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Native Plants for Wildlife Habitat and Conservation Landscaping: Maryland Coastal Plain
Native Plants for Wildlife Habitat and Conservation Landscaping: Maryland Coastal Plain
Native Plants for Wildlife Habitat and Conservation Landscaping: Maryland Coastal Plain
Native Plants for Wildlife Habitat and Conservation Landscaping: Maryland Coastal Plain
Native Plants for Wildlife Habitat and Conservation Landscaping: Maryland Coastal Plain
Native Plants for Wildlife Habitat and Conservation Landscaping: Maryland Coastal Plain
Native Plants for Wildlife Habitat and Conservation Landscaping: Maryland Coastal Plain
Native Plants for Wildlife Habitat and Conservation Landscaping: Maryland Coastal Plain
Native Plants for Wildlife Habitat and Conservation Landscaping: Maryland Coastal Plain
Native Plants for Wildlife Habitat and Conservation Landscaping: Maryland Coastal Plain
Native Plants for Wildlife Habitat and Conservation Landscaping: Maryland Coastal Plain
Native Plants for Wildlife Habitat and Conservation Landscaping: Maryland Coastal Plain
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Native Plants for Wildlife Habitat and Conservation Landscaping: Maryland Coastal Plain

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Native Plants for Wildlife Habitat and Conservation Landscaping: Maryland Coastal Plain

Native Plants for Wildlife Habitat and Conservation Landscaping: Maryland Coastal Plain

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  • 1. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Native Plants for Wildlife Habitat and Conservation Landscaping Maryland: Coastal Plain photo credit: USFWSMay 2001
  • 2. ABOUT THIS PLANT LISTThis list provides information about native plants that can be used forhabitat restoration and natural or environmentally beneficial landscapingprojects such as BayScapes. All of the plants listed occur naturally inMaryland. Plants are grouped by plant type, then listed alphabetically byLatin name. This is not intended as a complete list of plants native toMaryland. Rather, plants have been included because they have bothornamental and wildlife value, and are generally available for sale.WHY USE NATIVE PLANTS?Native or indigenous plants naturally occur in the region in which theyevolved. They are adapted to local soil, rainfall and temperatureconditions, and have developed natural defenses to many insects anddiseases. Because of these traits, native plants will grow with minimal useof water, fertilizers, and pesticides. Wildlife species evolve with plants;therefore, they use native plant communities as their habitat. Using nativeplants helps preserve the balance and beauty of natural ecosystems.TREASURED NATURAL RESOURCESMarylands landscape includes a wide range of natural communities,physiographic provinces, and natural features. Here, one can find bothsouthern and northern ecosystems in close proximity. From the cypressswamps, barrier islands, and Delmarva bays of the Eastern Shore; to therolling hills, stream valleys, and hardwood forests of the Piedmont plateau;to the mountain boreal bogs, caves, and limestone woods to the west,Maryland offers a diversity of habitats that support an impressive variety ofspecies.Rich in plants and animals, Maryland harbors some species withextremely limited ranges -- the nationally endangered dwarf wedgemussel and Delmarva fox squirrel find refuge within our borders, alongwith rare subterranean invertebrates, beach-loving beetles, anduncommon shale barren plants, like Kates- mountain clover. When earlycolonists first explored this part of the New World, they found anabundance of wildlife, including elk, wolves, bison, and prairie-chickens.Today, these species are gone from Maryland and many more havedeclined. Much of our natural heritage is now confined to small fragmentsof the original wilderness.As our population grows and land-use pressures intensify it is increasinglyimportant that we protect our vanishing species and remaining naturalareas, and restore or create habitat for the wildlife that remains.Maryland’s wildlife, plants, habitats, and network of streams and riversthat lead to the Chesapeake Bay hold tremendous resource potential, aswell as educational, recreational, aesthetic, and cultural values. Byworking together, these treasures can be conserved for futuregenerations.MARYLAND’S REGIONS AND HABITATSFrom the sandy dunes of the coast to the rocky slopes of the mountains,Maryland’s rich variety of habitats are strongly linked to its geology (seemap). For this guide, the state has been divided into three regions:(1) the coastal plain, an area with a more southern climate in the easternpart of the state, which includes the Chesapeake Bay’s eastern andwestern shores, up to the fall line roughly represented by U.S. Route 1;(2) the Piedmont plateau, which extends roughly from the fall line toFrederick, MD; and (3) the mountain zone, a more northern climate,which reaches from Frederick westward, above the 1500’ elevation level.Some native plants are common throughout the state, while others areadapted to the unique conditions found only in one or two regions.
  • 3. This publication is part of a set of three brochures that feature lists ofspecies appropriate for planting in Maryland’s coastal plain, Piedmontplateau, and mountain region. To help ensure successful landscapingand restoration, use plants’ natural ranges to guide your plant selection.For more complete plant information, request a copy of U.S. Fish andWildlife Service’s new edition of Native Plants for Wildlife Habitat, a morecomprehensive guide to native plants for the full Chesapeake Baywatershed (see references list in this brochure).Wetland, forest, meadow, and thicket are just a few of Maryland’shabitats, each of which is characterized by plants that have adapted to theavailable growing conditions. Plants usually do best when placed in siteswith the same light, moisture, and soil conditions as their natural habitats.GROWTH CONDITIONSLIGHT The amount of sunlight a plant requires is defined as: (1) Fullsun (Su), the site is in direct sunlight for at least six hours a day duringthe growing season; (2) Partial shade (PS), the site receivesapproximately three to six hours of direct sunlight; and (3) Shade (Sh), thesite receives less than three hours of direct sunlight or filtered light.MOISTURE The amount of soil moisture a plant requires is defined as:(1) Wet (W), areas where the soil is saturated for much of the growingseason, except in droughts. Many of the plants designated for wet areastolerate specific ranges of water depths. Consult a wetland plantspecialist or reference book; (2) Moist (M), areas where the soil is damp,and may be occasionally saturated (“average soil” has been included inthis category); and (3) Dry (D), areas where water does not remain after arain. The latter areas may be in full sun or in a windy location, on a steepslope, or have sandy soil. Plants in this category are drought tolerant.SOIL Many of the native plants listed will tolerate a range of soil types.For best results, select plants suited to existing site conditions rather thanamending the soil. However, be aware that plant selection may be limitedif your site has very sandy soil, heavy clay, compacted soil, or extremesoil pH (above 6.8 or below 5.5). In these cases, seek advice from anurseryman, horticulturist, botanist, Maryland Cooperative Extension, orother expert.
  • 4. DESIGNING A HABITATIn addition to providing the growth conditions that native plants prefer inthe wild, it is also a good idea to try to re-create a natural habitat.Consider using plants together as they grow in the wild (known as plantcommunities). Arrange plants in groups or groves, providing severallayers of vegetation. Select plants that fruit or bloom during different timesof the year to provide food for wildlife year round. For more informationand assistance, particularly with large habitat projects, contact the U.S.Fish and Wildlife Service, Maryland Department of Natural Resources,U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service,county Soil Conservation District, Maryland Cooperative Extension, orother natural resources agency or organization.WHERE TO FIND NATIVE PLANTSMost nurseries carry some native plants, and some nurseries specializeand carry a greater selection. Some plants will be more readily availablethan others will. If you have a favorite that you can’t obtain, be sure to askyour local nursery to consider adding it to their stock. A list of native plantnurseries in the Chesapeake Bay region is available from the U.S. Fishand Wildlife Service Chesapeake Bay Field Office atwww.fws.gov/r5cbfo/bayscapes.htm.Native plants should not be removed from the wild unless an area is aboutto be developed. Even then, it is difficult to transplant wild-collected plantsand to duplicate their soil and other growth requirements in a homegarden. Plants that are grown from seed or cuttings by nurseries have amuch greater tolerance for garden conditions. Help to preserve naturalareas by purchasing plants that have been grown, not collected.AVOID USING INVASIVE NON-NATIVE PLANTSNon-native or exotic plants introduced from other parts of the world orother parts of the country have degraded many natural ecosystems.Although many non-native plants are considered beneficial and do notescape into the natural environment, it is difficult for most gardeners toknow the risks of every ornamental plant. Some of these introducedplants are invasive, meaning that there are few or no naturally occurringmeasures such as insects or competitors to control them. Invasive plantscan spread rapidly and smother or out-compete native vegetation.Ecosystems impacted by invasive, non-native plants have a reducedability to clean our air and water, stabilize the soil, buffer floods, andprovide wildlife food and shelter. Lists of non-native plants to avoid inyour landscape are available from the Maryland Native Plant Society,Maryland DNR Heritage Program, or Plant Conservation Alliance (seecontact information in this brochure).FOR MORE INFORMATIONThere are many resources available that provide information on nativeplants and natural landscaping. Walking in natural areas near your homeis a good way to see the plants in their native habitats, and to get ideas onhow to plant them in your landscape. Check libraries and bookstores forfield guides to native plants and wildlife in the Chesapeake Bay region.You will also find books on how to create native plant landscapes.Organizations such as the Maryland Native Plant Society and the PlantConservation Alliance publish newsletters and maintain Web sites.Landscaping with native plants has become very popular, and you will bejoining many others in this effort to help preserve Marylands naturalresources.
  • 5. PLANTS NATIVE TO MARYLAND’S COASTAL PLAIN REGIONSoil Moisture: Sunlight: Flower Color (simplified, all shades):W = wet Su = full sun B = brown R = red O = orangeM = moist PS = part shade W = white P = pink G = greenD = Dry Sh = full shade Y = yellow Pu = purple Bl = blue * denotes evergreen or semi-evergreen foliageScientific Name Common Name W M D Su PS Sh Height Color BloomFERN / FERN ALLYAdiantum pedatum maidenhair fern l l 1-2’Asplenium platyneuron ebony spleenwort l l l 1-1.5’ *Athyrium asplenioides southern lady fern l l l 1.5-3’Botrychium virginianum rattlesnake fern l l l l 1.5’Dennstaedtia hay-scented fern l l l l 1-3’punctilobulaOnoclea sensibilis sensitive fern l l l l 1-2’Osmunda cinnamomea cinnamon fern l l l l l 2-3’Osmunda regalis royal fern l l l l l 2-3’Polystichumacrostichoides Christmas fern l l l 1.5-2’ *Thelypteris New York fern l l l l 1-2.5’noveboracensisThelypteris palustris marsh fern l l l l 2-3’Woodwardia areolata netted chain fern l l l 1-2’Woodwardia virginica Virginia chain fern l l l l 4’GRASS / GRASSLIKEAndropogon virginicus broomsedge l l l 1-3’ Aug-NovCarex glaucodea or blue wood sedge l l l 0.5-2 B-R Jun-JulC. flaccospermaCarex pensylvanica sedge l l l 0.5-1.5’ R-W May-JunCarex stricta tussock sedge l l l l 1-3’ May-AugChasmanthium latifolium wild oats, river oats l l 2-3’ Jul-SepElymus canadensis Canada wild rye l l l 3-4.5’ Jun-OctElymus hystrix bottlebrush grass l l l l l 3’(Hystrix patula)Elymus virginicus Virginia wild rye l l l l 1.5-5.5’ Jun-OctPanicum amarum coastal panic grass l l 1-3’Panicum virgatum Virginia switchgrass l l l 3-6’ Jul-OctSchizachyrium little bluestem l l l 4’ Aug-OctscopariumSorghastrum nutans Indiangrass l l l 5-7’ Aug-SepTripsacum dactyloides gama grass l l l l 6-9’GROUNDCOVERAsarum canadense wild ginger l l l <1’ B* Apr-MayCarex glaucodea or blue wood sedge l l l 0.5-2 B-R Jun-JulC. flaccospermaCarex pensylvanica sedge l l l 0.5-1.5’ R-W May-JunChimaphila maculata striped wintergreen l l l <1’ W Jun-AugChrysogonum green-and-gold l l l <1’ Y Mar-JunvirginianumGaultheria procumbens wintergreen l l l l <1’ W, P * Jun-AugHepatica americana round-lobed hepatica l l l l <1’ W Mar-JunOpuntia humifusa eastern prickly-pear l l <1’ Y Jun-Jul(O. compressa) cactusMaianthemum Canada mayflower l l l <1’ W May-JulcanadenseMitchella repens partridgeberry l l l l <1’ W* Jul-SepSedum ternatum mountain stonecrop l l l <1’ G-W * AprUvularia sessilifolia straw lily l l l l <1’ Y May-JunHERBACEOUSArisaema triphyllum Jack-in-the -pul p it l l l l 1’ striped Apr-JunAsclepias incarnata swamp milk weed l l l 4’ P May-JunAsclepias syriaca common m i l k weed l l 6’ Pu Jun-AugAsclepias tuberosa butterflyweed l l l l 3’ O May-JunAster laevis smooth blue aster l l 2-5’ Bl, Pu Aug-OctAster novae-angliae New England aster l l l l to 6 Pu Sep-OctAster novi-belgii New York aster l l l 3-4’ Bl, Pu Jul-OctAster pilosus white heath aster l l l 3.5’ W Aug-OctBaptisia tinctoria wild indigo l l 3’ Y Jun-SepCaltha palustris marsh marigold l l l 1-2’ Y Apr-JunChelone glabra white turtlehead l l l 3’ W Aug-OctChrysogonum green-and-gold l l l <1’ Y Mar-JunvirginianumChrysopsis mariana Maryland golden aster l l l 0.5-2’ Y Aug-OctCimicifuga racemosa black snakeroot l l 5’ W Jun-JulCoreopsis tinctoria tickseed sunflower l l l 1-3’ Y Jun-SepDesmodium paniculatum panicled tick-trefoil l l l 2-4’ Pu Jul-SepScientific Name Common Name W M D Su PS Sh Height Color Bloom
  • 6. Scientific Name Common Name W M D Su PS Sh Height Color BloomHERBACEOUS, continuedEupatorium dubium Joe-Pye weed l l l l 4-7’ Pu Jul-SepEupatorium fistulosum Joe-Pye weed l l l 1.5-6’ P Jul-SepEupatorium hyssop-leaved l l l l l 1-4’ W Aug-Octhyssopifolium thoroughwortEupatorium perfoliatum common boneset l l l l 3.5’ W Jul-Oct green-stemmed Joe -Eupatorium purpureum l l l 2-6’ P Jul-Sep Pye weedEupatorium rugosum white snakeroot l l l 3.5’ W Jun-AugHelenium autumnale yellow sneezeweed l l l l 1.5-3’ Y Aug-NovHelianthus angustifolius swamp sunflower l l l 5’ Y Aug-OctHoustonia caerulea bluet, innocence l l l <1’ Bl, Pu, W Apr-JunLiatris graminifolia grass-leaf blazingstar l l l l 1-3’ Pu Sep-OctLiatris spicata gayfeather, blazingstar l l l 3 Pu Aug-OctLilium superbum Turk’s cap lily l l l l 4-7’ Y, O, R Jul-AugLobelia cardinalis cardinal flower l l l l 3’ R Jul-SepMonarda fistulosa wild bergamot l l l l 1.5-5 P, Pu Jul-AugMonarda punctata horsemint l l 0.5-3’ Y-Pu Jun-Oct narrow -leavedOenothera fruticosa l l l 2’ Y Jun-Sep sundropsOpuntia humifusa eastern prickly-pear l l <1’ Y Jun-Jul(O. compressa) cactusPodophyllum peltatum Mayapple l l l 1’ W Apr-MayPolygonatum biflorum Solomon’s seal l l l l 0.5-2’ W May-JunRudbeckia hirta black-eyed Susan l l l l 2’ Y Jun-Oct tall or green -headedRudbeckia laciniata l l l 1.5-9’ Y Jul-Sep coneflowerSenna marilandica Maryland wild senna l l 3-4’ Y Jul-Aug(Cassia marilandica)Silene caroliniana wild pink l l l l 0.5’ W, P * Apr-May coastal blue-eyedSisyrinchium atlanticum l l l 0.5-2.5’ Bl, Pu May-Jul grassSisyrinchium graminoides blue-eyed grass l l l l 0.5-1.5’ Bl, Pu Apr-JunSmilacina racemosa false Solomon’s seal l l l 2.5’ W May-Jul blue-stemmedSolidago caesia l l l l 1-3’ Y Aug-Oct goldenrodSolidago juncea early goldenrod l l l 1-4’ Y Jun-OctSolidago nemoralis gray goldenrod l l l 0.5-3’ Y Jul-NovSolidago rugosa wrinkle leaf goldenrod l l l 1-6’ Y Aug-OctSolidago sempervirens seaside goldenrod l l l 6’ Y* Aug-OctSymplocarpus foetidus skunk cabbage l l 1-3’ Mar-AprThalictrum dioicum early meadow rue l l 2’ G, Pu Apr-MayThalictrum polygamum tall meadow rue l l l l 3-6’ W Jun-JulTiarella cordifolia foamflower l l l l 1’ W Apr-JulTradescantia virginiana Virginia spiderwort l l l l 2-3’ Bl, Pu Apr-JunTrillium grandiflorum white trillium l l 1’ W Apr-JunVerbena h astata blue vervain l l l l 4’ Bl, Pu Jun-OctVernonia New York ironweed l l 4-8’ Pu Aug-OctnoveboracensisViola pedata bird’s foot violet l l l <1’ Pu Mar-JunYucca filamentosa Adam’s needle l l 2’ W Jun-SepHERBACEOUS EMERGENT (can grow with roots in water)Acorus calamus sweet flag l l l l 2-3’ Y, W May-JulHibiscus moscheutos rose mallow l l l l 3-6’ W, P Jul-SepIris versicolor blue flag l l l l 3’ Bl, Pu May-JunJuncus canadensis Canada rush l l l l 1-3’Juncus effusus soft rush l l l 2-3’ Jun-SepKosteletskya virginica seashore mallow l l 1.5-4.5’ P Jul-SepNuphar luteum spatterdock, l l l 1’ Y May-Oct(Nuphar advena) yellow water lilyNymphaea odorata fragrant water lily l l <1’ W Jun-SepOsmunda regalis royal fern l l l l l 2-3’Peltandra virginica arrow arum l l l to 2’ G-W Apr-JulPontederia cordata pickerelweed l l l 3’ Pu Jun-NovSagittaria latifolia duck potato l l 0.5-2’ W Jul-OctSaururus cernuus lizard’s tail l l l 1.5-4.5’ W Jun-AugScirpus cyperinus woolgrass l l l l 3-4’ Aug-SepScirpus pungens common three-square l l 4’ Jun-Sep(S. americanus) salt marsh cordgrassSpartina alterniflora l l l 2-5’ Jul-Sep or smooth cordgrassSpartina patens salt meadow hay l l l 1-3’ Jul-SepTypha angustifolia narrow -leaved cattail l l l 10’ Jun-JulTypha latifolia broad-leaved cattail l l l 5-7’ May-JunZizania aquatica wild rice l l l 6-10’ Jun-SepScientific Name Common Name W M D Su PS Sh Height Color Bloom
  • 7. Scientific Name Common Name W M D Su PS Sh Height Color BloomSHRUB, lowComptonia peregrina sweet fern l l l 3’ G Apr-May strawberry bush, 1.5-Euonymus americanus l l G May-Jun hearts -a-bustin’ 6.5’Gaylussacia baccata black huckleberry l l l l 1.5’ W, P May-JunGaylussacia frondosa dangleberry l l l l l 2-4’ G, Pu Apr-JunHypericum densiflorum dense St. Johns wort l l l l 1.5-6’ Y Jul-SepKalmia angustifolia sheep laurel l l l l l 2-5’ W, P, Pu * May-JulLyonia mariana stagger-bush l l l 0.5-6.5’ W, P May-JunPrunus maritima beach plum l l l 1-8’ W Apr-MayRhododendron dwarf or coast azalea l l l 3-6’ W Apr-MayatlanticumRosa carolina pasture rose l l l l 0.5-3’ P May-JunVaccinium vacillans early lowbush l l l 1.5’ W, P Apr-May(V. pallidum) blueberry maple-leavedViburnum acerifolium l l l l 3-6.5’ W, P Apr-May arrowwoodSHRUB, mediumAronia arbutifolia red chokeberry l l l l 1.5-13’ W Mar-May high-tide bush,Baccharis halimifolia l l l to 10’ W Aug-Sep groundsel treeCallicarpa americana American beautyberry l l l 6’ Pu Jun-AugCephalanthus buttonbush l l l to 10’ W Jul-Augoccidentalis sweet pepperbush,Clethra alnifolia l l l l 6-10’ W, P Jul-Sep summersweetCornus amomum silky dogwood l l l 3-10’ W May-JunHamamelis virginiana witch hazel l l l l 3-15’ Y Sep-DecIlex glabra inkberry l l l 3-10’ W* May-JunIlex laevigata winterberry l l l 10’ W May-Jul tassel-white,Itea virginica l l l l 3-10’ W May-Jun Virginia sweetspireLeucothoe racemosa fetterbush l l l 13’ W, P May-JunLindera benzoin spicebush l l l 6.5-16’ Y Mar-MayLyonia ligustrina male-berry l l l 1.5-10’ W May-Jul wax myrtle,Myrica cerifera l l l l 6-12’ G* Mar-Apr southern bayberryMyrica pensylvanica northern bayberry l l l l 8’ G Apr-MayRhododendron pink azalea, l l l 3-10’ P, W Apr-Maypericlymenoides pinxterbloomRhododendron viscosum swamp azalea l l l 6.5-10’ W, P May-Aug sweet or smoothRhus glabra l l l 1.5-10’ G Jun-Jul sumacRosa palustris swamp rose l l l l 8’ P Jul-AugSambucus canadensis common elderberry l l l l l 6-12’ W Jun-JulVaccinium corymbosum highbush blueberry l l l l 6-12’ W, P Apr-MayVaccinium stamineum deerber ry l l l 5-10’ W, Pu Apr-JunViburnum dentatum southern arrowwood l l l l 10’ W May-Jun(V. recognitum)Viburnum nudum naked witherod l l l 6.5-13’ W Apr-MaySHRUB, tallAlnus serrulata smooth alder l l l 12-20’ Mar-AprAralia spinosa Devil’s walking stick l l l 39’ W Jun-AugIlex decidua possom haw l l l l 33’ W Apr-MayKalmia latifolia mountain laurel l l l l l 10’ W, P * May-Jul shining or wingedRhus copallina l l l 20-30’ G-Y Jul-Aug sumacRhus typhina staghorn sumac l l 33’ Y, G Jun-JulViburnum prunifolium black haw l l l l 26’ W Apr-MayTREE, small/ medium (understory) serviceberry,Amelanchier canadensis l l l l 35-50’ W Apr-May shadbushAsimina triloba paw paw l l 39’ Y, R Mar-AprCastanea pumila chinquapin l l 12-20’ Y JunCercis canadensis eastern redbud l l l l 20-35’ P, Pu Apr-MayChionanthus virginicus white fringetree l l l l l 20-35’ W May-JunCornus florida flowering dogwood l l l l 35-50’ W Apr-MayCrataegus crus-galli cockspur hawthorn l l l l 20-35’ W May-JunCrataegus viridis southern thorn l l l l 20-35’ W AprIlex opaca American holly l l l 65’ W* May-JunJuniperus virginiana eastern red cedar l l l 50’ * Mar-AprMagnolia virginiana sweetbay magnolia l l l l l 30’ W* May-Jul eastern hop -Ostrya virginiana l l l 25-40’ R, B May hornbeam, ironwoodPyrus (Malus) angustifolia southern crabapple l l l 25’ Apr-MayPyrus (Malus) coronaria sweet crabapple l l 20-26’ P Apr-MaySassafras albidum sassafras l l l 35-50’ Y, G Apr-MayScientific Name Common Name W M D Su PS Sh Height Color Bloom
  • 8. Scientific Name Common Name W M D Su PS Sh Height Color BloomTREE, tall (canopy)Acer negundo box elder l l l l 30-60’Acer rubrum red maple l l l l 40-60’Betula nigra river birch l l l l 30-50’Carya alba mockernut hickory l l l l 60-90’(C. tomentosa)Carya cordiformis bitternut hickory l l l 60-80’Carya glabra pignut hickory l l l l l 60-80’Carya ovata shagbark hickory l l 70-100’Celtis occidentalis hackberry l l l l 40-60’Chamaecyparis thyoides Atlantic white cedar l l l l 75’ *Diospyros virginiana common persimmon l l l l 50-75’Fagus grandifolia American beech l l l 50-100’Fraxinus americana white ash l l l 80’Fraxinus pennsylvanica green ash l l l l 50-60’Juglans nigra black walnut l l 70-90’Liquidambar styraciflua sweet gum l l l l 60-80’Liriodendron tulipifera tulip poplar l l l 70-120’Morus rubra red mulberry l l 60’Nyssa sylvatica black gum, sourgum l l l l l 30-60’Pinus echinata shortleaf pine l l l 100’ *Pinus rigida pitch pine l l 50-60’ *Pinus taeda loblolly pine l l l 70-90’ *Pinus virginiana Virginia pine l l l 50-80’ *Platanus occidentalis American sycamore l l l l 75-100’Prunus serotina black or wild cherry l l 40-60’Quercus alba white oak l l 80-100’Quercus bicolor swamp white oak l l l 60-70’Quercus coccinea scarlet oak l l 40-60’Quercus falcata southern red oak l l 70-80’Quercus marilandica blackjack oak l l 50’Quercus michauxii swamp chestnut oak l l l 60-80’Quercus nigra water oak l l l l 50-80’Quercus palustris pin oak l l 60-80’Quercus phellos willow oak l l l l 80-100’Quercus prinus chestnut oak l l l 60-80’(Q. montana)Quercus rubra northern red oak l l l l 90’Quercus stellata post oak l l 75’Quercus velutina black oak l l l 50-60’Robinia pseudoacacia black locust l l l 40-80’Salix nigra black willow l l l l 40-80’Taxodium distichum bald cypress l l l 50-70’Tilia americana American basswood l l > 100’Ulmus americana American elm l l 100’VINEBignonia capreolata crossvine l l l l 30-45’ O, R, Y * May-JunCampsis radicans trumpet creeper l l 30’+ O Jul-SepCelastrus scandens American bittersweet l l l l to 45’ G May-JunClematis virginiana virgin’s bower l l 6-12’ W Jul-Sep 10-Lonicera sempervirens coral honeysuckle l l R* Apr-Jul 20’+Parthenocissus Virginia creeper l l l l l to 45’ G, W Jun-Augquinquefolia passionflower,Passiflora incarnata l l W, P Jun-Sep maypopsScientific Name Common Name W M D Su PS Sh Height Color Bloom photo credit: Randy Loftus, USFWS Blazingstar (Liatris spicata) is one of many species that attracts birds and beneficial insects such as butterflies.
  • 9. sample plant lists for Maryland’s coastal plainPlants for Wet Sites, Wetlands, Ponds, and Wet Edges (partial to full sun)Ferns: Shrubs: Osmunda cinnamomea cinnamon fern low: Osmunda regalis royal fern Aronia melanocarpa black chokeberry Thelypteris palustris marsh fern Gaylussacia frondosa dangleberry Hypericum densiflorum dense St. Johns wortGrasses and Grasslike Plants: Kalmia angustifolia sheep laurel ( evgr) Carex stricta tussock sedge Rubus allegheniensis Allegheny blackberry Festuca rubra red fescue (turf) medium: Panicum virgatum Virginia switchgrass Aronia arbutifolia red chokeberry Tripsacum dactyloides gama grass Baccharis halimifolia high-tide bush Cephalanthus occidentalis buttonbushHerbaceous Plants: Ilex verticillata winterberry holly Caltha palustris marsh marigold Itea virginica Virginia sweetspire Eupatorium dubium Joe-Pye wee d Rhododendron viscosum swamp azalea Eupatorium perfoliatum common boneset Rosa palustris swamp rose Helianthus angustifolius swamp sunflower Sambucus canadensis common elderberry Liatris spicata blazingstar tall: Lilium canadense Canada lily Alnus serrulata smooth alder Lilium superbum Turk’s cap lily Magnolia virginiana sweetbay (see Trees) Lobelia cardinalis cardinal flower Viburnum prunifolium black haw viburnum Lobelia siphilitica great blue lobelia Oenothera fruticosa sundrops Trees, tall: Senecio aureus golden ragwort Acer negundo box elder Sisyrinchium atlanticum coastal blue-eyed grass Acer ruburm red maple Solidago rugosa wrinkle leaf goldenrod Acer saccharinum silver maple Verbena hastata blue vervain Betula nigra river birch Carya cordiformis bitternut hickoryHerbaceous Emergents Carya glabra pignut hickory(growing up out of water): Celtis occidentalis hackberry Acorus calamus sweet flag Fraxinus pennsylvanica green ash Hibiscus moscheutos rose mallow Liquidambar styraciflua sweet gum Iris versicolor blue flag iris Nyssa sylvatica black gum, sourgum Juncus canadensis Canada rush Pinus taeda loblolly pine Juncus effusus soft rush Platanus occidentalis American sycamore Kosteletskya virginica seashore mallow Populus deltoides eastern cottonwood Nuphar luteum (advena) yellow water lily Quercus bicolor swamp white oak Nymphaea odorata fragrant water lily Quercus michauxii swamp chestnut oak Osmunda regalis royal fern Quercus phellos willow oak Peltandra virginica arrow arum Salix nigra black willow Pontederia cordata pickerelweed Sagittaria latifolia duck potato Salix sericea silky willow Saururus cernuus lizard’s tail Taxodium distichum bald cypress Scirpus cyperinus woolgrass Scirpus pungens three-square Vine: Spartina alterniflora salt marsh cordgrass Parthenocissus quinquefolia Virginia creeper Spartina patens salt meadow hay Typha angustifolia narrow -leaved cattail Typha latifolia broad-leaved cattail Zizania aquatica wild ricePlants for Dry Sun, Sunny Slopes, Meadows, Hedgerows, or EdgesFerns: Shrubs: Dennstaedtia punctilobula hay-scented fern low: Gaylussacia frondosa dangleberryGrasses or Grasslike Plants: Hypericum densiflorum dense St. Johns wort Andropogon virginicus broomsedge Kalmia angustifolia sheep laurel (evrgrn) Elymus canadensis Canada wild rye Rosa carolina pasture rose Elymus hystrix bottlebrush grass Viburnum acerifolium maple-leaved arrowwood Panicum amarum coastal panic grass medium: Schizachyrium scoparium little bluestem Aronia arbutifolia red chokeberry Sorghastrum nutans Indiangrass Hamamelis virginiana witch hazel Myrica cerifera wax myrtle (evrgrn)Herbaceous Plants and Groundcovers: Rhus glabra smooth sumac Asclepias syriaca common milkweed Vaccinium corymbosum highbush blueberry Asclepias tuberosa butterflyweed Viburnum dentatum southern arrowwood Aster laevis smooth blue aster tall: Aster novae-angliae New England aster Ilex decidua possom haw Aster pilosus white heath aster Kalmia latifolia mountain laurel (evgr) Baptisia tinctoria wild indigo Rhus copallina shining sumac Chrysopsis mariana Maryland golden aster Rhus typhina staghorn sumac Coreopsis tinctoria tickseed sunflower Desmodium paniculatum panicled tick-trefoil Trees: Eupatorium fistulosum Joe-Pye weed small/ medium: Eupatorium hyssopifolium hyssop-lvd thoroughwort Chionanthus virginicus white fringetree Liatris graminifolia grass-leaf blazingstar Crataegus crus-galli cockspur hawthorn Monarda fistulosa wild bergamot Juniperus virginiana eastern redcedar (evgr) Monarda punctata horsemint tall: Opuntia humifusa prickly-pear cactus Carya glabra pignut hickory Rudbeckia hirta black-eyed Susan Diospyros virginiana common persimmon Silene caroliniana wild pink Nyssa sylvatica black gum, sourgum Sisyrinchium graminoides blue-eyed grass Pinus echinata shortleaf pine (evergr) Solidago caesia blue-stem goldenrod Pinus rigida pitch pine (evergrn) Solidago juncea early goldenrod Pinus virginiana Virginia pine (evergrn) Solidago nemoralis gray goldenrod Quercus prinus (montana) chestnut oak Viola pedata birds foot violet Quercus rubra northern red oak Yucca filamentosa Adams needle Quercus velutina black oak Robinia pseudoacacia black locust Vines: Campsis radicans trumpet creeper Clematis virginiana virgins bower Lonicera sempervirens coral honeysuckle Passiflora incarnata passionflower, Maypops
  • 10. Plants for Shade, Woodlands, or Woods Edges (dry to moist soil)* designates plants for part shade (not for full shade)Ferns: Shrubs: Adiantum pedatum maidenhair fern * low: Asplenium platyneuron ebony spleenwort Gaylussacia baccata black huckleberry Botrychium virginianum rattlesnake fern Kalmia angustifolia sheep laurel (evgr) * Dennstaedtia punctilobula hay-scented fern * Lyonia mariana stagger-bush Polystichum acrostichoides Christmas fern (evgr) Rhododendron atlanticum coast azalea Woodwardia areolata netted chain fern Viburnum acerifolium maple-leaved arrowwoodGrasses and Grasslike Plants: medium: Carex glaucodea blue wood sedge Callicarpa americana beautyberry Carex pensylvanica sedge Clethra alnifolia sweet pepperbush Chasmanthium latifolium wild (river) oats * Hamamelis virginiana witch hazel * Elymus hystrix bottlebrush grass Leucothoe racemosa fetterbush Elymus virginicus Virginia wild rye Lindera benzoin spicebush * Lyonia ligustrina male-berryGroundcovers: Myrica cerifera wax myrtle (evergr) * Asarum canadense wild ginger Myrica pensylvanica northern bayberry * Carex glaucodea blue wood sedge Viburnum dentatum southern arrowwood * Carex pensylvanica sedge tall: Chimaphila maculata striped wintergreen Ilex decidua possom haw * Chrysogonum virginianum green-and-gold * Kalmia latifolia mountain laurel (evgr) Gaultheria procumbens wintergreen Rhus copallina shining sumac Hepatica americana round-lobed hepatica Maianthemum canadense Canada mayflower Trees: Mitchella repens partridgeberry small/ medium: Sedum ternatum mountain stonecrop Amelanchier canadensis serviceberry Uvularia sessilifolia straw lily Castanea pumila Chinquapin * Cercis canadensis eastern redbudHerbaceous Plants: Chionanthus virginicus white fringetree Arisaema triphyllum Jack-in-the -pulpit Cornus florida flowering dogwood Chrysogonum virginianum green-and-gold * Crataegus crus-galli cockspur hawthorn * Eupatorium hyssopifolium hyssop thoroughwort Magnolia virginiana sweetbay magnolia Eupatorium rugosum white snakeroot * Ostrya virginiana hop-hornbeam Helenium autumnale yellow sneezeweed Pyrus angustifolia southern crabapple Houstonia caerulea bluet, innocence * Sassafras albidum sassafras * Monarda fistulosa wild bergamot * tall: Podophyllum peltatum Mayapple Carya alba (C. tomentosa) mockernut hickory Polygonatum biflorum Solomons seal Carya glabra pignut hickory Senna marilandica Maryland wild senna* Diospyros virginiana common persimmon Smilacina racemosa false Solomon’s seal Nyssa sylvatica black gum, sourgum Thalictrum dioicum early meadow rue Quercus marilandica blackjack oak Thalictrum polygamum tall meadow rue Quercus prinus (montana) chestnut oak Tiarella cordifolia foamflower Quercus rubra northern red oak Tradescantia virginiana Virginia spiderwort Trillium grandiflorum white trillium Vines: Viola pedata bird’s foot violet * Bignonia capreolata crossvine Celastrus scandens American bittersweet Parthenocissus quinquefolia Virginia creeperEvergreens for various sites photo credit: Britt Slattery, USFWSferns, herbaceous plants and othergroundcovers Asarum canadense wild ginger (semi-evgr) Asplenium platyneuron ebony spleenwort Gaultheria procumbens wintergreen Mitchella repens partridgeberry Polystichum acrostichoides Christmas fern Sedum ternatum mountain stonecrop Silene caroliniana wild pink Solidago semprevirens seaside goldenrodshort shrubs (under 6’) Gaultheria procumbens wintergreen Ilex glabra inkberry Seed heads can be ornamental Kalmia angustifolia sheep laurel while providing wildlife food.medium shrubs (to 15’ or more) New York ironweed (Vernonia Magnolia virginiana sweetbay magnolia noveboracensis) is one example. Myrica cerifera wax myrtletall shrubs and trees Ilex opaca American holly Juniperus virginiana eastern redcedar Kalmia latifolia mountain laurel Pinus echinata shortleaf pine Pinus rigida pitch pine Pinus taeda loblolly pine Pinus virginiana Virginia pinevines Bignonia capreolata crossvine Lonicera semprevirens coral honeysuckle
  • 11. BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCESBrown, Melvin L., Brown, Russell G. Herbaceous Plants of Maryland.Port City Press, Baltimore, MD, 1984.Brown, Melvin L., Brown, Russell G. Woody Plants of Maryland. Port CityPress, Baltimore, MD, 1984.Dirr, Michael A. Manual of Woody Landscape Plants. Stipes PublishingCo., Champaign, Illinois, 1990.Hightshoe, Gary L. Native Trees, Shrubs, and Vines for Urban and RuralAmerica. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1988.Martin, Alexander C., Zim, Herbert S., Nelson, Arnold L. AmericanWildlife and Plants, A Guide to Wildlife Food Habits. Dover Publications,Inc., New York, New York, 1951, reprinted 1961.Native Plants for Conservation, Restoration, and Landscaping. VirginiaDepartment of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage,203 Governor Street, Richmond, VA 23219, and Virginia Native PlantSociety, 1997.Native Plants for Wildlife Habitat. Compiled by U.S. Fish and WildlifeService, Chesapeake Bay Field Office, et al., 1995. Revised editionavailable 2001.Native Plants of Prince George’s County, Maryland, 1997-1998. MarylandNational Capital Park and Planning Commission, Prince George’s CountyPlanning Department, 14741 Governor Oden Bowie Drive, UpperMarlboro, MD, 20772, 1998.Thompson, Louisa. Control of Invasive Non-Native Plants: A Guide forGardeners and Homeowners in the Mid-Atlantic Region. Maryland NativePlant Society, 1998. See contact infoThunhorst, Gwendolyn A. Wetland Planting Guide for the NortheasternUnited States. Plants for Wetland Creation, Restoration, andEnhancement. Environmental Concern Inc., St. Michael’s, MD, 1993. photo credit: Britt Slattery, USFWS Many trees and shrubs such as this serviceberry (Amelanchiercanadensis) provide early spring bloom as well as summer and fall fruits.
  • 12. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Chesapeake Bay Field Office 177 Admiral Cochrane Drive Annapolis, Maryland 21401 (410) 573-4500 www.fws.gov/r5cbfoBayScapes Program, Partners for Fish and Wildlife Program (for privatelands), Schoolyard Habitats Program Maryland Department of Natural Resources Wildlife and Heritage Division Tawes State Office Building, E-1 580 Taylor Avenue Annapolis, Maryland 21401 (410) 260-8540 www.dnr.state.md.us/wildlife Plant Conservation Alliance 1849 C St. NW, LSB-204 Washington, DC 20240 (202) 452-0392 plant@plantconservation.org www.nps.gov/plants/ Adkins Arboretum P.O. Box 100 Ridgely, Maryland 21660 (410) 634-2847 adkinsar@intercom.net www.adkinsarboretum.org with funding provided by Chesapeake Bay Trust 60 West Street, Suite 200-A Annapolis, Maryland 21401 (410) 974-2941 postmaster@cbtrust.org www.chesapeakebaytrust.org Maryland Native Plant Society P. O. Box 4877 Silver Spring, Maryland 20914 MNPS@toad.net www.mdflora.org Thank you to volunteer Carol Jelich for compiling plant information in this guide.

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