluding large and small stature trees, shrubs, woody vines, and a great array of herbaceous forms (e.g.,graminoid species [sedges, rushes, and grasses], annual and perennial forbs). Among these forms are specieswith opposite, alternative, and whorled leaf arrangements with simple, compound, and even doublycompound leaf structure. Leaf shape among native species varies greatly from simple to deeply lobed, withentire to sharply serrate leaf margins. Native plant species can have spectacular displays of flowers, fruits,foliage, and/or fall color. Representative species also can be found from a wide range of ecological conditions including specieswith shade-tolerance and those requiring full sun and species adapted to soil moisture conditions rangingfrom wet to dry. A special set of species occurs in the Grand Prairie region that are intermediate in lightrequirements including many known to have been savanna specialists (Taft 1997b). Some species are typicallyfound in nutrient poor conditions while others are more typical of rich prairie or forest soils where resourcestypically are not limiting. Many plants of the tallgrass prairie have characteristics that provide tolerance toperiodic droughts such as deep rooting systems and many have adaptations in above-ground materials thatconserve moisture. Such materials are ideal for low maintenance landscaping in the region of the Grand
  36. 36. 4Prairie where summer conditions can be harsh with high temperatures, winds, and extended droughts. Setsof native species also can be selected that provide flowering material throughout the growing season(generally late March to late October) with a wide range of flower colors during each season.VII. Landscape Function Many of the landscaping functions can be met with native species. Species for aesthetic appeal andwith particular physiognomic characteristics certainly are not limited among native species, as discussedpreviously. Suitable species also can be found to provide particular landscape functions such as wind breaks,erosion control (e.g., on sloping ground), or soil stabilization on sites with difficult growing conditions.However, some special needs situations (e.g., lawn areas that must be kept low through mowing) may belimited in terms of suitable native species.VIII. Conclusions Given these considerations, the dimensions of the palette of species and species assemblages can bevery broadly defined (all species known to be native in a large geographic region including Illinois) or narrow,including species that likely would have been present in a particular local area (e.g., Champaign/Urbana).Either way, there exist native species that can meet most landscaping needs. Landscaping with natives has theadded advantages of informing the public about choices that make practical as well as aesthetic sense, thesechoices help support markets for native species and can lead to declines in demand for exotic species, manyof which have become nuisances in natural habitats. Due to adaptation to the local conditions, uses of nativespecies and particularly local genotypes, also have a great potential to reduce maintenance costs and be moresustainable under the conditions of the Grand Prairie ecoregion. There is a particular value to a landscapingplan that integrates diversity into plantings. Diversity of native species, while rich in aesthetic appeal, alsomay provide added benefits of flexibility needed to cope with alterations and changes in environmentalconditions.REFERENCES AND RESOURCESDeam, C. C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Indiana Department of Conservation, Division of Forestry. Indianapolis. 1236 pp.Gleason, H. A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of Northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. Second edition. New York Botanical Garden, NY. lxxv + 910 pp.Hightshoe, G. L. 1988. Native Trees, Shrubs, and Vines for Urban and Rural America: A Planting Design Manual for Environmental Designers. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. 817 pp.Iverson, L.R., D. Ketzner, and J. Karnes. 1999. Illinois Plant Information Network. Database at http://www.fs.fed.us/ne/delaware/ilpin/ilpin.html. Illinois Natural History Survey and USDA Forest Service.Jeffords, M. R., S. L. Post, and K. R. Robertson. 1995. Illinois Wilds. Phoenix Press, Champaign, Illinois. 156 pp.Mohlenbrock, R. H. 2002. Vascular Flora of Illinois. xi + 491 pp. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.Nowakowski, K. G. 2004. Native Plants in the Home Landscape for the Upper Midwest. University of

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