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Native Plants for Wildlife Habitat and Conservation Landscaping: Chesapeake Bay Watershed

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Native Plants for Wildlife Habitat and Conservation Landscaping: Chesapeake Bay Watershed

Native Plants for Wildlife Habitat and Conservation Landscaping: Chesapeake Bay Watershed

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  • 1. U.S. Fish & Wildlife ServiceNative Plants forWildlife Habitat andConservation LandscapingChesapeake Bay Watershed
  • 2. AcknowledgmentsContributors: Printing was made possible through the generous funding from Adkins Arboretum;Baltimore County Department of Environmental Protection and Resource Management; ChesapeakeBay Trust; Irvine Natural Science Center; Maryland Native Plant Society; National Fish and WildlifeFoundation; The Nature Conservancy, Maryland-DC Chapter; U.S. Department of Agriculture, NaturalResource Conservation Service, Cape May Plant Materials Center; and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service,Chesapeake Bay Field Office.Reviewers: species included in this guide were reviewed by the following authorities regarding nativerange, appropriateness for use in individual states, and availability in the nursery trade:Rodney Bartgis, The Nature Conservancy, West Virginia.Ashton Berdine, The Nature Conservancy, West Virginia.Chris Firestone, Bureau of Forestry, Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources.Chris Frye, State Botanist, Wildlife and Heritage Service, Maryland Department of Natural Resources.Mike Hollins, Sylva Native Nursery & Seed Co.William A. McAvoy, Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Delaware Department of Natural Resourcesand Environmental Control.Mary Pat Rowan, Landscape Architect, Maryland Native Plant Society.Rod Simmons, Maryland Native Plant Society.Alison Sterling, Wildlife Resources Section, West Virginia Department of Natural Resources.Troy Weldy, Associate Botanist, New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department ofEnvironmental Conservation.Graphic Design and Layout: Laurie Hewitt, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Chesapeake Bay FieldOffice.Special thanks to: Volunteer Carole Jelich; Christopher F. Miller, Regional Plant Materials Specialist,Natural Resource Conservation Service; and R. Harrison Weigand, Maryland Department of NaturalResources, Maryland Wildlife and Heritage Division for assistance throughout this project.Citation: Slattery, Britt E., Kathryn Reshetiloff, and Susan M. Zwicker. 2003. Native Plants for WildlifeHabitat and Conservation Landscaping: Chesapeake Bay Watershed. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service,Chesapeake Bay Field Office, Annapolis, MD. 82 pp.2003
  • 3. Table of ContentsIntroduction Benefits of Conservation Landscaping ................................................................................... 3 Why Use Native Plants ........................................................................................................... 4 Conservation Landscaping Elements ..................................................................................... 4 How to Choose Plants ............................................................................................................ 6 Where to Find Native Plants ................................................................................................... 6How To Use This Guide Plant Names and Types ......................................................................................................... 7 Characteristics ........................................................................................................................ 7 Growth Conditions .................................................................................................................. 8 Habitat .................................................................................................................................... 9 Native To (Where to Use) ....................................................................................................... 9 Wildlife Value ........................................................................................................................ 10 Notes .................................................................................................................................... 10Plant Information Pages Ferns .....................................................................................................................................11 Grasses & Grasslike Plants .................................................................................................. 14 Herbaceous Plants ............................................................................................................... 18 Herbaceous Emergents ........................................................................................................ 41 Shrubs .................................................................................................................................. 45 Trees..................................................................................................................................... 54 Vines ..................................................................................................................................... 64Plants with a Purpose Plants for Coastal Dunes ...................................................................................................... 66 Plants for Saltwater or Brackish Water Marshes .................................................................. 66 Plants for Freshwater Wetlands and Other Wet Sites .......................................................... 67 Plants Appropriate for Bogs or Bog Gardens ..................................................................... 68 Plants for Dry Meadows ....................................................................................................... 68 Plants for Wet Meadows ....................................................................................................... 69 Plants for Forest or Woodland Plantings .............................................................................. 69 Solutions for Slopes.............................................................................................................. 71 Evergreens ........................................................................................................................... 72 Plants to Use as Groundcovers ............................................................................................ 72 Plants for Spring and Fall Color ............................................................................................ 72 Deer Resistant Plants .......................................................................................................... 73Photo Credits ...................................................................................................................... 74References ........................................................................................................................... 75Index ....................................................................................................................................... 79 1
  • 4. To the ReaderThe use of native plants in landscaping and of course habitat restoration is certainly not new.In fact, their use has grown exponentially in recent years. Natural resources professionals inturn have been flooded with requests for information on native plants to use in various types ofplanting projects. Communities, schools, businesses, nonprofit organizations, watershed groups,local governments, state and federal agencies and many others are enhancing and restoringhabitat, solving ecological problems, reducing maintenance, or just beautifying surroundings,all using locally native plants. Natural resources professionals, in turn, have been flooded withrequests for information on native plants to use in various types of planting projects. There aremany excellent resources available on native plants - some more technical than others, somemore comprehensive than others. The frustration voiced most frequently by users is the lack ofcolor photographs of the plants. After all, it is the striking visual quality of these plants that is theirbest “selling point.”This publication includes those pictures as well as user-friendly information on native speciesappropriate for planting in the Chesapeake Bay watershed and adjacent coastal regions.Although one guide cannot furnish the answers to every question, we have included as muchuseful information as possible in a limited space. Although the large number of species ofplants included here may overwhelm some readers, this guide displays the great diversity ofplants available. We hope you will bypass the over-used, non-native and sometimes invasiveornamental plants, and select the equally and often more attractive native plants. Pour throughthis guide the same way you look through nursery catalogs. Use it to plan and design your nextplanting, whether it’s a small corner of your front yard, a two-acre meadow seeding, or 100 acresof wetland restoration.2
  • 5. Native Plants for Wildlife Habitat andConservation Landscaping:Chesapeake Bay WatershedIntroduction“Conservation landscaping” refers to landscaping with specific goals of reducing pollution andimproving the local environment. In the Chesapeake Bay watershed (the land that drains to theBay and its many tributaries), this style of landscaping is sometimes called “BayScaping,” orbeneficial landscaping.Conservation landscaping provides habitat for local and migratory animals, conserves nativeplants and improves water quality. Landowners also benefit as this type of landscaping reducesthe time and expense of mowing, watering, fertilizing and treating lawn and garden areas, andoffers greater visual interest than lawn. Beneficial landscaping can also be used to address areaswith problems such as erosion, poor soils, steep slopes, or poor drainage.One of the simplest ways to begin is by replacing lawn areas with locally native trees, shrubs andperennial plants. The structure, leaves, flowers, seeds, berries and other fruits of these plantsprovide food and shelter for a variety of birds and other wildlife. The roots of these larger plantsare also deeper than that of typical lawn grass, and so they are better at holding soil and capturingrainwater.Benefits of conservation landscapingAmericans manage approximately more than 30 million acres of lawn. We spend $750 millionper year on grass seed. In managing our yards and gardens, we tend to over-apply products,using 100 million tons of fertilizer and more than 80 million pounds of pesticides annually. Theaverage homeowner spends 40 hours per year behind a power mower, using a quart of gas perhour. Grass clippings consume 25 to 40% of landfill space during a growing season. Per hour ofoperation, small gas-powered engines used for yard care emit more hydrocarbon than a typicalauto (mowers 10 times as much, string trimmers 21 times, blowers 34 times). A yard with 10,000square feet of turf requires 10,000 gallons of water per summer to stay green; 30% of waterconsumed on the East Coast goes to watering lawns.The practices described in this guide reduce the amount of intervention necessary to haveattractive and functional landscaping. Conventional lawn and garden care contributes to pollutionof our air and water and uses up non-renewable resources such as fuel and water. Many typicallandscapes receive high inputs of chemicals, fertilizers, water and time, and require a lot ofenergy (human as well as gas-powered) to maintain. The effects of lawn and landscaping on theenvironment can be reduced if properties are properly managed by using organic alternativesapplied correctly, decreasing the area requiring gas-powered tools, using native species thatcan be sustained with little watering and care, and using a different approach to maintenancepractices.With conservation landscaping, there is often less maintenance over the long term, while stillpresenting a “maintained” appearance. Conservation landscapes, like any new landscape, willrequire some upkeep, but these alternative measures are usually less costly and less harmfulto the environment. New plants need watering and monitoring during the first season until theybecome established. Disturbed soil is prone to invasion by weeds - requiring manual removal(pulling) instead of chemical application. Over time, desired plants spread to fill gaps andnatural cycles help with pest control. Garden maintenance is reduced to only minimal seasonalcleanup and occasional weeding or plant management. The savings realized by using little orno chemicals, and less water and gas, can more than make up for initial costs of installing thelandscaping. Redefining landscaping goals overall and gradually shifting to using native speciesprovide even greater rewards in terms of environmental quality, landscape sustainability, improvedaesthetics, cost savings, and bringing wildlife to the property. 3
  • 6. Why use native plants?Native plants naturally occur in the region in which they evolved. While non-native plants mightprovide some of the above benefits, native plants have many additional advantages. Becausenative plants are adapted to local soils and climate conditions, they generally require less wateringand fertilizing than non-natives. Natives are often more resistant to insects and disease as well,and so are less likely to need pesticides. Wildlife evolved with plants; therefore, they use nativeplant communities for food, cover and rearing young. Using native plants helps preserve thebalance and beauty of natural ecosystems.This guide provides information about native plants that can be used for landscaping projects aswell as large-scale habitat restoration. All of the plants presented are native to the designatedareas, however not all of the native species for that area have been included. Rather, plants havebeen included because they have both ornamental and wildlife value, and are generally availablefor sale. This guide covers the entire Chesapeake Bay watershed, including south central NewYork; most of Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia; the District of Columbia; Delaware, west ofDelaware Bay; and the eastern panhandle of West Virginia.The region’s wildlife, plants, habitats and network of streams and rivers leading to the Bay aretremendous resources. As the human population throughout the Chesapeake Bay watershedgrows and land-use pressures intensify, it is increasingly important to protect our remainingnatural areas and wildlife, and restore and create habitat. By working together, these treasurescan be conserved for future generations. Individual projects are great, collective measures areeven better, yet every action helps no matter what size.Conservation landscaping elementsWe can incorporate elements of natural systems into the existing areas where we live, work,learn, shop and play. Landscaping provides valuable opportunities to reduce the effects of thebuilt environment. These areas can be both aesthetically pleasing and functional. Use of nativespecies will make your garden or landscaping more environmentally beneficial. By combiningplant selection with some of the other concepts below, you can achieve more environmentalbenefits.Reduce disturbance. Carefully decide where new development will occur to avoid destruction ofexisting habitat as much as possible. Take advantage of the site’s existing natural features.Reduce lawn or high maintenance areas. Replace turf or ornamental plantings by adding newlandscaping beds and/or enlarge existing ones with native plants.Think big, but start small. Draw up a plan for your entire yard but choose one small area foryour first effort. Trial and error with the first project will help you learn without being overwhelmed.Phase in the whole project over time.Use native plants. Start by using natives to replace dead or dying non-native plants, or as asubstitute for invasive non-natives in existing gardens or landscaping. Plan to use native plants innew landscaping projects. In certain conditions, some native plants can also become aggressive spreaders, thoughAvoid invasive species. Non-native plants can be invasive. They have few or no naturally their spread is more limited by natural controlsoccurring measures to control them, such as insects or competitors. Invasive plants can spread than non-native aggressors. Plants that seedrapidly and smother or out-compete native vegetation. Invasive, non-native plants are not effective readily (such as black-eyed Susan, Rudbeckiain providing quality habitat. A copy of the publication “Plant Invaders of Mid Atlantic Natural Areas” species), or that spread by lateral roots (suchcan be downloaded from www.nps.gov/plants/alien/pubs/midatlantic/index.htm. as mint family plants Monarda or Physostegia species) should be used sparingly or controlledImprove water quality. Native species planted on slopes, along water bodies and along drainage in gardens. Certain native species that areditches help prevent erosion and pollution by stabilizing the soil and slowing the flow of rainwater difficult to control or show up uninvited shouldrunoff. To collect and filter runoff, depressions can be created and planted with native plants suited not be planted, such as cattail (Typha species).to temporary wet conditions. These “rain gardens” will capture water and hold it temporarily for a4
  • 7. day or two and remove pollutants washing off of the surrounding land.Enhance and create wildlife habitat. An animal’s habitat is the area where it finds food, water,shelter, and breeding or nesting space, in a particular arrangement. If we want our gardens tohave the greatest ecological value for wildlife, we need to mimic natural plant groupings andincorporate features that provide as many habitat features as possible.Plants are one of the most important features of an animal’s habitat, because they often providemost, or even all of the animal’s habitat needs. Animals in turn help plants to reproduce throughdispersal of pollen, fruits or seeds. Consequently, plants and animals are interdependent andcertain plants and animals are often found together. So, it is important that plants be selected,grouped, and planted in a way that is ecologically appropriate.Each plant prefers or tolerates a range of soil, sunlight, moisture, temperature and otherconditions, as well as a variety of other factors including disturbance by natural events, animalsor human activities. Plants sharing similar requirements are likely to be found together in plantcommunities that make up different habitat types - particular groupings of plant communitiescommonly recognized as wetlands, meadows, forests, etc. Some plants may tolerate a widerrange of conditions than others, and therefore can be found at more than one type of site, inassociation with a different set of plants at each. By matching plants with similar soil, sunlight,moisture and other requirements, and planting them to the existing site conditions, the plantedlandscapes will do a good job of approximating a natural habitat.Instead of isolated plantings, such as a tree in the middle of lawn, group trees, shrubs andperennials to create layers of vegetation. A forest has, for example, a canopy layer (tallest trees),understory layers (various heights of trees and shrubs beneath the canopy) and a ground layer orforest floor. These layers provide the structure and variety needed for shelter, breeding or nestingspace for a diversity of wildlife.To provide food and cover for wildife year-round, include a variety of plants that produce seeds,nuts, berries or other fruits, or nectar; use evergreens as well as deciduous plants (those thatlose their leaves); and allow stems and seedheads of flowers and grasses to remain standingthroughout fall and winter.All animals need water year-round to survive. Even a small dish of water, changed daily to preventmosquito growth, will provide for some birds and butterflies. Puddles, pools or a small pond canbe a home for amphibians and aquatic insects. A larger pond can provide for waterfowl, suchas ducks and geese, and wading birds such as herons. Running or circulating water will attractwildlife, stay cleaner and prevent mosquitoes.Rock walls or piles, stacked wood, or brush piles provide homes for insects, certain birds andsmall mammals. Fallen logs and leaf litter provide moist places for salamanders, and the manyorganisms that recycle such organic matter, contributing nutrients to the soil. Standing dead treetrunks benefit cavity-nesting wildlife such as woodpeckers.Consider naturalistic planting, or habitat restoration. It may be feasible to create a morenatural landscape instead of a formal one. Naturalistic landscaping uses patterns found in nature,and allows some nature-driven changes to occur. Plants multiply, and succession or gradualreplacement of species may take place, with less human intervention. A property located nearnatural areas, such as forests, wetlands and meadows, is a good candidate for a habitat project.Expand existing forest by planting trees and shrubs along the woods line, using native speciesthat grow in the area, and allow birds and wind to bring the understory plants over time. Wet sites,areas with clay soils, or drainage ditches can be converted to wetlands. An open piece of groundor lawn can be planted as a meadow or grassland. Schools, homes, small businesses, largecorporate sites, municipalities, military installations, recreational areas and other public lands canall include habitat plantings. 5
  • 8. How to choose plantsFinding ready information about what plants “go together” for habitat restoration, enhancement,or creation projects is difficult. Often, the professional will examine a nearby natural area and tryto mimic the combination of plant species found there. That may not be possible for individualsunfamiliar with natural areas. Fortunately, by following some simple guidelines, you will havegarden spaces that grow well on your site and mirror the plant communities found naturally inyour area. The plant lists found at the end of this guide will also help give you a start at plantingappropriate groupings.  Know your site and plant to the existing site conditions. Check the sun exposure, soil moisture and soil type where you plan to plant, and choose plants that will grow and thrive in those conditions. For a few dollars your state or local cooperative extension office can analyze a small soil sample you send them (for contact information, see your government listings in the phone book). The results will include soil type (sand, clay, loam, etc.), pH and fertility status and recommendations for amending the soil to make it into “average garden soil.” However, by selecting native species that thrive in the existing conditions, you won’t need to add soil, fertilizer, lime or compost. There are a wide variety of plants that will thrive in most conditions, even the driest, poorest soil or very wet clay soil. If, however, the soil test shows extreme pH - very acidic (pH of less than 5) or very basic (pH 8 or above), your plant choices will be fairly limited. In that case, you might choose to follow the instructions for making the soil more neutral. If the soil is hard, compacted fill dirt, you might want to improve it by adding organic matter and work the ground so that it can more easily be planted. If you alter the site, then select plants suited to the new conditions.  Choose plants native to your region of your state. Along with planting to the existing site conditions, use locally native plants. Use the map on page 9 to identify which physio- geographic region the planting site lies in. If you’re close to a border dividing two regions, you may choose plants from either or both regions.  Choose a habitat type. Try to create or emulate a specific habitat, like woods, wetland or meadow, and choose plants that are appropriate to both your site and the habitat. Look through this guide and mark the plants with growth requirements that match conditions at the planting site. This will help improve the success of your planting, the habitat value, and the ecological functioning of the project. This publication will eventually be made available online, in a format that can be electronically sorted by plant characteristics or growth conditions.Where to find native plantsMost nurseries carry some native plants, and some nurseries specialize and carry a greaterselection. As the demand for native plants has grown, so has the supply at nurseries. Some plantswill be more readily available than others. Here, we’ve focused on species most appropriate forplanting and available through the nursery trade. A limited number of species included here arenot commonly available but are able to be nursery grown. Take this guide along with you whenyou visit nurseries and if you need help, ask for nursery staff familiar with native plants. If you seea plant you like, check to see if it’s included in the guide for your state and physiographic region.For those species that are more difficult to find, the hope and intention is that this publication willspark a demand, and hence a greater supply. If you have a favorite plant that you can’t obtain, besure to ask your local nursery to consider adding it to their stock. A list of some of the many retailand wholesale native plant nurseries in the Chesapeake Bay region is available from the U.S. Fishand Wildlife Service, Chesapeake Bay Field Office at www.fws.gov/r5cbfo/bayscapes.htm.For the greatest ecological value, select the “true” native species, especially if planting for wildlifebenefit. There are cultivated varieties (cultivars) available for many native plants. These arenamed using the scientific name (Latin genus and species, such as Rudbeckia fulgida) plus thecultivar name, a third word in single quotation marks (such as Rudbeckia fulgida ‘Goldsturm’).These varieties have been grown to provide plants with certain physical characteristics, perhapsa different flower color, different foliage or a compact shape or size. Although these are suitablefor gardening use, use true species (not cultivars) if you are planning a habitat project to provide6
  • 9. food for wildlife. These plants are most suited to use by the native wildlife, and will increase yourchances of attracting them.Native plants should never be removed from the wild unless an area is about to be developed.Even then, it is difficult to transplant wild-collected plants and to duplicate their soil and othergrowth requirements in a home garden. Plants that are grown from seed or cuttings by nurserieshave a much greater tolerance for garden conditions. Help to preserve natural areas bypurchasing plants that have been grown, not collected.Ask nurseries about the source of the native species sold. Did they come from seed or cuttingsof plants found growing locally, or are they from another region? Ideally, the plants you useshould come from stock from the same region, say, within about a 200-mile radius in the samephysiographic province (coastal plain, Piedmont, or mountain). Differences exist from region toregion even in the same plant species, due to differences in climactic conditions between distantlocations. For example, a plant grown in Maine may flower at a different time than the samespecies grown in Maryland. They may have slight physical differences. These characteristicsmake a difference in designing gardens and they matter to wildlife seeking food sources. Themore consumers ask for locally grown plants or seed, the more likely it is that nurseries will carrylocal stock.Once you begin to explore and experiment with native plants, you’ll soon discover that manyof these plants go beyond just replacing worn out selections in your yard. Native plants willeventually reduce your labor and maintenance costs while inviting wildlife to your yard helping tocreate your own sense of place.How to use this guidePlant Names and TypesPlants are organized within each section alphabetically by scientific name. All scientific plantnames used are based on names accepted by ITIS, the Integrated Taxonomic InformationSystem. Plants are indexed at the back of the book by scientific as well as frequently usedcommon names. Scientific names are changed periodically as new information is gathered; forthose commonly recognized names that changed during development of this guide, the newnames are used here, with a cross reference noted in the index. For example: Aster divaricatus isnow Eurybia divaricata, so the plant is listed in the index under both Aster and Eurybia.Plants are grouped by botanical categories: Ferns; Grasses & Grasslike Plants (includes grassesand plants with long slender leaves that may appear similar to a grass); Herbaceous Plants(includes flowers and groundcovers); Herbaceous Emergents (plants that grow in moist to wetsoils, wetlands or in standing water with roots and part of their stems below water but with most ofthe plant above the water); Shrubs; Trees; and Vines.A note about groundcovers: English ivy, periwinkle, creeping lily turf and Japanese pachysandraare some commonly used groundcovers, particularly for shade. However, these species are non-natives that are invasive in the landscape, so they should be avoided. What native alternativescan be used instead? A groundcover can be any plant that would physically cover or hide thebare ground from view. For the purposes of environmentally beneficial landscaping and habitatenhancement, any plant in the “herbaceous”category would make a good groundcover. For thosegardeners and landscapers still seeking a low-growing, creeping, spreading, or clump-formingplant for a groundcover, these plants are marked with a symbol in the Notes column and a listis included at the end of the guide.Characteristics  Height and/or Spread The typical mature height or possible range of heights is given in feet, to the nearest half (0.5) foot. Height may vary depending on conditions (e.g., amount of moisture or sun). For trees and vines, spread is also given in feet. For trees, spread is the measurement of the crown of the plant; for vines, spread is the length a vine will grow along a surface. 7
  • 10.  Flowers: bloom period and flower color The typical months in which the plant blooms are given. The exact time and duration of bloom may be shifted by days or weeks for different areas and/or depending on seasonal weather conditions and climactic trends. The basic, overall color of the flower is noted. The color of a flower’s center or throat may not be included due to limited text space. For simplicity, some shades or tones of colors have been grouped, e.g. lavender, pale purple, bluish purple, even fuchsia may have been listed simply as purple; tan, brown, dark brown are all listed as brown; yellows and pinks may be similarly condensed.  Fruit: fruiting period, color and type This information is provided for plants with more conspicuous fruits or visually interesting seeds. Terms used include: Achene, a dry flat seed such as in clematis; Berry, which includes small single berries such as blueberry, larger berries such as persimmon, aggregates such as blackberry and hips such as a rose hip; Capsule, including various types and sizes of dry fruits with two or more compartments containing seeds, such as iris, sweet pepperbush, hibiscus, or black-eyed Susan; Cone/ cone-like such as pines, hemlock, or alder; fleshy pomes or drupes such as hawthorn, beach plum, paw paw, passion flower, or cherry; Nut/nut-like, as in acorns (oaks) or hickory; Pod, which may include pea-like legumes such as partridge pea or wild senna, follicles or other long pod-like capsules such as milkweeds, delphinium, or trumpet creeper; and Winged, such as the samaras of maples or elm.  Fall Color The color listed indicates the fall color of the leaves, or of the stems for certain plants such as grasses. Some color shades have been grouped by the basic color, as for flower color. Evergreens, species that retain their leaves throughout the winter (in all plant categories), are designated with a symbol in the Notes column. Evergreens are popular for various landscaping uses and valuable for year-round cover for wildlife.Growth Conditions  Light The amount of sunlight a plant requires is defined as: Full Sun , the site is in direct sunlight for at least six hours a day during the growing season; Partial shade , the site receives approximately three to six hours of direct sunlight; and Shade , the site receives less than three hours of direct sunlight or filtered light.  Moisture The amount of soil moisture a plant requires is defined as: Dry (D), areas where water does not remain after a rain (areas may be in full sun or in a windy location, on a steep slope, or have sandy soil); Moist (M), areas where the soil is damp, and may be occasionally saturated; and Wet (W), areas where the soil is saturated for much of the growing season, except in droughts. Many of the plants designated for wet areas tolerate specific ranges of water depths (see Flood Depth). Plants with the Dry designation can be considered drought tolerant.  Soil pH and Type Many of the native plants listed will tolerate a range of soil types. Soil types are listed here as Organic (O), containing a high amount of organic material such as decayed leaves and bark; Clay or fine-textured (C) soils with a high clay content and some silt - very fine soil particles; Loamy or medium-textured (L) soils that contain a mix of mostly silt and sand but may contain some clay; and Sandy or coarse-textured (S) soils with larger particles. Soil information has necessarily been simplified for this guide, and lumped into these main categories, which will suffice for the novice. Soils in actuality are often a mixture or gradations of types, categorized by the percentages they contain of clay, silt or sand, for example clay loam (a certain mix of clay and sand); sandy clay; silt loam; or silty clay loam. For best results, select plants suited to existing site conditions rather than amending the soil. However, be aware that plant selection may be limited if your site has very sandy soil, heavy clay, compacted soil, or extreme soil pH (above 8 or below 5.5). In these cases, seek advice from a nurseryman, horticulturist, botanist, Cooperative Extension agent, or other expert.  Flood Depth Some plants tolerate prolonged standing water, and occur in specific water depths or range of depths. In the Herbaceous Emergents section, the depth of water tolerated is indicated (in inches). Other types of wetland plants that can tolerate only intermittent flooding appear in other sections of the guide, and their flood tolerance8
  • 11. information is included in the Notes column. For more complete information on planning and planting wetlands, see the references listed at the end of this guide.  Salt Tolerance Some plants that tolerate prolonged standing water can tolerate saltwater or brackish (partly salty) water. For plants in the Herbaceous Emergents section, the salinity range in which each of these plants will grow is given in parts (of salt) per thousand parts (of water) or ppt, from 0 ppt (fresh water) to the maximum salinity tolerated. For plants in other sections of the guide, the maximum salinity is given in the Notes column. Full seawater is approximately 32 ppt. If salinity is not given, then the plant grows in fresh water only or in drier conditions.HabitatFor each plant in this guide, we include a description of habitats in which that plant may be found.Several habitat types may be mentioned as each plant is rarely found in one and only one habitattype. There are dozens of forest types, several types of wetlands including forested wetlandsand even wet meadows. The habitats described include those that provide the conditions mostpreferred by each plant species. To help with planning projects, sample lists of plants to usein certain habitat types, or certain site conditions, are given in the back of this guide. Moretechnically detailed information on plant communities can be found in resources listed in thereferences section.Native To (Where To Use) - States and Physiographic RegionsFrom the sandy dunes of the coast to the rocky slopes of the mountains, the rich variety ofhabitats found throughout the region is strongly linked to its geology, topography and climate. Forthis guide, the states in the Chesapeake Bay watershed have been divided into three regions orprovinces: (1) the coastal plain (C), an area with fairly flat topography and more southern climate;(2) the Piedmont plateau (P), with its rolling hills; and (3) the mountain zone (M), a more northernclimate (see map). For simplicity, the mountain category combines all of the more specific higher-altitude provinces (Blue Ridge, Ridge and Valley, Allegheny or Appalachian Plateau). Some nativeplants are common throughout these provinces, while others are adapted to the unique conditionsfound only in one or two.Based on the existing literature and expert input, the physiographic regionsand states in which each plant species naturally occurs is noted.However, plants do not follow the political boundaries that defineour states, so matching ecological boundaries with political onesis difficult. Certain plants may occur in different regions indifferent states. For example, the range of a species couldextend throughout all of Pennsylvania, but be limited tothe mountain and Piedmont regions of Maryland. Aneffort has been made to be as accurate as possible,while erring on the side of inclusion to cover the widestrange of possibilities throughout the Chesapeake Baywatershed as a whole. This same approach has beenused for other characteristics, such as height andbloom period, which may vary slightly from regionto region.Note: Some species native to a state butnot commonly found may be officiallydesignated and legally protected as “rare,threatened, or endangered” (RTE). Thismay be because the plant is at theedge of its natural range there, orits population has declined due toloss of habitat caused by variousnatural events and/or humanactivities in that region.Species that are listed ina state as RTE should 9
  • 12. generally not be planted there, because importing species from elsewhere could potentially leadto damaging alteration of the gene pool of the remaining population. This guide lists only thosestates in which a plant is common and recommended for planting. As a general rule of thumb, if aplant you like is not designated in this guide for your state or your region of the state, we stronglyencourage you to forego planting that and select another plant suited to your site. SongbirdWildlife Value WaterfowlThe notation “high wildlife value” is based mainly on the value of the fruits, seeds and/or nectarused as food for wildlife, and the relative number of species using the plant for food. But Hummingbirdremember that animals use leaves, twigs, roots and shoots for food or nesting material, andevery plant has value as cover and/or nesting sites. In that respect, although we’ve marked those Butterflyof higher wildlife (food) value, every plant in this guide has value to wildlife, as well as otherenvironmental values. Beneficial insectThe types of wildlife noted here are those desirable species that are likely to use the plants Small mammalfor food, including pollinators which are critical to plant reproduction, for gardens, natural areasand agricultural crops. The information here is fairly general. The songbird icon indicates use ofa plant by small usually migratory birds, but may include upland game birds. The waterfowl iconmay include shorebirds and wading birds along with ducks and geese. The hummingbird icon has Providing the basic habitat structuresbeen indicated separately because many people are interested specifically in attracting them. described earlier and planting a diversity ofThe butterfly icon may refer to the adults or to the larval stage that uses the plant as a host. The plants (and therefore food sources) will bringbeneficial insect icon, besides butterflies, includes ladybugs, bees (essential pollinators) and a surprising and beneficial array of life to yourother insects that serve as a pest control or other desirable role. The small mammal icon is noted property.for plants used by any of a variety of small animals, such as raccoons, opossums, foxes, etc.,depending upon location and surrounding habitat.Absent but not forgotten: Certain wildlife species are not represented, due in part to a lack ofavailable information for every plant related to all types of animals. However, these are all likelyto inhabit or occasionally visit a native plant garden or habitat planting, and their importance inthe web of life should not be underestimated. Many insects have not been represented here,though they certainly use a wide variety of plants throughout their life cycles and are an integralpart of the ecosystems we’re trying to protect, conserve and enhance. Reptiles and amphibians,particularly salamanders, frogs and turtles, inhabit our yards as well as natural areas. They useplants for food and cover, and especially need water sources such as lakes, ponds, streams,puddles or even a small dish of water (aerated or changed daily to prevent mosquito breeding).Bats provide a valuable service as insect pest controllers and pollinators.NotesThis catchall includes pertinent information that bears emphasizing or is not reflected in the othercategories. It may include additional notes or clarification about the plant’s characteristics, growth,and spread; tips or suggestions on cultivation; cultivars; or general use of the plant.By providing these characteristics for each plant species we hope to provide you with a varietyof choices to meet the conditions of your property as well as your personal preferences. Whetheryou are replacing a few individual plants, designing a new bed or planning for an entirely newlook, this guide can help narrow the choices to plants most likely to thrive in your environment andcreate the landscape you desire.10
  • 13. Ferns Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesAdiantum Height: 1-2’ Light: moist woods, rocky Region:M P C grows in clumps; delicatepedatum shaded habitats texture; herbal uses Fruit: Moisture: M States: DC MDnorthern Soil pH: 4.5-6.5 NY PA VAmaidenhair fern WV Soil type: L S O UWI MCAsplenium Height: 0.5-1.5’ Light: banks, open woods Region:M P C easily transplanted; onlyplatyneuron and thickets, moderate care needed; Fruit:May-Sep Moisture: M slopes, rocky States: DC MD evergreen ledges, swampsebony spleenwort Soil pH: 4.5-7 NY VA Soil type: C L S WV RHWAthyrium Height: 1-3’ Light: woods, banks, Region:M P C varieties occur throughoutfilix-femina wooded hillsides, region; in MD, VA can also Fruit: Moisture: M W sandy bogs States: DC DE use subspecies asplenioides (southern lady fern)northern lady fern Soil pH: NY Soil type: L S WV UWI KJSBotrychium Height: 1-2’ Light: rich, woods Region:M P Cvirginianum Fruit: Moisture: D M States: DC DE MDrattlesnake fern Soil pH: 5.6-6.9 NY VA Soil type: L O WV RHWDennstaedtia Height: 1-3’ Light: open woods and Region:M P C can spread over large areaspunctilobula fields of open understory or pasture Fruit:Jul-Oct Moisture: D M States: DC MDhay-scented fern Soil pH: NY VA Soil type: L WV UWI RWFDryopteris Height: 1-2.5’ Light: low woods, thickets, Region:M P forms colonies; semi-carthusiana swamps, rich evergreen(D. spinulosa) Fruit:Jun-Aug Moisture: M W woods, rocky slopes States: DC DE MDtoothed or Soil pH: 5-6 NY PA VAspinulose woodfern WV Soil type: L O UWI RWFDryopteris cristata Height: 1.5-2.5’ Light: shallow emergent Region:M P C small rosette fronds marshes, shrub Fruit:Jun-Sep Moisture: M W swamps, wooded States: DC DE MD swamps, opencrested wood or Soil pH: 3.5-6.5 NY PA VA shrubby wetlandsshield fern, narrow WV Soil type: C L UWI RWFswamp fernDryopteris Height: 2.5’ Light: rich, moist to dry Region:M P C clump-former; not common onintermedia woods coastal plain; hybridizes with Fruit: Moisture: D M W States: DC DE eight speciesevergreen wood- Soil pH: NY PA VAfern WV Soil type: L O UWI EJJ 11
  • 14. Ferns Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesDryopteris Height: 1-3’ Light: moist woods, Region:M P C clump-former; attractive;marginalis clearings easily transplanted Fruit:Jun-Oct Moisture: D M States: DC DE MDmarginal or Soil pH: NY PA VAevergreen shield WV Soil type: C L Sfern, evergreen UWI RWFwood fernOnoclea sensibilis Height: 1-3.5’ Light: fresh tidal and Region:M P C spreads in wet areas; fertile nontidal marshes, fronds dark brown, erect Fruit:Jun-Oct Moisture: M W meadows, swamps, States: DC DE MD woodssensitive fern Soil pH: NY PA VA Soil type: C L S WV UWI KJSOsmunda Height: 2-5’ Light: woods, marshes, Region:M P C tolerates drought; fertilecinnamomea swamps, bogs, fronds reddish brown, wooly Fruit:Apr-May Moisture: M W streamsides States: DC DE MDcinnamon fern Soil pH: 4.5-7 NY PA VA RHW, UWI TK Soil type: C L WVOsmunda Height: 1-4’ Light: fields, forest and Region:M P grows in clumpsclaytoniana swamp edges Fruit: Moisture: M States: DC DE MDinterrupted fern Soil pH: 4-6 PA VA Soil type: C L WV UWI EJJOsmunda regalis Height: 1.5-6’ Light: fresh tidal and Region:M P C tolerates full sun if moist; nontidal marshes tolerates drought; tolerates Fruit:Apr-Jun Moisture: M W and swamps, States: DC DE MD irregular, seasonal or woods, irregularly, permanent saturation; onlyroyal fern Soil pH: 4-6 NY PA VA tolerates flooding for a few seasonally, or Soil type: C L S permanently WV days saturated (up to UWI EJJ 100% of growing season)Polystichum Height: 0.5-2’ Light: woods, thickets, Region:M P C grows in clumps; easily grownacrostichoides rocky slopes in rock gardens and shaded Fruit:Jun-Oct Moisture: M States: DC DE MD places; impartial to soil typeChristmas fern Soil pH: 4.5-7 NY PA VA WV USFWS BES Soil type: L SPteridium Height: 1.5-6’ Light: dry pine woods, Region:M P C forms large colonies; host for swamps, marshes, several ant types Fruit: Moisture: D M W fields, waste places States: DC DE MDbracken fern Soil pH: NY PA VA Soil type: C L S WV CM NRCSThelypteris Height: 1-2.5’ Light: forested wetlands, Region:M P C tolerates drought; easilynoveboracensis dry to damp woods, transplanted; forms large Fruit:Jun-Sep Moisture: M W thickets States: DC DE MD colonies; spreads easilyNew York fern Soil pH: 4-7 NY VA WV USFWS BES Soil type: C L S12
  • 15. Ferns Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesThelypteris Height: 2-3’ Light: swamps, bogs, Region:M P C spreadspalustris fields, thickets, Fruit:Jun-Oct Moisture: M W fresh marshes, States: DC DE MD wooded streambankmarsh fern Soil pH: NY VA Soil type: C L S WV UWI RWFWoodwardia Height: 0.5-2’ Light: bogs, swamps, Region: P C spreads by creeping rhizomeareolata woods Fruit:Jul-Oct Moisture: M W States: DC DE MDnetted chain fern Soil pH: VA PLANTS RM91 Soil type:Woodwardia Height: 3-6’ Light: swampy places, Region: P C spreads by creeping rhizomevirginica woods Fruit:Jul-Sep Moisture: M W States: DC DE MDVirginia chain fern Soil pH: NY VA Soil type: PLANTS RS MNPS Polystichum acrostichoides RHW RHW Osmunda regalis Osmunda cinnamomea USFWS BES New fern fiddleheads emerging. 13
  • 16. Grasses & Grasslike Plants Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesAgrostis Height: 1-3’ Light: dry or moist thickets, Region:M P Cperennans open woods Flowers: Jun-Oct Moisture: D M W States: DC DEautumn bentgrass Soil pH: 5.5-7.5 PA VA PLANTS RM95 Soil type: C L WVAmmophila Height: 1.5-3.5’ Light: maritime beaches, Region: C prefers well-drained, sandybreviligulata dunes, grasslands, sites; spreads rapidly by Flowers: Jul-Sep Moisture: D shrublands States: rhizomesdunegrass, Soil pH: 5.8-7.8 VAAmericanbeachgrass Soil type: L S UWI RRKAndropogon Height: 2-6.5’ Light: dry or wet open Region:M P clump forming; attractive,gerardii woods, prairies, with winter interest Flowers: Jun-Sep Moisture: D M W swales, shores; dry States: DC DE open areasbig bluestem Soil pH: 6-7.5 NY PA VA Soil type: C L S WV RHWAndropogon Height: 1.5-5’ Light: fresh marshes, coastal Region:M P C tolerates drought; grows inglomeratus areas tufts; reddish fall color(A. virginicus Flowers: Aug-Oct, reddish Moisture: M W States: DC DEvar. abbreviatus) brown Soil pH: 5-6.3 VAbushy bluestem Soil type: C L S WV PLANTSAndropogon Height: 1-3’ Light: wet meadows, Region:M P C wildlife food and cover;virginicus transition areas tolerates drought; grows in Flowers: Aug-Nov, reddish Moisture: D M W States: DC DE MD tufts; reddish-tan fall color brownbroomsedge Soil pH: 4.9-7 NY VA Soil type: C L S WV PLANTS JSCalamagrostis Height: 1.5-5’ Light: meadows, bogs, Region:Mcanadensis thickets Flowers: Jun-Aug Moisture: M W States: DC DEbluejoint reedgrass Soil pH: 4.5-8 NY VA PLANTS 1995 Soil type: C L WVCarex crinita Height: 1-5’ Light: swales, thickets, low Region:M P Cvar. crinita woods Flowers: Jun-Aug Moisture: M W States: DC DElong hair sedge Soil pH: 4-7.5 NY VA Soil type: C L WV RHWCarex glaucodea Height: 0.5-2’ Light: moist to dry woods Region: P C clump-forming; alternative and fields to Liriope Flowers: May-Jul, brown to Moisture: D M States: DC DE MD reddishblue wood Soil pH: VA NYNHP, NYNHPsedge Soil type:14
  • 17. Grasses & Grasslike Plants Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesCarex lurida Height: 1-3.5’ Light: swales, swamps, Region:M P C wetland plant; interesting woods seeds Flowers: Jun-Oct Moisture: W States: DC DEsallow sedge, lurid Soil pH: 4.9-6.8 NY PA VAsedge Soil type: C L S WV RHWCarex Height: 0.5-1.5’ Light: open, dry, sandy or Region: P C alternative to lawn; plantpensylvanica rocky woods, wooded densely; fine textured leaves Flowers: Apr-Jul, reddish Moisture: D M slopes States: DC DE MD less than 6 inches CM NRCS, CM NRCS to whitePennsylvania Soil pH: NY PA VAsedge Soil type: S WVCarex stricta Height: 1-3.5’ Light: fresh tidal and nontidal Region:M P C grows in clumps; partly marshes, shrub persists in winter; tolerates Flowers: May-Aug, reddish Moisture: M W swamps, forested States: DC DE MD flooding to 6 inches to purple brown wetlands, swales,tussock sedge Soil pH: 3.5-7 NY VA fields Soil type: C L S WV CM NRCSCarex vulpinoidea Height: 0.5-3.5’ Light: shallow emergent Region:M P C grows in clumps; tolerates marshes, shrub saturation and flooding to Flowers: Jun-Aug Moisture: W swamps, floodplain States: 6 inches forests, hardwoodfox sedge Soil pH: 6.8-8.9 NY VA swamps Soil type: C L WV UWI RWF high wildlife valueChasmanthium Height: 2-5’ Light: streambanks, alluvial Region:M P Clatifolium USFWS BES, USFWS BES woods Flowers: Jul-Sep, green Moisture: D M States: DC DE MD then tanwild oats, river Soil pH: 5-7 VAoats, sea oats,spanglegrass Soil type: C L S WVDanthonia spicata Height: 0.5-2’ Light: open woods, pastures, Region:M P C meadows Flowers: May-Jul Moisture: D M States: DC DEpoverty oatgrass, Soil pH: NY PA VApoverty grass Soil type: S WV UWI RWFDichanthelium Height: 2-5’ Light: moist woods, Region:M P Cclandestinum roadsides Flowers: May-Oct Moisture: D M W States: DC DEdeer-tongue Soil pH: 4-7.5 NY PA VA Soil type: C L S WV USDA JEDichanthelium Height: 1-2.5’ Light: rocky or sandy woods Region:M P Ccommutatum Flowers: May-Oct Moisture: D M States: DC DEvariable panicgrass Soil pH: 4-6.5 NY PA VA PLANTS 1997 Soil type: L S WV 15
  • 18. Grasses & Grasslike Plants Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesElymus Height: 2-6.5’ Light: dry, sandy, gravely, or Region:M P Ccanadensis rocky soil Flowers: Jun-Oct Moisture: D M States: DC MDCanada wild rye Soil pH: 5-7.9 VA Soil type: C L S WV CM NRCSElymus hystrix Height: 2-4’ Light: alluvial woods Region:M P C(Hystrix patula) Flowers: Jun-Aug Moisture: M States: DC DE MDbottlebrush grass Soil pH: NY PA VA Soil type: L WV RHWElymus riparius Height: 0.5-5’ Light: rich thickets, Region: P C good for streambank streamsides, alluvial conditions Flowers: Jul-Sep Moisture: D M W flats, meadows States: DEriverbank wild-rye Soil pH: 4.5-7.2 PA VA Soil type: C L S O WV UWI EJJElymus Height: 1-5.5’ Light: rich thickets, shores, Region:M P C tolerates a wide range ofvirginicus meadows conditions; forms clumps Flowers: Jun-Oct Moisture: D M States: DC DE MDVirginia wild rye Soil pH: 5-7 PA VA Soil type: C L S O WV CM NRCSFestuca rubra Height: 0.5-3’ Light: dry woods, roadsides, Region:M can be used as turf grass; waste areas grows best in part shade Flowers: May-Jul Moisture: M W States: DC DE MDred fescue Soil pH: 5-8 VA Soil type: C L RS MNPSLeersia oryzoides Height: 5’ Light: fresh tidal and nontidal Region:M P C good for sediment marshes, meadows, stabilization, erosion control; Flowers: Jun-Oct Moisture: M W ditches, muddy shores States: DC DE tolerates drought; tolerates flooding to 6 inchesrice cutgrass Soil pH: 5.1-8.8 NY PA VA PLANTS 1995 Soil type: C L S WVPanicum amarum Height: 1-3’ Light: sandy coastal shores Region: C prostrate form, produces and dunes little viable seed, use Flowers: Aug-Oct Moisture: D M States: DC DE MD transplants; Panicum amarum var. amarulumbitter or coastal Soil pH: 5-7.5 VA (coastal panicgrass), tallerpanic grass, form, can be seeded.beachgrass Soil type: L S CM NRCSPanicum virgatum Height: 3-6’ Light: fresh and brackish Region:M P C food for sparrow species; tidal and nontidal grows in clumps; controls Flowers: Jul-Oct Moisture: D M W marshes, wet States: DC DE MD erosion meadows, openswitchgrass Soil pH: 4.5-8 NY PA VA woods, prairies, dunes USFWS BES Soil type: C L S WV16
  • 19. Grasses & Grasslike Plants Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesSaccharum giganteum Height: 3.5-10’ Light: swamps, low woods, Region: P C(Erianthus giganteus) swales Flowers: Aug-Oct Moisture: M W States: DC DEgiant plumegrass, Soil pH: 3.5-7 VAsugar cane USDA NRCS Soil type: L SSchizachyrium Height: 1.5-4’ Light: open woods, Region:M P C tolerates poor soil; clumpscoparium grass; winter interest and USFWS BES, USFWS BES pinelands, clearings(Andropogon Flowers: Aug-Oct Moisture: D States: DC DE MD wildlife cover; excellentscoparius) forage grass Soil pH: NY PA VAlittle bluestem Soil type: L S WVSorghastrum Height: 2.5-8’ Light: dry slopes, prairies, Region:M P C tall clump grass withnutans borders of woods beautiful seed head; Flowers: Aug-Sep Moisture: D M States: DC DE MD nutritious for livestockIndiangrass Soil pH: 4.8-8 NY PA VA Soil type: C L S WV RHWTridens flavus Height: 2-6.5’ Light: dry fields, roadsides, Region:M P C openings, forest Flowers: Aug-Oct Moisture: D M States: DC DEredtop, purpletop Soil pH: 4.5-6.5 VA Soil type: C L S WV UWI EJJTripsacum Height: 6-10’ Light: swales, fields, forest Region:M P C excellent forage grass; oftendactyloides edges, shores grows wild near corn fields; Flowers: Jun-Oct Moisture: M W States: DC DE MD can hybridize with corngama grass Soil pH: 5.7-7.5 VA Soil type: C L WV CM NRCSSee also: Andropogon virginicusIn the Herbaceous Plants section: provides a transition between Allium cernuum the road and woods. Liatris pilosa v. pilosa (graminifolia), scariosa, spicata, squarrosa Sisyrinchium angustifolium (graminoides), atlanticumIn the Herbaceous Emergents section: Distichlis spicata Dulichium arundinaceum Iris prismatica, versicolor, virginica Juncus canadensis, effusus Schoenoplectus pungens v. pungens (Scirpus pungens, americanus), validus (Scirpus validus) Scirpus atrovirens, cyperinus CM NRCS Sparganium americanum Spartina alterniflora, cynosuroides, patens, pectinata Zizania aquatica Schizachyrium scoparium in a garden with Liatris spicata and Asclepias tuberosa. USFWS BES USFWS BES USFWS Schizachyrium scoparium in fall. Characteristic swirls of Carex stricta. 17
  • 20. Herbaceous Plants Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesActaea pachypoda Height: 1-3’ Light: rich open woods, Region: C interesting berries; thickets infrequent in Piedmont anddoll’s eyes Flowers: Apr-Jun, whitish Moisture: M States: DE mountain regions Soil pH: NY PA VA Fruit: Jul-Oct, white or Soil type: C L S WV RHW, RHW red, berryAgalinis purpurea Height: 1-4’ Light: moist fields, rocky Region: P C shores, serpentinepurple false Flowers: Jul-Sep, rose- Moisture: M W barrens States: DC DE MDfoxglove purple, white Soil pH: NY VA Fruit: capsule Soil type: S WV RHWAgeratina Height: 1-5’ Light: rich woods, Region:M P C tough plant; cultivarsaltissima thickets, clearings, available; prefers basicvar. altissima Flowers: Jul-Oct, white Moisture: D M meadows States: DC DE MD soils UWI KJS, USFWS BES(Eupatoriumrugosum) Soil pH: NY PA VA Fruit: capsule Soil type: C L S WVwhite snakerootAllium cernuum Height: 0.5-2.5’ Light: ledges, gravels, Region:M rocky or woodednodding onion Flowers: Jun-Aug, pink, Moisture: M slopes States: DC MD rose, white Soil pH: VA Fruit: capsule Soil type: L S WV RHWAnemone Height: 0.5-3’ Light: damp thickets, Region: Pcanadensis meadows, gravelly Flowers: May-Jul, white Moisture: M shores States: DCround-leavedor Canadian Soil pH: NY VAanemone, Fruit: Soil type: C Lthimbleweed RHWAnemone Height: 1-2.5’ Light: dry rocky open Region:M Pvirginiana woods, slopes, Flowers: May-Aug, Moisture: D M thickets States: DC DE MDthimbleweed, tall whitish Soil pH: NY PA VAanemone Fruit: Soil type: C L S WV RHWAntennaria Height: 0.5-1.5’ Light: upland meadows, Region:M Pneglecta pastures, open Flowers: Apr-Jul, white Moisture: D M woods States: DC DE MDfield pussytoes Soil pH: 5.5-7.5 NY PA VA Fruit: Soil type: C L WV UWI JRSAquilegia Height: 0.5-3’ Light: rich rocky woods, Region:M P C commonly cultivated;canadensis slopes, cliffs, spreads by seed Flowers: Apr-Jul, red- Moisture: D M ledges, pastures, States: DC DE MDeastern or wild yellow roadside banks RHW, USFWS BES Soil pH: NY PA VAcolumbine Fruit: capsule Soil type: L WV18
  • 21. Herbaceous Plants Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesAralia nudicaulis Height: 0.5-1.5’ Light: dry to moist woods Region:M P C aromatic; single-leaved; lacks an above-groundwild sarsaparilla Flowers: May-Jul, white Moisture: D M States: DC DE MD stem; not common in or green coastal plain Soil pH: 5-7.2 NY PA VA Fruit: May-Jul, purple- Soil type: C L S WV black, berry RHWAralia racemosa Height: 1.5-6.5’ Light: rich woods, Region:M P C not common in coastal plain thickets, woodedspikenard Flowers: Jun-Aug, Moisture: M slopes and edges States: DC DE MD greenish-white Soil pH: PA VA Fruit: dark purple, berry Soil type: C L S WV RHW, RHWArisaema Height: 1-3’ Light: woods, bogs Region:M P C red berry clusters appeartriphyllum swamps late summer to fall; unusual Flowers: Mar-Jun, Moisture: M W States: DC DE MD flower; spreads rapidly striped, purple or from seed USFWS BES, RHWJack-in-the-pulpit Soil pH: 4.8-7 NY PA VA green Soil type: L S WV Fruit: berryAruncus dioicus Height: 3.5-6.5’ Light: wooded roadsides, Region:M rich woods, ravinesgoat’s-beard Flowers: May-Jul, white Moisture: M W States: DC Soil pH: VA Fruit: pod USFWS BES Soil type: C L S WVAsarum Height: 0.5’ Light: rich woods Region:M P C flower inconspicuous;canadense attractive leaves; will Flowers: Apr-May, Moisture: M States: DC DE MD spread; semi-evergreenwild ginger brownish-purple Soil pH: NY PA VA Fruit: brown, capsule USFWS BES Soil type: C L S WVAsclepias Height: 4-6’ Light: fresh tidal and Region:M P C can tolerate drought;incarnata nontidal marshes, interesting seed pod Flowers: May-Jun, pink Moisture: M W meadows, shrub States: DC DE MDswamp milkweed to reddish swamps, woods, Soil pH: 5-8 shores, ditches NY PA VA Fruit: Aug-Nov, pod Soil type: C L WV USFWS RLAsclepias syriaca Height: 3.5-6.5’ Light: thickets, roadsides, Region:M P C interesting seed pods; fields fragrant flowercommon milkweed Flowers: May-Aug, pale Moisture: D States: DC DE MD purple Soil pH: NY PA VA Fruit: Aug-Nov, pod Soil type: L S WV RHW, RHWAsclepias Height: 1-3’ Light: dry fields, Region:M P C taproot does not transplanttuberosa roadsides, shale well but seedlings do; USFWS RL, USFWS BES Flowers: May-Jul, Moisture: D M barrens States: DC DE MD attractive seed podbutterflyweed, orange Soil pH: 4.8-6.8 NY PA VAbutterfly milkweed,butterfly flower Fruit: Aug-Nov, pod Soil type: L S WV 19
  • 22. Herbaceous Plants Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesBaptisia australis Height: 3-5’ Light: open woods, Region:M P tolerates poor soils; flowers alluvial thickets, very showy; shrublike form USFWS BES, USFWS BESwild blue indigo, Flowers: May-Jun, blue, Moisture: D M streambanks, States: DC MDfalse blue indigo purple floodplains Soil pH: VA Fruit: Soil type: S WVBaptisia tinctoria Height: 1-3’ Light: open woods, Region:M P C tolerates poor soils clearingsyellow wild indigo Flowers: May-Sep, Moisture: D States: DC DE MD yellow 5.8-7 Soil pH: PA VA Fruit: Soil type: L S WV RHWBidens cernua Height: 0.5-3’ Light: tidal marsh, Region:M P C sloughs, springs,nodding beggar- Flowers: Aug-Oct, yellow Moisture: D M pools, shore States: DC DE MDticks, nodding bur Soil pH: 5.1-7 NY PA VAmarigold Fruit: Soil type: C L S WV RHWBoltonia Height: 0.5-2.5’ Light: gravelly shores, Region: Casteroides sandy thickets Flowers: Jul-Sep, white Moisture: D M W States: DC DEstar boltonia, white Soil pH: 5.3-7 VAdoll’s daisy Fruit: USFWS BES Soil type: L S WVCaltha palustris Height: 1-2’ Light: forested wetlands, Region:M C clump-forming; needs shrub swamps, some periods of driermarsh marigold Flowers: Apr-Jun, bright Moisture: W streambanks, States: DC DE MD soil; tolerates flooding to yellow seeps, meadows 6 inches Soil pH: 4.9-6.8 NY VA Fruit: Soil type: C L WV RHWCampanulastrum Height: 1.5-6.5’ Light: rich moist Region:M Pamericanum woods, rocky(Campanula Flowers: Jun-Aug, light Moisture: M wooded slopes, States: DC MDamericana) blue streambanks Soil pH: 5.5-7.5 NY VAAmerican or tall Fruit: capsule Soil type: C L S WVbellflower RHWCardamine Height: 1-1.5’ Light: rich woods, Region:M Pconcatenata wooded bottoms,(Dentaria Flowers: Apr-Jun, white, Moisture: M calcareous rocky States: DC DE MDlaciniata) purplish banks Soil pH: NY VAtoothwort Fruit: Soil type: L S WV RHWCaulophyllum Height: 1-2.5’ Light: rich woods Region:M P Cthalictroides Flowers: Apr-Jun, green- Moisture: M States: DC DE MD yellow, green-purple 4.5-7blue cohosh Soil pH: NY PA VA Fruit: dark blue, berry Soil type: L WV RHW20
  • 23. Herbaceous Plants Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesChamaecrista Height: 0.5-3’ Light: upland meadows, Region:M P C pods coil after split open;fasciculata fields, streambanks spreads(Cassia Flowers: Jul-Sep, yellow Moisture: D States: DC DE MDfasciculata) Soil pH: PA VApartridge pea, Fruit: pod Soil type: S WVprairie senna RHWChamerion Height: 3-10’ Light: recent clearings, Region:Mangustifolium burned woodlands,spp. angustifolium Flowers: Jun-Sep, Moisture: D M damp ravines, open States: DC DE MD(Epilobium sandy areas RHW, PLANTS GAM magenta, pink, rarelyangustifolium) Soil pH: PA VA white Fruit: capsule Soil type: C L S WVfireweedChelone glabra Height: 1.5-6.5’ Light: woods, Region:M P C strong grower; herbal streambanks, uses; host for Baltimorewhite turtlehead, Flowers: Jul-Oct, white Moisture: M W swamps, thickets States: DC DE MD checkerspot butterflyturtlehead Soil pH: NY PA VA Fruit: capsule Soil type: C L S WV RHWChimaphila Height: 0.5’ Light: acidic woods, Region:M P C flowers fragrantmaculata frequently under Flowers: Jun-Aug, white Moisture: D pines States: DC MDstriped wintergreen, Soil pH: NY PA VAstriped prince’s pine Fruit: capsule Soil type: C L S WV RHWChrysogonum Height: 0.5-1’ Light: open woods on Region:M P C will bloom longer if keptvirginianum limestone, rocky moist Flowers: Mar-Jun, yellow Moisture: D M open woods States: DC MDgreen-and-gold, Soil pH: VAgolden knees Fruit: USFWS BES Soil type: L WVChrysopsis Height: 0.5-2.5’ Light: woods, openings, Region: P Cmariana roadsides, Flowers: Jul-Oct, yellow Moisture: D serpentine barrens States: DC DE MDgolden aster, Soil pH: VAMaryland goldenaster Fruit: Soil type: S RHWCimicifuga Height: 2.5-8.5’ Light: rich woods, wooded Region:M P Cracemosa slopes, ravines, Flowers: Jun-Sep, white Moisture: M thickets States: DC DE MDblack snakeroot,black cohosh, fairy Soil pH: NY PA VAcandles Fruit: pod Soil type: C L S WV RHWClaytonia virginica Height: 0.5-1’ Light: rich woods, Region:M P C thickets, clearingsnarrowleaf spring Flowers: Mar-May, white Moisture: M States: DC DE MDbeauty, spring with pinkbeauty Soil pH: NY PA VA Fruit: capsule Soil type: L WV RHW 21
  • 24. Herbaceous Plants Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesClitoria mariana Height: 6’ Light: open areas Region:M P C vine-likeMaryland butterfly Flowers: Jun-Sep, pale Moisture: D States: DC DEpea blue or pinkish Soil pH: VA Fruit: pod Soil type: S WV RHWConoclinium Height: 1-3.5’ Light: old fields, Region: Ccoelestinum meadows; dry(Eupatorium Flowers: Jul-Oct, blue, Moisture: D M W sandy woods States: DC DEcoelestinum) violet or purple and clearings, Soil pH: damp thickets, VAmistflower, wild Fruit: capsule L streambanks WV Soil type: Cageratum RHWCoreopsis tripteris Height: 3.5-10’ Light: thickets, old fields, Region:M P C flower has anise scent forest edges, Flowers: May-Sep, Moisture: D M roadsides States: DCtall coreopsis, talltickseed yellow Soil pH: VA Fruit: capsule Soil type: L S WV RHWCoreopsis Height: 0.5-3.5’ Light: dry open woods, Region: Pverticillata clearings, roadsides Flowers: Jun-Oct, yellow Moisture: D M States: DC MDthreadleaf Soil pH: VAcoreopsis Fruit: capsule USFWS BES Soil type: L WVDelphinium Height: 0.5-3’ Light: rich woods, Region:M Ptricorne calcareous slopes, Flowers: Apr-Jun, Moisture: M thickets, river bluffs States: DCdwarf larkspur blue, violet, white, Soil pH: VA variegated Fruit: pod Soil type: WV RHWDesmodium Height: 1-3.5’ Light: clearings, edges of Region:M P C not found near coastpaniculatum moist or dry woods Flowers: Jul-Sep, Moisture: D States: DC DE MDpanicled or narrow- purplish or green 6-7 Soil pH: NY VAleaf tick-trefoil Fruit: pod Soil type: C L WV RHWDicentra Height: 0.5-1’ Light: rich woods Region:M P flowers hyacinth scentedcanadensis Flowers: Apr-May, Moisture: M States: DC MDsquirrel corn greenish-white, rose Soil pH: NY PA VA tinge Fruit: capsule Soil type: L WV RHWDicentra Height: 0.5-1’ Light: rich woods Region:M P leaves basal; dormant incucullaria summer Flowers: Apr-Jun, white Moisture: M States: DC DE MDDutchman’s to cream Soil pH: NY PA VAbreeches Fruit: capsule Soil type: L S WV RHW22
  • 25. Herbaceous Plants Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesDicentra eximia Height: 1.5-2’ Light: rocky woods and Region:M P sometimes cultivated cliffs, rich woodswild bleeding heart Flowers: Apr-Sep, Moisture: D M States: DC MD pink/white Soil pH: VA Fruit: capsule Soil type: L WV RHWDodecatheon Height: 0.5-2’ Light: open woods, Region:Mmeadia meadows, slopes, Flowers: Apr-Jun, white Moisture: M prairies States: DC MDshooting star with yellow, lilac Soil pH: VA Fruit: capsule Soil type: L S WV RHW, RHWDoellingeria Height: 1-7.5’ Light: open areas, woods Region:M Pumbellatavar. umbellata Flowers: Aug-Oct, white Moisture: M W States: DC DE MD(Aster umbellatus) Soil pH: NY PA VAflat-top white aster, Fruit: Soil type: L S WVparasol whitetop RHWErigeron Height: 0.5-1.5’ Light: open woods, Region:M P Cpulchellus meadows, wooded Flowers: Apr-Sep, blue, Moisture: D M slopes, roadsides States: DC DE MD pink, whiterobin’s plantain Soil pH: NY PA VA Fruit: capsule Soil type: L S WV RHWErythronium Height: 0.5-1’ Light: woods, rich slopes, Region:M Pamericanum bottomlands, Flowers: Mar-Jun, yellow Moisture: M W meadows States: DC DE MDtrout lily, yellow Soil pH: NY PA VAtrout lily, dogtooth Fruit: capsule Soil type: L S WVviolet RHWEupatorium Height: 2-5’ Light: swamps, bogs, Region:M P Cdubium marshes, swales Flowers: Jul-Oct, purple, Moisture: M W States: DC DE MD rarely whiteJoe-Pye weed Soil pH: VA Fruit: capsule Soil type: S RHWEupatorium Height: 1.5-10’ Light: floodplains, Region:M P C herbal usesfistulosum meadows, thickets, Flowers: Jul-Oct, pink- Moisture: D M W roadsides States: DC DE MD purple 4.5-7Joe-Pye weed, Soil pH: NY PA VAtrumpet weed Fruit: capsule Soil type: C L WV RHWEupatorium Height: 1-4.5’ Light: dry fields, Region: Chyssopifolium roadsides, railroad Flowers: Jul-Oct, white Moisture: D M right of ways, States: DC DE MDhyssop-leaved woods, fields, salt Soil pH: meadows VAthoroughwort,hyssop-leaved Fruit: capsule Soil type: Seupatorium RHW 23
  • 26. Herbaceous Plants Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesEupatorium Height: 2-6.5’ Light: floodplains, Region:M Pmaculatum swamps, alluvial Flowers: Jul-Sep, purple Moisture: M thickets, grasslands States: DC to pale lavender 5.5-7spotted Joe-Pye Soil pH: NYweed Fruit: capsule Soil type: C L WV CABEupatorium Height: 1-5’ Light: floodplains, Region:M P Cperfoliatum swamps, bogs, Flowers: Jul-Oct, white Moisture: M W streambanks, States: DC DE MD meadowscommon boneset Soil pH: NY PA VA Fruit: capsule Soil type: C L S WV RHWEupatorium Height: 2-6.5’ Light: open woods, fields, Region:M P C occurs in drier, shadierpurpureum floodplains habitats than other joe- Flowers: Jul-Oct, pink, Moisture: D M States: DC DE MD pye-weeds; injured or dried purple, cream plant has vanilla scentgreen-stemmed Soil pH: NY PA VAJoe-Pye weed Fruit: capsule Soil type: C L S WV RHWEurybia divaricata Height: 0.5-3’ Light: dry woods, Region:M P(Aster divaricatus) clearings Flowers: Jul-Oct, white Moisture: D M States: DC DE MD RHW, USFWS BESwhite wood aster Soil pH: NY PA VA Fruit: Soil type: WVGentiana clausa Height: 1-3.5’ Light: moist open woods, Region:M P C streambanks,closed gentian, Flowers: Aug-Oct, blue Moisture: M W meadows States: DC MDbottle gentian Soil pH: 5.8-7.2 PA VA Fruit: capsule USFWS BES Soil type: L WVGeranium Height: 1-2’ Light: woods, roadsides, Region:M P C adaptable plant; long bloommaculatum fields time; spreader; herbal uses; Flowers: Apr-Jul, Moisture: D M States: DC DE MD explosive seed capsulewild geranium, lavender or pink Soil pH: NY PA VAwood geranium Fruit: capsule Soil type: L WV RHWGoodyera Height: 0.5-1.5’ Light: dry to moist woods Region:M P C very handsome throughoutpubescens winter Flowers: Jun-Aug, Moisture: D M States: DC DE MDdowny rattlesnake whitish Soil pH: NY VAplantain Fruit: USFWS BES Soil type: C L S WVHelenium Height: 1.5-6’ Light: woods, swamps, Region:M P C tolerates wet areas; showyautumnale riverbanks, alluvial flowers; herbal uses Flowers: Jul-Nov, yellow Moisture: M thickets, meadows, States: DC DE MD marshes, ditchesyellow or common Soil pH: 4-7.5 NY PA VAsneezeweed Fruit: capsule USFWS BES Soil type: C L S WV24
  • 27. Herbaceous Plants Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesHelianthus Height: 1.5-5.5’ Light: swamps, moist, Region: Cangustifolius sandy areas Flowers: Aug-Oct, yellow Moisture: M W States: DC DE MD Soil pH: 4-7 VAswamp sunflower Fruit: capsule Soil type: L S RHWHelianthus Height: 1.5-5’ Light: fields, bottomlands, Region:M P Cdecapetalus stream banks, Flowers: Jul-Oct, yellow Moisture: M roadsides States: DC DEten-petaled or thin- Soil pH: NY PA VAleaved sunflower Fruit: capsule Soil type: S WV BZHelianthus Height: 1.5-6.5’ Light: dry open woods, Region:M P Cdivaricatus wooded slopes, Flowers: Jul-Sep, yellow Moisture: D M shale barrens, States: DC DE MDwoodland roadsides Soil pH: NY PA VAsunflower, roughsunflower Fruit: capsule Soil type: S WV RHWHeliopsis Height: 1-5’ Light: fields, open Region: P C long bloom timehelianthoides woods, floodplains, Flowers: Jun-Sep, pale Moisture: D M thickets, States: DC DE MD yellow streambanksoxeye sunflower, Soil pH: 5.6-6.8 PA VAoxeye Fruit: capsule Soil type: L S WV RHWHepatica nobilis Height: 0.5-2’ Light: rich upland woods, Region:M may bloom throughout year UWI KJS, UWI KJS, UWI JRSvar. acuta rocky slopes (rarely)(H. acutiloba) Flowers: Mar-Jun, bluish, Moisture: D M States: white, pink Soil pH: NY PA VAsharp-lobedhepatica Fruit: capsule Soil type: L SHepatica nobilis Height: 0.5-2’ Light: dry or rocky woods, Region:M P Cvar. obtusa dry upland slopes(H. americana) Flowers: Mar-Jun, white Moisture: D M States: DC DE MD to lavender Soil pH: NY PA VAround-lobedhepatica, liverleaf Fruit: capsule Soil type: L S WV RHWHeracleum Height: 3.5-10’ Light: rich woods, wooded Region:M P C can cause a dermatitismaximum roadside banks, (skin) reaction(H. lanatum) Flowers: May-Aug, white Moisture: M W marshy flats, States: DC DE MD to pink streambanks,cow parsnip Soil pH: 5.4-7.3 ditches NY PA VA Fruit: Soil type: C L S WV RHWHeuchera Height: 1-3.5’ Light: rich woods, rocky Region:M P long bloom time; manyamericana slopes, shale cliffs cultivars and hybrids; semi- Flowers: Apr-Jun, green, Moisture: D M States: DC DE MD evergreenalumroot white, pink, purple Soil pH: NY PA VA Fruit: capsule Soil type: L S WV MOBOT 25
  • 28. Herbaceous Plants Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesHeuchera villosa Height: 1-2.5’ Light: damp rocks, rich Region:M wooded slopeshairy heuchera, Flowers: Jun-Oct, white Moisture: D M States: DC MDhairy alumroot to greenish to pinkish Soil pH: VA PLANTS JSP Fruit: capsule Soil type:Houstonia Height: 0.5-1’ Light: meadows, fields, Region:M P Ccaerulea and thickets, open Flowers: Apr-Jun, blue, Moisture: M woods, forest States: DC DE MD lilac, white edgesbluet, innocence, Soil pH: VAQuaker-ladies Fruit: capsule Soil type: WV RHWHydrophyllum Height: 1-2.5’ Light: woods, thickets, Region:M P Cvirginianum streambanks Flowers: May-Aug, Moisture: M States: DC DE MD lavender, whiteVirginia waterleaf Soil pH: NY PA VA Fruit: capsule Soil type: C L S WV RHWHylotelephium Height: 0.5-1.5’ Light: dry rocky places Region:M naturally occurs in baretelephioides rock outcrops, but does(Sedum Flowers: Aug-Sep, pale Moisture: States: DC MD well in garden; rare in PA,telephioides) pink threatened in NY Soil pH: NY VAAllegheny Fruit: pod Soil type: WVstonecrop RHWImpatiens Height: 1.5-5’ Light: moist meadows, Region:M P C ripe seed pod explodes withcapensis swamps, contact; remedy for poison(I. biflora) Flowers: May-Oct, Moisture: M W streambanks, open States: DC DE MD ivy itching orange, yellow, white woods Soil pH: 5.4-7.4 NY PA VAjewelweed, touch- Fruit: capsule USFWS BESme-not Soil type: C L S WVIonactis Height: 0.5-2’ Light: grasslands, Region:M P Clinariifolius successional(Aster linariifolius) Flowers: Aug-Oct, blue, Moisture: D M shrublands, oak- States: DC DE MD yellow eye hickory forest, dry Soil pH: rocky woods and NY VAstiff-leaf aster, edgesflaxleaf whitetop Fruit: Soil type: S WVaster RHWJeffersonia Height: 0.5-1’ Light: rich woods Region:M Pdiphylla Flowers: Apr-May, white Moisture: M States: DC MD Soil pH: VAtwinleaf Fruit: capsule Soil type: L WV RHWLespedeza Height: 2-6’ Light: fields, thin woods Region:M P Ccapitata Flowers: Jul-Sep, Moisture: D States: DC DE yellowish whiteround-head bush Soil pH: NY PA VAclover Fruit: L S WV Soil type: UWI KJS26
  • 29. Herbaceous Plants Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesLiatris pilosa Height: 1-3.5’ Light: open woods, Region: P Cvar. pilosa forest edge, salt(L. graminifolia) Flowers: Aug-Oct, purple Moisture: D M marsh edges, dune States: DC DE MD hollows Soil pH: VAgrass-leaf Fruit: capsule Soil type: C L Sblazingstar RHWLiatris scariosa Height: 1-3.5’ Light: dry upland woods Region:M P C Flowers: Aug-Sep, Moisture: D M States: DC DE MDeastern or northern lavender to rose-blazing star, tall Soil pH: VA purplegayfeather Soil type: L S WV Fruit: capsule RHWLiatris spicata Height: 1-6.5’ Light: moist meadows, Region: P C open areasgayfeather, Flowers: Jul-Aug, rose- Moisture: D M States: DC DEblazingstar, spiked purple or white Soil pH: 5.6-7.5 VAblazing star Fruit: capsule Soil type: C L S WV USFWS RLLiatris squarrosa Height: 0.5-2.5’ Light: dry open fields and Region: P C banksplains blazing star Flowers: Jul-Sep, rose Moisture: M States: DC DE Soil pH: VA Fruit: capsule Soil type: L S RHWLilium canadense Height: 1.5-6.5’ Light: fields, thickets, Region:M P woodsCanada lily Flowers: Jun-Aug, Moisture: M W States: DC DE MD yellow, orange, red Soil pH: NY PA VA Fruit: capsule Soil type: L WV RHWLilium Height: 1-3.5’ Light: open woods, forest Region:M P Cphiladelphicum edges, thickets Flowers: Jun-Aug, Moisture: D States: DC DE yellow, red-orange Soil pH: NY PA VAwood lily Fruit: capsule Soil type: L S WV RHWLilium superbum Height: 4-8’ Light: meadows, Region:M P C leaves in whorl around streamsides stem; takes several yearsTurk’s cap lily Flowers: Jul-Aug, yellow- Moisture: M W States: DC DE MD to bloom orange, orange-red Soil pH: NY PA VA Fruit: capsule Soil type: L S WV RS MNPSLimonium Height: 0.5-2’ Light: irregularly flooded Region: C tolerates salinity to 30 pptcarolinianum high salt marshes Flowers: Jul-Oct, Moisture: M W States: DE MD lavender 6-8.5 Soil pH: NY VAsea lavender Fruit: Soil type: C L S PLANTS LA 27
  • 30. Herbaceous Plants Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesLobelia cardinalis Height: 2-4’ Light: fresh tidal and Region:M P C long bloom time; biennial, nontidal marshes, must reseedcardinal flower Flowers: Jul-Oct, red Moisture: M W wooded swamps, States: DC DE MD seeps, banks of Soil pH: 5.8-7.8 ponds, rivers, NY PA VA Fruit: L streams WV Soil type: C RHWLobelia siphilitica Height: 1-5’ Light: woodlands, Region:M P long bloom time; white meadows, swamps cultivars availablegreat blue lobelia Flowers: Aug-Oct, blue, Moisture: M W States: DC DE MD violet RHW, USFWS BES Soil pH: NY PA VA Fruit: capsule Soil type: C L S WVLupinus perennis Height: 1-2’ Light: open woods, Region:M P C prefers acidic soil fields, roadsides,lupine, sundial Flowers: Apr-Jul, blue, Moisture: D M streambanks States: DC DElupine rarely pink or white Soil pH: NY VA Fruit: pod Soil type: S WV RHWMaianthemum Height: 0.5’ Light: woods Region:M P C fragrant flowerscanadense Flowers: May-Jul, white Moisture: M States: DC DE MDCanada mayflower Soil pH: NY PA VA Fruit: pale red speckled, Soil type: C L S WV berry RHWMaianthemum Height: 1-3.5’ Light: dry to moist woods, Region:M P C flowers in plume-likeracemosum clearings, bluffs clumps at tip of stem; PLANTS JA, PLANTS WSJssp. racemosum Flowers: May-Jul, white Moisture: M States: DC DE MD herbal uses(Smilacinaracemosa ) Soil pH: NY PA VA Fruit: red, berry Soil type: C L S WVfalse Solomon’ssealMedeola Height: 1-3.5’ Light: woods Region:M P C rhizome is ediblevirginiana Flowers: May-Jun, Moisture: M States: DC DE MD yellowishIndian cucumber Soil pH: NY PA VA Fruit: dark purple or Soil type: L S WV RHW, RHW black, berryMelanthium Height: 2.5-6.5’ Light: woods, seepages, Region: P Cvirginicum clearings Flowers: Jun-Aug, Moisture: M States: DC DE MD greenishVirginia Soil pH: VAbunchflower Fruit: capsule Soil type: C L S WV RHWMertensia Height: 1-2.5’ Light: rich wooded slopes, Region:M P C dormant in summer; flowervirginica floodplains color blue, pink, or white Flowers: Mar-Jun, pink Moisture: M W States: DC DE MD according to soil acidityVirginia bluebells turning blue 4.5-8 Soil pH: NY PA VA Fruit: Mar-May, Soil type: C L WV nut/nut-like RHW28
  • 31. Herbaceous Plants Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesMimulus ringens Height: 1-3’ Light: open swamps, Region:M P C interesting flowers meadows, shoresmonkeyflower, Flowers: Jun-Oct, blue Moisture: W States: DC DEAlleghenymonkeyflower Soil pH: NY PA VA Fruit: capsule Soil type: L WV RHWMitchella repens Height: 0.5’ Light: dry acidic woods Region:M P C two flowers form one fruit; berry edible; slow creeper,partridgeberry Flowers: May-Jul, white Moisture: D M States: DC DE MD forms mats under trees Soil pH: NY PA VA USFWS, RHW Fruit:July-Dec, scarlet, Soil type: L S WV berryMitella diphylla Height: 0.5-1.5’ Light: rich, woods Region:M P Ctwoleaf miterwort, Flowers: Apr-Jun, white Moisture: M States: DC DE MDbishop’s cap Soil pH: NY PA VA Fruit: capsule Soil type: C L S WV RHW, RHWMonarda Height: 1.5-5’ Light: fields, thickets, Region:M P C confused with bee-balm (M.bradburiana roadsides, forest didyma); aromatic; herbal(M. fistulosa) Flowers: Jun-Sep, pink Moisture: D M edges States: DC DE MD uses to purple 6-8wild bergamot, Soil pH: NY PA VAhorsemint Fruit: nut/nut-like Soil type: C L WV RS MNPSMonarda didyma Height: 2-5’ Light: creek banks, Region:M showy flowers; aromatic; floodplains, woods herbal usesbeebalm, Oswego Flowers: Jul-Sep, red Moisture: M W States: DC MDtea Soil pH: NY PA VA Fruit: nut/nut-like USFWS BES Soil type: L WVMonarda punctata Height: 0.5-3.5’ Light: open sandy fields Region:M P Chorsemint, spotted Flowers: Jun-Oct, yellow Moisture: D States: DC DE MDbee-balm and purple Soil pH: NY VA Fruit: nut/nut-like Soil type: L S RHWNuttallanthus Height: 0.5-2.5’ Light: maritime grasslands Region:M P C delicate flowers; preferscanadensis and shrublands, well-drained soil(Linaria canadensis) Flowers: Apr-Sep, light Moisture: D M successional States: MD blue shrubland, woods, Soil pH: fields NY VAblue, old-field, or PLANTS WSJCanada toadflax Fruit: capsule Soil type: L S WVOenothera biennis Height: 1.5-6.5’ Light: cultivated fields, Region:M P C flowers open in evening; waste ground, biennialcommon evening Flowers: Jun-Oct, yellow Moisture: D roadsides States: DC DE MDprimrose Soil pH: 5-7 NY PA VA Fruit: capsule Soil type: C L S WV RHW 29
  • 32. Herbaceous Plants Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesOenothera Height: 1-3’ Light: fields, meadows, Region:M P Cfruticosa roadsides Flowers: May-Sep, Moisture: D M States: DC DE MDnarrow-leaved yellow 4.5-7 Soil pH: NY PA VAsundrops Fruit: capsule Soil type: C L S WV RHWOenothera Height: 0.5-3’ Light: fields, pastures, Region:M P similar to evening primroseperennis roadsides, shaly (O. biennis); long bloom Flowers: May-Aug, Moisture: D M slopes States: DC DE MD time; spreadersundrops yellow Soil pH: NY PA VA Fruit: capsule Soil type: L S WV UWI RWFOpuntia humifusa Height: 0.5-1’ Light: sandy coastal Region:M C fruit edible, used for jelly(O. compressa) dunes, shaly soils Flowers: Jun-Jul, yellow Moisture: D States: DC DE MDeastern prickly-pear Soil pH: VAcactus Fruit: purplish to deep Soil type: L S WV red, fleshy RHWOsmorhiza Height: 1.5-4’ Light: rich woods, wooded Region:M P C all plant parts have aniselongistylis slopes, thickets scent Flowers: May-Jun, white Moisture: M States: DC DE MD to greensweet cicely, anise Soil pH: NY VAroot Fruit: Soil type: C L S WV RHWOxalis violacea Height: 0.5’ Light: woods Region:M Pviolet wood sorrel Flowers: Apr-Jul, violet Moisture: D M States: DC DE MD Soil pH: PA Fruit: capsule Soil type: L WV RHWPackera aurea Height: 0.5-2.5’ Light: moist fields, Region:M P C wetland plant; long bloom(Senecio aureus) woods, floodplains, time; aggressive spreader Flowers: Apr-Aug, yellow Moisture: M W roadsides States: DC DE MDgolden ragwort, Soil pH: NY PA VAgolden groundsel Fruit: capsule Soil type: L WV RHWPenstemon Height: 2-5’ Light: open woods, Region:M P C tolerates poor drainage;digitalis meadows variety of cultivars Flowers: Jun-Aug, white Moisture: D M States: DC DE MD or faintly purple USFWS BES, RHWbeardtongue, tall Soil pH: 5.5-7 NY PA VAwhite or foxglovebeardtongue Fruit: capsule Soil type: C L S WVPenstemon Height: 1-3.5’ Light: rich woods, fields Region:Mlaevigatus Flowers: May-Jul, Moisture: M States: DC MDsmooth or eastern purplish Soil pH: VAbeardtongue Fruit: capsule Soil type: WV UWI MRB30
  • 33. Herbaceous Plants Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesPhlox carolina open woods Region:M Height: 1-2.5’ Light:thick-leaved phlox Flowers: May-Jun, pink Moisture: D M W States: DC to purple, rarely white Soil pH: VA PLANTS WSJ Fruit: capsule Soil type: L SPhlox divaricata rich woods Region:M P aromatic; showy flower; Height: 1.5’ Light: dormant in summer (leaveswoodland or wild Flowers: Apr-Jun, blue, Moisture: M States: DC MD disappear); frequentlyblue phlox, wild lavender, white cultivated; evergreensweet William Soil pH: 5.5-7.2 NY PA VA Fruit: capsule Soil type: C L S WV RHWPhlox maculata meadows, Region:M P C aromatic; showy flowers; Height: 1-3’ Light: streambanks, a frequent escapee fromphlox, meadow Flowers: May-Sep, rose, Moisture: M W thickets States: DE cultivationphlox, wild sweet pink, purple, rarelyWilliam Soil pH: 5.9-6.8 PA VA white PLANTS WSJ Soil type: C L WV Fruit: capsulePhlox paniculata rich, open woods, Region:M P C aromatic; showy flowers Height: 1.5-6.5’ Light: roadsides, frequently escapes fromsummer phlox, Flowers: Jul-Oct, pink, Moisture: M streambanks, States: DC cultivationgarden phlox red-purple, white thickets RHW, USFWS BES Soil pH: PA VA Fruit: capsule Soil type: L WVPhlox stolonifera Height: 0.5-1.5’ Light: rich woods Region:Mcreeping phlox Flowers: Apr-Jun, blue, Moisture: D M States: DC MD red-purple, violet RHW, USFWS BES Soil pH: VA Fruit: capsule Soil type: L S WV USFWS BES, USFWS BES, RHWPhlox subulata rock crevices, Region:M P nice rock garden plant Height: 0.5’ Light: ledges Flowers: Apr-Jun, rose, Moisture: D States: DC MDmoss phlox, moss- pink, white Soil pH: 5.7-7.5 NY VApink Fruit: capsule Soil type: C L S WVPhysostegia moist open areas, Region:M P flowers showy; spreads Height: 1.5-5’ Light:virginiana streambanks, rapidly by underground USFWS BES, USFWS BES Flowers: Jun-Sep, pink Moisture: D M shorelines States: DC MD stems; best in full sun; canobedient plant, to purple escape cultivation Soil pH: PA VAfalse dragonhead Fruit: nut/nut-like Soil type: C L S WVPodophyllum rich woods, open Region:M ripe fruit edible; woodland Height: 1-2’ Light: P Cpeltatum fields groundcover; mottled Flowers: Apr-May, white Moisture: M States: DC DE MD foliageMayapple Soil pH: NY PA VA Fruit: yellow, berry Soil type: L WV RHW 31
  • 34. Herbaceous Plants Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesPolemonium rich or rocky woods, Region:M P attractive flowers; slow Height: 0.5-1.5’ Light:reptans wooded floodplains spreader; herbal uses Flowers: Apr-Aug, blue Moisture: M States: DC DE MDJacob’s ladder, Soil pH: PA VAGreek valerian Fruit: capsule Soil type: L S WV RHWPolygonatum woods Region:M P C flowers dangle along stalk Height: 0.5-6.5’ Light:biflorum Flowers: Apr-Jun, white Moisture: D M States: DC DE MDSolomon’s seal, or green Soil pH: NY PA VAdwarf Solomon’sseal Fruit: blue to black, berry Soil type: L WV RHWPolygonatum dry to moist woods Region:M P C herbal uses; edible Height: 1-3.5’ Light:pubescens Flowers: Apr-Jun, Moisture: D M States: DESolomon’s seal, yellowish-green Soil pH: NY PA VAdowny Solomon’sseal Fruit: blue to black, berry Soil type: C L S WV UWI KJSPorteranthus open upland Region:M P established plants drought Height: 1.5-4’ Light:trifoliatus woods, clearings, tolerant; spreads to form(Gillenia trifoliata) Moisture: M rocky slopes, States: DC DE MD tight clumps; seldom needs Flowers: May-Jul, white roadsides dividing; yellow fall colorBowman’s root Soil pH: PA VA Fruit: pod Soil type: C L S WV RHWPycnanthemum Height: 3’ Light: upland woods, Region:M P Cincanum fields, thickets, Flowers: Jul-Sep, white Moisture: D barrens States: DC DE MDhoary mountain to lavender, purplemint Soil pH: NY PA VA spots Fruit: nut/nut-like Soil type: C L S WV RHWPycnanthemum streambanks, Region:M P C Height: 1.5-2.5’ Light:tenuifolium floodplains, moist Flowers: Jul-Sep, purple Moisture: D M fields States: DC DEnarrow-leaved to whitemountain mint Soil pH: NY PA VA PLANTS RM89 Fruit: nut/nut-like Soil type: S WVRhexia virginica open areas Region:M P C also R. mariana for MD Height: 1-3.5’ Light:Virginia meadow- Flowers: Jun-Sep, dark Moisture: W States: DC DEbeauty pink Soil pH: VA Fruit: capsule Soil type: L WV RHWRudbeckia fulgida Height: 1.5-3.5’ Light: moist fields, Region: P cultivars have nice foliage meadowsearly, eastern, or Flowers: Jul-Oct, yellow- Moisture: D M States: DC DE MDorange coneflower orange, black eye Soil pH: VA Fruit: capsule Soil type: L USFWS RL32
  • 35. Herbaceous Plants Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesRudbeckia hirta Height: 1-3.5’ Light: fields, meadows, Region:M P C roadsidesblack-eyed Susan Flowers: Jun-Oct, yellow, Moisture: D M States: DC DE MD black eye 6-7 Soil pH: NY PA VA Fruit: capsule Soil type: C L WV USDA MGRudbeckia Height: 1.5-10’ Light: floodplains, Region:M P C herbal useslaciniata streambanks, fields Flowers: Jul-Sep, yellow Moisture: M W States: DC DE MDtall, green- Soil pH: 4.5-7 NY PA VAheaded, or cutleafconeflower Fruit: capsule Soil type: C L S WV RHWRudbeckia triloba Height: 1.5-4.5’ Light: fields, open woods, Region:M P rocky slopesthree-lobed Flowers: Jun-Oct, yellow Moisture: D M States: DC MDconeflower or orange Soil pH: NY PA VA PLANTS WSJ Fruit: capsule Soil type: L S WVRuellia Height: 0.5-3’ Light: woods, roadsides, Region: C actually in the nightshadecaroliniensis thickets, waste family, flower fragile; a Flowers: May-Aug, Moisture: M places States: DC DE MD highly variable species lavender-blueCarolina wild Soil pH: VApetunia Fruit: capsule WV Soil type: C L S RHWSabatia angularis Height: 1-3’ Light: moist open woods, Region:M P C fields, marshes,rose pink, common Flowers: Jul-Oct, pink Moisture: M meadows; uplands, States: DC DE MDmarsh-pink or white shores Soil pH: VA Fruit: capsule Soil type: C L S WV RHWSalvia lyrata Height: 1-2’ Light: moist pastures, Region:M P C upland woods,lyre-leaf sage Flowers: Apr-Jun, violet Moisture: D M thickets, waste States: DC DE areas Soil pH: VA Fruit: nut/nut-like Soil type: L S WV RHWSanguinaria Height: 0.5’ Light: rich woods, open Region:M P C showy flowers, but bloomscanadensis roadsides fleetingly; herbal uses Flowers: Mar-May, white Moisture: M States: DC DE MDbloodroot Soil pH: NY PA VA Fruit: capsule Soil type: L WV RHWSaxifraga Height: 1-3’ Light: wet woods, bogs, Region:M P Cpensylvanica swamps Flowers: Apr-Jun, white Moisture: W States: DC DE MDeastern swamp to greensaxifrage Soil pH: NY PA VA Fruit: capsule Soil type: C L S RHW 33
  • 36. Herbaceous Plants Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesSaxifraga Height: 0.5-1’ Light: rock crevices, dry Region:M P Cvirginiensis slopes, woods Flowers: Mar-May, white Moisture: D M States: DC DE MDearly saxifrage Soil pH: NY PA VA Fruit: capsule Soil type: WV RHWScutellaria Height: 1-2.5’ Light: swamps, bogs, Region:M P Cintegrifolia moist woods, fields Flowers: May-Jul, blue, Moisture: D M W States: DC DE MDrough or hyssop pink, white Soil pH: VAskullcap, helmetflower Fruit: blackish, Soil type: WV nut/nutlike RHWSedum ternatum Height: 0.5’ Light: damp rocks, rocky Region:M P C creeping stems; used in banks, cliffs, woods rock gardensmountain Flowers: Apr-Jun, Moisture: M States: DC DE MDstonecrop, wild greenish-whitestonecrop Soil pH: NY PA VA Fruit: pod Soil type: WV RHWSenna marilandica Height: 3-6.5’ Light: dry roadsides, Region:M P C pods important food for(Cassia thickets, open upland gamebirds USFWS BES, USFWS BESmarilandica) Flowers: Jul-Aug, yellow Moisture: D M woods States: DC DE MD Soil pH: 4-7 VAMaryland orsouthern wild senna Fruit: pod Soil type: L S WVSilene caroliniana Height: 0.5-1’ Light: dry open woods, Region:M C semi-evergreen; native to rocky slopes, limestone areaswild pink Flowers: Apr-Jun, white Moisture: D M roadside banks, States: DC DE MD to pink shale barrens Soil pH: VA Fruit: capsule Soil type: L RHWSilene stellata Height: 1-3.5’ Light: wooded slopes, Region:M P C drought-tolerant; roadside banks, naturalizes in woodsstarry campion, Flowers: Jun-Sep, white Moisture: D M barrens States: DC DE MDwidow’s frill Soil pH: NY PA VA Fruit: capsule Soil type: WV RHWSilene virginica Height: 1-3’ Light: upland woods, Region:M P wooded slopes,fire pink Flowers: Apr-Jul, dark Moisture: D M streambanks, States: DC DE pink to red clearings Soil pH: VA Fruit: capsule Soil type: L WV RHWSilphium Height: 3-8’ Light: floodplains, fields, Region:M Pperfoliatum moist meadows, Flowers: Jul-Oct, yellow Moisture: D M woods States: DCcup plant Soil pH: VA Fruit: capsule Soil type: L WV PLANTS DL34
  • 37. Herbaceous Plants Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesSisyrinchium Height: 0.5-1.5’ Light: grassy areas, damp Region:M P C grasslike leaves; also S.angustifolium woods montanum in NY(S. graminoides) Flowers: Apr-Jun, blue- Moisture: D M States: DC DE MD violet 5-7 Soil pH: NY VAblue-eyed grass Fruit: brown, capsule Soil type: C L WV CM NRCSSisyrinchium Height: 0.5-2.5’ Light: marshes, meadows, Region: P C leaves grasslike,atlanticum low woods more slender than S. Flowers: May-Jul, blue- Moisture: M W States: DC DE MD angustifoliumcoastal or eastern violet Soil pH: VAblue-eyed grass Fruit: capsule Soil type: UWI JSSolidago caesia Height: 1-3.5’ Light: rich deciduous Region:M P C stems bluish or purplish woodsbluestem Flowers: Aug-Oct, yellow Moisture: D M States: DC DE MDgoldenrod, wreath Soil pH: 5.5-7 NY PA VAgoldenrod Fruit: capsule Soil type: C L WV RHWSolidago Height: 3.5-6.5’ Light: woods, fields, Region:M P Ccanadensis riverbanks,var. scabra Flowers: Jul-Nov, yellow Moisture: D M roadsides States: DC DE MD(S. altissima) Soil pH: NY PA VAtall or late Fruit: capsule Soil type: L WV UWI, RRKgoldenrodSolidago Height: 1-6.5’ Light: fields, roadsides Region:M P Ccanadensis Flowers: Jul-Oct, yellow Moisture: D M States: DECanada goldenrod Soil pH: 4.8-7.5 NY VA Fruit: capsule Soil type: C L S WV UWI MRBSolidago Height: 1-3.5’ Light: moist woods, rocky Region:M Pflexicaulis wooded slopes Flowers: Jun-Oct, yellow Moisture: D M States: DC DE MDbroad leaf or zig Soil pH: 5.3-7 NY PA VAzag goldenrod Fruit: capsule Soil type: L WV RHWSolidago juncea Height: 1-4’ Light: fields, meadows, Region:M P C rocky slopes,early goldenrod Flowers: Jun-Oct, yellow Moisture: D M roadsides States: DC DE MD Soil pH: NY PA VA Fruit: capsule Soil type: S WV RHWSolidago Height: 0.5-3’ Light: fields, open woods, Region:M P C tolerates poor soilsnemoralis roadsides Flowers: Jun-Nov, yellow Moisture: D States: DC DE MDgray, dwarf, old- Soil pH: 6.5-7.5 NY PA VAfield, or one-sided Fruit: capsule Soil type: L S WVgoldenrod RHW 35
  • 38. Herbaceous Plants Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesSolidago odora Height: 1.5-5’ Light: dry open woods, Region:M P C barrenssweet goldenrod Flowers: Jul-Oct, yellow Moisture: D M States: DC DE Soil pH: NY VA Fruit: capsule Soil type: C L S WV RHWSolidago rugosa Height: 1-6.5’ Light: fields, woods, Region:M P C tough plant; aggressive; floodplains, strongly colonial Flowers: Aug-Nov, Moisture: M W roadsides, waste States: DC DE MDwrinkle-leaf or placesrough-stemmed Soil pH: 5-7.5 NY PA VAgoldenrod Fruit: capsule Soil type: L S WV RHWSolidago Height: 1-6.5’ Light: coastal areas, Region: C coastal plant, may occursempervirens dunes where road salts are used Flowers: Jul-Nov, yellow Moisture: D M States: DC DE MDseaside goldenrod Soil pH: 5.5-7.5 VA Fruit: capsule Soil type: L S RHWSolidago speciosa Height: 2-6.5’ Light: dry to moist open Region:M P woods and fieldsshowy or slender Flowers: Jul-Oct, yellow Moisture: D M States: DC MDgoldenrod Soil pH: NY VA PLANTS TGB Fruit: capsule Soil type: L SSpiranthes cernua Height: 0.5-2’ Light: meadows, open Region:M P C orchid flowers; herbal uses woods, roadsides,nodding ladies’ Flowers: Jul-Nov, white Moisture: M W bogs States: DC DE MDtresses Soil pH: 4.5-6.5 NY PA VA Fruit: USFWS BES Soil type: C L S WVStachys tenuifolia Height: 1.5-3.5’ Light: wooded Region: P C(S. hispida) bottomlands, Flowers: Jun-Aug, white Moisture: M W streambanks, States: DC DE MDhedge nettle to pink meadows, fields Soil pH: 5.7-7.4 VA Fruit: nut/nut-like Soil type: C L S WV RHWStellaria pubera Height: 0.5-1.5’ Light: woods, shaded Region:M P ? rocky areasstar chickweed, Flowers: Mar-Jun, white Moisture: M States: DC MDgreat chickweed Soil pH: VA Fruit: capsule Soil type: WV RHWSymphyotrichum Height: 1-5’ Light: upland meadows, Region:M P Ccordifolium woods(Aster cordifolius) Flowers: Aug-Oct, blue- Moisture: D M States: DC violet to rose Soil pH: NY PA VAheart-leaved aster Fruit: Soil type: C L S WV RHW36
  • 39. Herbaceous Plants Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesSymphyotrichum Height: 0.5-6.5’ Light: dry fields, forest Region:M P forms dense moundsericoides edges, woods,var. ericoides Flowers: Jul-Nov, white, Moisture: D M thickets States: DC DE MD(Aster ericoides) rarely blue, violet, Soil pH: NY roseheath, white heath, Fruit: Soil type: L S WVor dense-floweredaster; frostweed RHWSymphyotrichum Height: 1-5’ Light: open areas, forest Region:M P Claeve var. laeve edges(Aster laevis) Flowers: Aug-Oct, pale Moisture: D States: DC DE MD blue, violet, white Soil pH: NY PA VAsmooth blue aster Fruit: Soil type: C L S WV MOBOTSymphyotrichum Height: 1-6’ Light: open woods, Region:M P C showy, frequentlynovae-angliae seasonal wetlands, cultivated; tolerates drier(Aster Flowers: Aug-Oct, violet Moisture: M shores, meadows States: DC DE MD soils and seasonal floodingnovae-angliae) capsule Soil pH: NY PA VANew England aster Fruit: Soil type: L WV USFWSSymphyotrichum Height: 1-4.5’ Light: thickets, meadows, Region: P Cnovi-belgii shoresvar. novi-belgii Flowers: Jul-Oct, blue- Moisture: M W States: DC DE MD(Aster novi-belgii) violet Soil pH: NY VANew York aster Fruit: Soil type: L RHWSymplocarpus Height: 1-3’ Light: fresh tidal and Region:M P C flower inconspicuous,foetidus nontidal marshes emerges before leaves; sap Flowers: Feb-May, green Moisture: W and shrub swamps, States: DC DE MD has skunk-like odor to purple-brown forested wetlands, RHW, USFWS BESskunk cabbage Soil pH: 4-7 seeps NY VA Fruit: Soil type: C L S WVThalictrum Height: 1-2.5’ Light: rich rocky woods, Region:M P Cdioicum ravines, alluvial Flowers: Apr-May, green Moisture: M terraces States: DC MD to purpleearly meadow rue Soil pH: NY PA VA Fruit: capsule Soil type: L WV RHWThalictrum Height: 1.5-9’ Light: rich woods, low Region:M P C foliage similar topubescens thickets, swamps, columbines; clump-forming;(T. polygamum) Flowers: Jun-Aug, white Moisture: M W meadows, States: DC DE MD delicate flowers; species streambanks very variable Soil pH: NY PA VAtall meadow rue Fruit: Soil type: WV RHWThalictrum Height: 0.5-1’ Light: wooded banks and Region:M P C foliage similar tothalictroides thickets columbines(Anemonella Flowers: Apr-Jun, white Moisture: D M States: DC DE MDthalictroides) Soil pH: NY PA VArue anemone, Fruit: Soil type: C L S WVwindflower RHW 37
  • 40. Herbaceous Plants Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesTiarella cordifolia Height: 0.5-1’ Light: rich woods, moist Region:M P C attractive, long-blooming; rocky wooded creeping, clump-forming;foamflower, false Flowers: Apr-Jul, white Moisture: M slopes States: DC MD many cultivarsmiterwort Soil pH: NY PA VA Fruit: capsule USFWS BES Soil type: L WVTradescantia Height: 1-3’ Light: wooded slopes, Region:M P C flowers showyvirginiana shale outcrops, Flowers: Apr-Jul, deep Moisture: M fields, roadsides States: DC DE MDVirginia spiderwort, blue-purple 4-8 Soil pH: VAwidow’s tears Fruit: capsule Soil type: C L WV RHWTrillium erectum Height: 1-1.5’ Light: woods Region:M P flowers ill-scentedpurple or red Flowers: Apr-Jun, purple Moisture: M States: DC MDtrillium, wakerobin or greenish to white Soil pH: NY PA VA Fruit: dark red, berry Soil type: L WV RHWTrillium Height: 0.5-1.5’ Light: woods Region:M P C showy flowers; common,grandiflorum often in large colonies Flowers: Apr-Jun, white Moisture: M States: DC MDwhite or large- then pink Soil pH: NY PA VAflowered trillium Fruit: black, berry Soil type: L WV RHWTrillium sessile Height: 0.5-1’ Light: woods, floodplains Region:M Ptoadshade Flowers: Apr-May, Moisture: M States: DC MD maroon, purple, green Soil pH: VA Fruit: berry Soil type: L WV RHWTrillium undulatum Height: 1-1.5’ Light: woods Region:M Ppainted trillium Flowers: May-Jun, white Moisture: M States: DC MD with purple Soil pH: NY PA VA Fruit: bright red, berry Soil type: L WV RHWUvularia Height: 2.5’ Light: woods Region:M rhizome can be cooked andgrandiflora eaten; young shoots can be Flowers: Apr-Jun, Moisture: M States: DC substituted for asparaguslarge-flowered orange-yellow Soil pH: NY VAbellwort Fruit: capsule Soil type: L WV RHWUvularia perfoliata Height: 0.5-2’ Light: woods Region:M P C rhizome can be cooked and eaten; young shoots maybeperfoliate bellwort, Flowers: Apr-Jul, yellow Moisture: M States: DC DE MD substituted for asparagusmealy bellwort Soil pH: NY PA VA Fruit: capsule Soil type: L WV RHW38
  • 41. Herbaceous Plants Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesUvularia Height: 0.5-1’ Light: dry to moist Region:M P C rhizomes may be cookedsessilifolia woodlands and eaten; young shoots Flowers: May-Jun, Moisture: D M States: DC DE MD may be substituted for yellow asparagusstraw lily Soil pH: NY PA VA Fruit: capsule Soil type: L S WV RHWVeratrum viride Height: 2-5’ Light: swamps, woods Region:M P C leaf edges will brown if soil dries and plant is in windygreen false Flowers: May-Jul, Moisture: M W States: DC DE MD area; does best in coolerhellebore, white yellow-green temps; slugs like the foliagehellebore Soil pH: NY PA VA Fruit: capsule Soil type: C L S WV RHWVerbena hastata Height: 1.5-5’ Light: meadows, swamps, Region:M P C bright flowers; herbal uses floodplains, ditches,blue vervain, Flowers: Jun-Oct, blue Moisture: M W roadsides States: DC DE MDsimpler’s joy to purple Soil pH: NY PA VA Fruit: nut/nut-like Soil type: C L S WV RHWVerbesina Height: 3.5-8’ Light: wooded slopes, Region:M P C threatened in NYalternifolia open woodlands, Flowers: Aug-Oct, yellow Moisture: M riverbanks, States: DC DE MDwingstem, yellow shaded lowlands, Soil pH: roadsides, fields NY VAironweed Fruit: capsule Soil type: WV RHWVernonia Height: 3.5-8’ Light: streambanks, fields, Region:M P C brilliant flowers; tall uprightnoveboracensis freshwater marshes form adds structure to Flowers: Aug-Oct, purple Moisture: M W States: DC DE MD garden; spreadsNew York ironweed Soil pH: NY PA VA Fruit: capsule Soil type: L WV RHWVeronicastrum Height: 3-6.5’ Light: rich woods, Region:M Pvirginicum meadows, thickets,(Veronica Flowers: Jun-Sep, white, Moisture: M W swamps States: DC DE MDvirginica) pink Soil pH: NY VACulver’s root Fruit: capsule Soil type: C L S WV RHWViola conspersa Height: 0.5-1’ Light: woods, fields, Region:M P C delicate plant and flower; swamps edibleAmerican dog violet Flowers: Apr-Jul, pale Moisture: M W States: blue, violet Soil pH: NY PA VA Fruit: green, capsule Soil type: WV UWI RWFViola cucullata Height: 0-0.5’ Light: bogs, meadows, Region:M P C stemless; self-sows; can swamps become a nuisancemarsh blue violet, Flowers: Apr-Jul, pale Moisture: M W States: DC DEblue marsh violet purple Soil pH: PA VA Fruit: green, capsule Soil type: C L S WV RHW 39
  • 42. Herbaceous Plants Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesViola hastata Height: 0.5-1’ Light: rich deciduous Region:M woodshalberdleaf yellow Flowers: Apr-May, yellow Moisture: D States: DC MDviolet w/ violet Soil pH: VA Fruit: green, capsule Soil type: WV RHWViola pedata Height: 0-0.5’ Light: sandy or rocky Region:M P C stemless barrens, drybird’s foot violet Flowers: Mar-Jun, pale Moisture: D M forested slopes States: DC DE MD blue or w/ purple- Soil pH: VA black tips Fruit: green, capsule Soil type: L S WV RHWViola pubescens Height: 0.5-1.5’ Light: moist or dry woods, Region:M Pvar. pubescens swamps(V. pennsylvanica) Flowers: May-Jun, Moisture: M States: DC DE yellow, purple veins 6-7 Soil pH: NY PA VAyellow violet, downyviolet Fruit: green, capsule Soil type: L WV RHWViola sororia Height: 0.5’ Light: dry to moist woods, Region:M P C delicate plant and flower;(V. papilionacea) swamps, thickets edible; spreader; stemless Flowers: Mar-Jun, dark Moisture: M States: DC DE MDcommon blue violet blue, violet 6-7.8 Soil pH: NY PA VA Fruit: green with purple, Soil type: C L WV capsule RHWViola striata Height: 0.5-1’ Light: alluvial woods, Region:M P C swamps, fieldsstriped cream Flowers: Apr-Jun, ivory Moisture: M W States: DC DE MDviolet, striped violet w/ purple Soil pH: NY PA VA Fruit: green, capsule Soil type: L WV MPYucca filamentosa Height: 2-2.5’ Light: coastal sand dunes, Region: C flower stalk can rise 5-15(Y. flaccida) outcroppings on feet above foliage Flowers: Jun-Sep, white Moisture: D thin rocky soils States: DC DE MD Soil pH: 5.5-7.5 VAAdam’s needle Fruit: Soil type: L S RHWZizia aurea Height: 1-2.5’ Light: wooded Region:M P C bottomlands,golden-alexanders Flowers: Apr-Jun, yellow Moisture: D M streambanks, States: DC DE moist meadows, Soil pH: floodplains NY PA VA Fruit: Soil type: C L S WV RHWSee also:In the Vines section: Smilax herbaceaIn the Herbaceous Emergents section: Iris prismatica, versicolor, virginica40
  • 43. Herbaceous Emergents Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife Notes Height: 0.5-1.5’ Light: tidal salt marshes, Region: C often intermixed withDistichlis spicata Spartina patens, forms Moisture: M W from Mean High tide Flowers: Aug-Oct above to spring tide States: DC DE MD dense mats Soil pH: 6.4-10.5 level; high salinity; wet depressions VAsaltgrass Fruit:pod Soil type: C L Flood Depth: UWI EJJ Salinity: 0-50 pptDulichium Height: 1-3.5’ Light: fresh tidal and nontidal Region:M P C grows best where waterarundinaceum marshes, bogs, rarely draws down Moisture: W Flowers: Jul-Oct swamps, pond edges States: DC DE Soil pH: 4.7-7.5three-sided sedge NY PA VA Fruit: brown, nut/nut-like Soil type: C L S WV Flood Depth: 0-12” UWI AHHibiscus Height: 3-6’ Light: fresh to brackish tidal Region: C common along coast;moscheutos marshes, occasionally persists in winter; split seed(H. palustris) Moisture: M W Flowers: Jul-Sep, cream, nontidal marshes States: DC DE MD capsules; use H. laevis in pink Soil pH: 4-7.5 Piedmont VArose mallow, Fruit: Sep-Mar, brown, Soil type: C Leastern rosemallow capsule WV CM NRCS Flood Depth: 0-6” Salinity: 0-15 pptIris prismatica Height: 1-3’ Light: fresh to moderately Region: C leaves 1/4-inch wide, M W brackish tidal narrower than Iris versicolor Moisture: Flowers: May-Jun, blue marshes, meadows, States: DC DE Soil pH: shores, swamps,slender blueflag forested wetlands VA Fruit: green to brown, Soil type: capsule Flood Depth: 0-6” RHW Salinity: 0-0.5 pptIris versicolor Height: 3’ Light: fresh to moderately Region:M P C Moisture: M W brackish tidal Flowers: May-Jun, blue marshes, meadows, States: DC DE MD Soil pH: shores, swamps,blue flag forested wetlands NY PA VA Fruit: green to brown, Soil type: L S capsule Flood Depth: 0-6” RHW Salinity 0-0.5 pptIris virginica Height: 1-2’ Light: fresh to moderately Region: P C Moisture: W brackish tidal Flowers: May-Jul, blue marshes, meadows, States: DC Soil pH: 4.8-7.3 shores, swamps,Virginia blue flag forested wetlands VA Fruit: green to brown, Soil type: C L capsule WV Flood Depth: 0-6” RHW Salinity: 0-0.5 pptJuncus Height: 1-4’ Light: fresh to slightly Region: P Ccanadensis brackish tidal and Moisture: M W Flowers: Jul-Oct, greenish nontidal marshes, States: DC DE MD brown Soil pH: 4.5-5.9 swamps, ponds andCanada rush pond borders, shores, NY PA Fruit: brown, capsule Soil type: C L S wet meadows, shallow WV Flood Depth: water UWI AH Salinity: 0-0.5 pptJuncus effusus Height: 1-4’ Light: fresh tidal and nontidal Region:M P C often grows in clumps Moisture: M W marshes, shrub CM NRCS, USFWS BES Flowers: Jun-Sep, greenish swamps, meadows, States: DC DE MD brown Soil pH: 5.5-7 ditchessoft rush NY PA VA Fruit: brown, capsule Soil type: C L S WV Flood Depth: 0-12” 41
  • 44. Herbaceous Emergents Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesJuncus Height: 1-4’ Light: brackish and salt Region: C some nitrogen fixing valueroemerianus marshes, above Mean Moisture: M W Flowers: May-Oct, yellow- High tide to spring States: DE MD green Soil pH: 3.5-7 tide levelblack needlerush, VAneedlegrass rush, Fruit: July-Nov, brown, Soil type: C L capsule PLANTS LAneedlegrass rush Flood Depth: Salinity: 0-25 pptJusticia Height: 1-3’ Light: muddy edges of Region:M P has underground stems andamericana shallow freshwater forms colonies Moisture: W Flowers: Jun-Oct, white streams, lakes, ponds; States: DC MD with purple Soil pH: 5.4-7.6 shoresAmerican PA VAwater-willow Fruit: achene (dry, flat Soil type: C L S seed) WV Flood Depth: RHWKosteletzkya Height: 1.5-4.5’ Light: irregularly flooded salt Region: C common near the coast;virginica and brackish marshes, looks similar to Hibiscus Moisture: W Flowers: Jul-Sep, pink above Mean High tide States: DC DE MD Soil pH: to spring tide levelseashore mallow VA Fruit: brown, capsule Soil type: Flood Depth: RHW Salinity: 0-10 pptNuphar lutea Height: 1-1.5’ Light: fresh tidal and nontidal Region:M P C large leaves floating but(N. advena) marshes, swamps, rooted; fruit berry-like, Moisture: W Flowers: May-Oct, yellow ponds States: DC DE MD many seeded, somewhat Soil pH: flattened, leatheryspatterdock, yellow NY VAwater lily, cow-lily, Fruit: green, berry Soil type: C L SAmerican lotus WV Flood Depth:12-36” RHWNymphaea Height: 1-4’ Light: tidal and nontidal fresh Region: P C large leaves floating butodorata waters, shallow lakes, rooted; fruit berry-like, Moisture: W Flowers: Jun-Sep, white ponds States: DC DE MD many seeded, somewhat Soil pH: flattened, leatheryfragrant water lily, NY VAAmerican water lily, Fruit: green, berry Soil type: C L Swhite water lily RHW Flood Depth: 12-48”Orontium Height: 1.5-2’ Light: edges of regularly Region: C fruit is a thick fleshy spikeaquaticum flooded tidal fresh covered with small dark Moisture: W Flowers: Apr-Jun, yellow marshes, inland States: DC DE MD green berry-like structures Soil pH: shores, pond borders,golden club on mud or in shallow VA Fruit: green, berry Soil type: C L S water WV Flood Depth: RHWPeltandra Height: 2’ Light: fresh to moderately Region: C globular head of berriesvirginica brackish tidal and enclosed in green leathery Moisture: W Flowers: Apr-Jul, green nontidal marshes, States: DC DE MD case, curved downward to white Soil pH: 5.2-9.5 swamps, shallowarrow arum waters of lakes and NY VA Fruit: green or black Soil type: C L S ponds WV RHW, RHW Flood Depth: 0-12” Salinity: 0-2 pptPontederia Height: 3.5’ Light: fresh to moderately Region: P C spreads vigorously; acordata brackish, tidal and small bladder-like structure Moisture: W Flowers: Jun-Nov, purple nontidal marshes, States: DC DE MD crested with toothed ridges Soil pH: 6-8 shallow water of holds one seedpickerelweed ponds or lakes NY VA Fruit: Soil type: C L S Flood Depth: 0-18” UWI MC Salinity: 0-3 ppt42
  • 45. Herbaceous Emergents Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesSagittaria latifolia Height: 0.5-4’ Light: fresh tidal and nontidal Region: P C Moisture: W marshes, swamps; Flowers: Jul-Sep, white borders of lakes, States: DC DE MD Soil pH: 4.7-8.6 streams and pondsduck potato, NY PA VAarrowhead, Fruit: green, achene (dry, Soil type: C Lbroadleaf flat seed) WVarrowhead Flood Depth: 0-24” RHW Salinity:Saururus cernuus Height: 1.5-4.5’ Light: fresh tidal and nontidal Region: C fragrant flower; often forms W marshes, swamps, extensive colonies Moisture: Flowers: Jun-Sep, greenish shallow water States: DC DE MD white Soil pH:lizard’s tail VA Fruit: capsule Soil type: C L S WV Flood Depth: 0-12” RHWSchoenoplectus Height: 4’ Light: fresh and brackish Region:M P C spike above flower is up to 5pungens tidal and nontidal inches tallvar. pungens Moisture: W Flowers: Jun-Sep, brown marshes, shores, States: DC DE MD(Scirpus pungens, Soil pH: shallow waterScirpus americanus) VA Fruit: Jun-Sep, brown, Soil type: C L S achene (dry, flat seed) CM NRCScommon three- Flood Depth: 0-6”square high wildlife Salinity: 0-15 ppt valueSchoenoplectus Height: 6-10’ Light: fresh to brackish tidal Region:M P C spreads rapidlyvalidus and nontidal marshes,(Scirpus validus) Moisture: W Flowers: Jun-Sep, brown pond edges, quiet States: MD Soil pH: waters, emergent marshes NY PA VAgreat bulrush, soft Fruit: Jun-Sep, brown, Soil type: C L S PLANTS 1995stem bulrush achene (dry, flat seed) Flood Depth: 0-12” high wildlife Salinity: 0-5 ppt valueScirpus atrovirens Height: 3-6’ Light: shallow emergent Region:M P C grows in clumps or sod- W marshes, shrub forming Moisture: Flowers: Jun-Aug, brown swamps, floodplain States: MD Soil pH: 4-8 forests, woodedblack or green swamp, bogs, wet NY PA VAbulrush, dark green Fruit: Jun-Aug, brown, Soil type: C L achene (dry, flat seed) meadows, swales, WV PLANTS JAbulrush ditches Flood Depth: high wildlife Salinity: valueScirpus cyperinus Height: 4-5’ Light: fresh tidal and nontidal Region:M P C grows in large clumps, often M W marshes, swamps, extensive colonies Moisture: Flowers: Aug-Sep, brown forested wetlands, States: DC DE MD Soil pH: 4.8-7.2 meadows, ditches,woolgrass, ponds, bogs NY PA VAwoolgrass bulrush Fruit: Aug-Sep, brown, Soil type: C L S achene (dry, flat seed) WV USDA JK Flood Depth: high wildlife Salinity: valueSparganium Height: 5’ Light: fresh nontidal Region:M P C good for sedimentamericanum marshes, shallow stabilization Moisture: W Flowers: May-Aug, waters, muddy shores States: DC DE greenish Soil pH: 4.9-7.3American bur-reed NY PA VA Fruit: green to brown, Soil type: C L S achene (dry, flat seed) WV Flood Depth: 0-6” RHWSpartina Height: 2-7’ Light: salt and brackish tidal Region: C good for shore stabilization;alterniflora marshes (mid-tide important in seaside Moisture: M W Flowers: Jul-Sep up to Mean High tide States: DC DE MD habitats; short form (<1.5 ft) Soil pH: 5.4-7 level) found in irregularly floodedsalt marsh or VA high marsh, tall form insmooth cordgrass Fruit: Soil type: C L S regularly flooded low marsh Flood Depth: USFWS Salinity: 0-35 ppt 43
  • 46. Herbaceous Emergents Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesSpartina Height: 3.5-10’ Light: fresh and brackish Region: C soil stabilizer; not droughtcynosuroides tidal marshes, near tolerant Moisture: M W Flowers: Aug-Oct Mean High tide and States: DC DE MD Soil pH: 5.8-7.5 above to spring tidebig cordgrass level NY PA VA Fruit: Soil type: C L S PLANTS LA Flood Depth: Salinity: 0-10 pptSpartina patens Height: 1-3’ Light: coastal salt and Region: C forms large mats; good for M W brackish tidal shore erosion control Moisture: Flowers: Jul-Sep marshes; irregularly States: DC DE MD Soil pH: 5.3-7.5 flooded high marsh atsalt meadow hay or above Mean High VA Fruit: achene (dry, flat Soil type: C L S seed) tide line CM NRCS Flood Depth: Salinity: 0-35 pptSpartina pectinata Height: 4’ Light: brackish and fresh Region:M P C shore stabilizer; low drought M W tidal and nontidal tolerance Moisture: Flowers: Jul-Sep marshes, shores, States: DC DE MD Soil pH: 6-8.5 wet meadows; upperfreshwater cordgrass, half of intertidal zone NY PA VAprairie cordgrass Fruit: achene (dry, flat Soil type: L seed) and above to spring WV CM NRCS Flood Depth: 0-6” tide level Salinity: 0-3 pptZizania aquatica Height: 6-10’ Light: fresh tidal and nontidal Region: C annual; edible Moisture: M W marshes, streamsides, Flowers: Jun-Sep shallow waters States: DC DE MD Soil pH: 6.4-7.4wild rice NY VA Fruit: achene (dry, flat Soil type: C L S seed) Flood Depth: 0-36” RHW Salinity:See also: Wetland plants (SpartinaIn the Ferns section: alterniflora, here) Dryopteris cristata stabilize the shoreline Onoclea sensibilis without obstructing the Osmunda cinnamomea, regalis homeowner’s view. Thelypteris palustris Woodwardia areolata, virginicaIn the Grasses & Grasslike Plants section: Andropogon glomeratus (virginicus var abbreviatus), virginicus Calamagrostis canadensis Carex crinita var. crinita, lurida, stricta, vulpinoidea Elymus virginicus Leersia oryzoides Panicum amarum, virgatumIn the Herbaceous Plants section: Asclepias incarnata Bidens cernua Caltha palustris Doellingeria umbellata var. umbellata (Aster umbellatus) Lobelia cardinalis Sabatia angularis Symphyotrichum novae-angliae (Aster novae-angliae) Symplocarpus foetidus USFWS Verbena hastata Vernonia noveboracensis Wetlands of any size provide valuable habitat for wildlife. USFWS BES USFWS RM44
  • 47. Shrubs Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesAlnus serrulata Height: 12-20’ Light: fresh tidal and Region:M P C forms thickets along USFWS BES, PLANTS WSJ nontidal marshes, watercourses; nitrogensmooth alder, hazel Flowers: Mar-Apr, purple Moisture: M W shrub swamps, States: DC DE MD fixing; tolerates flooding toalder forested wetlands 3 inches Fruit: Aug-Feb, brown, Soil pH: 5.5-7.5 NY PA VA cone/cone-like WV Soil type: C L Fall color: yellow, red high wildlife valueAralia spinosa Height: 20-30’ Light: moist woods, Region:M P C seeds are poisonous if stream banks, chewed; low maintenance;Devil’s walking stick Flowers: Jul-Aug, white Moisture: D M roadsides States: DC DE MD spreads from new shoots; thorny, clublike stem Fruit: Aug-Sep, black, Soil pH: 5.5-7.1 VA berry WV Soil type: C L S Fall color: yellow high wildlife RHW valueBaccharis Height: 6-12’ Light: fresh to salt Region: C volunteers in disturbedhalimifolia marshes, ditches, places; shallow, lateral Flowers: Aug-Sep, white Moisture: D M W shores, dunes States: DE MD roots; tolerates flooding tohigh-tide bush, 6 inches; tolerates salinity Fruit: Oct-Nov, silvery Soil pH: 7-8.5 VA to 15 pptgroundsel tree, seamyrtle white, achene USFWS BES Soil type: C L S O Fall color: purpleCallicarpa Height: 6’ Light: Region: C flowers from new growth;americana if overgrown prune to Flowers: Jun-Aug, Moisture: D M States: DC 6-18 inches tall; will regainAmerican lavender-pink height in one season Fruit: Sep-Mar, lavender, Soil pH: 4.8-7 VAbeautyberry, French berry USFWS BESmulberry Soil type: C L S Fall color:Ceanothus Height: 3’ Light: meadows, fields, Region:M P C tough; tolerates moist soil ifamericanus glades, open well drained; fixes nitrogen; Flowers: May-Sep, white Moisture: D woods, borders, States: DC DE MD tolerates dryness rocky areas,New Jersey tea Fruit: Sep-Oct, black Soil pH: 4.3-6.5 openings NY PA VA Soil type: C L S WV Fall color: yellow to tan RHWCephalanthus Height: 6-12’ Light: fresh tidal and Region:M P C needs sun to flower; flowersoccidentalis nontidal marshes, fragrant; interesting fruit; Flowers: Jul-Aug, creamy Moisture: M W shrub swamps, States: DC DE MD tolerates drought; leaves white forested wetlands; may persist into winter;buttonbush NY PA VA Fruit: Sep-Jan, green to Soil pH: 6.1-8.5 stream, lake and tolerates flooding to 36 brown Soil type: C L S O pond edges WV inches Fall color: yellow-green RHWClethra alnifolia Height: 6-12’ Light: tidal and nontidal Region: C very fragrant; tolerates forested wetlands, some flooding by partlysweet pepperbush, Flowers: Jul-Aug, white/ Moisture: M W shrub swamps, States: DC DE MD salty watersummersweet pink bogs, woods, Fruit: Sep-Feb, brown, Soil pH: 4.5-6.5 coastal river NY VA capsule floodplains, Soil type: C L S lakeshores Fall color: yellow USFWSComptonia Height: 3’ Light: hillsides, cliffs, Region:M P C fragrant; fixes nitrogen,peregrina woods openings, leaves may persist into Flowers: Apr-May, Moisture: D sand flats and States: DC DE MD wintersweetfern yellow-green barrens, fields, Fruit: Aug-Oct, green to Soil pH: 4-7 dunes NY PA VA brown, cone/cone-like WV USFWS BES Soil type: L S O Fall color: brown 45
  • 48. Shrubs Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesCornus amomum Height: 6-12’ Light: forested wetlands, Region:M P C floodplains, shrubsilky dogwood, red Flowers: May-Jun, white Moisture: M W wetlands, stream States: DC DE MDwillow, silky cornel and pond banks, Fruit: Aug, blue, berry Soil pH: 6.1-7.5 clearings NY PA VA Soil type: C L S WV Fall color: orange, red or high wildlife RHW purple valueCornus racemosa Height: 6-12’ Light: open wooded Region:M P tolerates a variety of floodplains, conditions; berries are foodred-panicled or gray Flowers: May-Jun, white Moisture: D M forested wetlands, States: for many songbirds anddogwood shrub swamps, small mammals UWI KJS, UWI KJS Fruit: Aug-Sep, white, Soil pH: 6.1-8.5 rocky woods or NY VA red stems, berry ledges, fencerows WV Soil type: C L Fall color: purple high wildlife valueCorylus Height: 10-15’ Light: dry woodlands, Region:M P forms large thickets; edibleamericana forest edges, nut; male catkins brown, UCONN, UCONN, UCONN Flowers: Mar-Apr, brown Moisture: D M hillsides, fence States: DC DE MD female red or red rows, ravines,American hazelnut Soil pH: 6.1-7.5 NY PA VA Fruit: Aug-Sep, light floodplain woods,or filbert brown, nut/nut-like brushy pastures WV Soil type: C L Fall color: yellow orangeGaultheria Height: 0.5’ Light: clearings, steep Region:M P C dense, mat-like form; formsprocumbens rocky open slopes, colonies; edible fruits, Flowers: May-Aug, white Moisture: D M sandy oak woods, States: DC DE MD leaves; wintergreen taste to pink hummocks in bogs and scentwintergreen, Fruit: Jul-Apr, red, berry Soil pH: 4-6.5 NY PA VAcheckerberry Soil type: L S O WV RHW, RHW Fall color: evergreenGaylussacia Height: 1.5-3’ Light: woods, thickets Region:M P C very common; fruits ediblebaccata but many-seeded Flowers: May-Jun, white Moisture: D M W States: DC DE MD to pinkblack huckleberry Fruit: Jul-Sep, black, Soil pH: 4.5-6.5 NY PA VA berry WV Soil type: C L S Fall color: reddish-purple high wildlife RHW valueGaylussacia Height: 2-4’ Light: woods and thickets Region:M C berries borne on long,frondosa drooping stems Flowers: Apr-Jun, Moisture: D M W States: DC DE MDdangleberry greenish to purple Fruit: Jul-Oct, blue, berry Soil pH: 4.5-6.5 NY VA Soil type: S CM NRCS Fall color: reddish-purple high wildlife valueHamamelis Height: 15-30’ Light: woods or brushy Region:M P C noted for fall/winter bloom;virginiana fields, moist or dry medicinal uses, leaves may Flowers: Sep-Dec, yellow Moisture: D M States: DC DE MD persist into winterwitch hazel Soil pH: 5.5-6.5 NY PA VA Fruit: Oct-Nov, tan brown, capsule WV Soil type: C L S Fall color: yellow RHWHydrangea Height: 3-6’ Light: rich upland or Region:M P eaves poisonous toarborescens floodplain woods, humans; does best on Flowers: Jun-Aug, white Moisture: M streambanks States: DC MD loamy soilswild or smooth Fruit: Oct-Jan, brown, Soil pH: 6.1-8.5 PA VAhydrangea capsule Soil type: L S WV Fall color: yellow RHW46
  • 49. Shrubs Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesHypericum Height: 1.5-6’ Light: low boggy Region:M P C blooms small but formdensiflorum places, seepage dense flat-topped clusters; Flowers: Jul-Sep, yellow Moisture: D M W slopes, pond States: DC DE MD can spread aggressivelydense St. John’s and lake edges, Fruit: Oct-Apr, brown, Soil pH: 5.5-7 wet meadows, VAwort capsule Soil type: C L S O streambanks, ditches, moist Fall color: yellow green pinelands RHWIlex glabra Height: 6-10’ Light: forested wetlands, Region: C berries persist through shrub swamps, winter; male and female USFWS BES, USFWS BESinkberry Flowers: May-Jun, Moisture: D M sandy woods States: DE flowers on separate greenish white plants; tolerates some salt Fruit: Sep-Mar, black, Soil pH: 4.5-6 NY VA flooding; short cultivars berry (4-5’) available Soil type: C L S O Fall color: evergreen high wildlife valueIlex laevigata Height: 10-12’ Light: wooded swamps Region: C berries provide winter bird food; prefers soil with asmooth winterberry Flowers: May-Jul, white Moisture: M States: DC DE MD calcareous layer to cream Fruit: Sep-Feb, red, Soil pH: 4.5-6.5 VA scarlet, berry Soil type: C L S O RHW, RHW Fall color: yellow high wildlife valueIlex verticillata Height: 6-12’ Light: fresh tidal swamps, Region:M P C berries provide winter bird shrub swamps, food, poisonous to humans;winterberry, Flowers: Jun-Jul, Moisture: M W forested wetlands States: DC DE MD berries on female plants,winterberry holly, greenish white need male plant to pollinate Fruit: Aug-Feb, red, Soil pH: 4.5-6.5 NY PA VAblack alder WV USFWS BES Soil type: C L S O Fall color:yellow to brown high wildlife valueItea virginica Height: 6-10’ Light: forested wetlands, Region: C fruit capsules on stalk; plant shrub swamps, will sucker, form thickets;tassel-white, Flowers: Jun-Jul, white Moisture: M W streambanks, States: DC DE MD tolerates flooding to 6Virginia sweetspire shallow water inches Fruit: Aug-Mar, brown, Soil pH: 5.1-7.5 VA capsule USFWS BES Soil type: C L S Fall color: red to purpleIva frutescens Height: 2-10’ Light: tidal brackish and Region: C similar to Baccharis salt marshes halimifolia but with opposite Flowers: Aug-Oct, Moisture: D M States: DE MD leaves; tolerates salinitymarsh elder, high greenish white to 15 ppt PLANTS LA, RHWtide bush Fruit: not conspicuous, Soil pH: 5-5.7 VA capsule Soil type: C L S Fall color:Kalmia Height: 2-3’ Light: pastures, barrens, Region: C foliage poisonous to hoofedangustifolia slow wooded browsers (not eaten by Flowers: May-Jul, white, Moisture: M W streams, swamp States: DC DE MD deer) pink, purple, red borders, bogs,sheep laurel, Fruit: Sep-Mar, brown, Soil pH: 4.5-6 thickets NY PA VAlambkill capsule Soil type: C L S O CM NRCS Fall color: evergreenKalmia latifolia Height: 12-20’ Light: woods, ridge tops, Region:M P C foliage poisonous to hoofed fields, swamps, browsers; PA state flowermountain laurel Flowers: May-Jul, white Moisture: D M W mountain meadows States: DC DE MD to pink/purple and slopes Fruit: May-Jun, brown, Soil pH: 4.5-6 NY PA VA capsule WV USFWS BES Soil type: C L S O Fall color: evergreen 47
  • 50. Shrubs Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesLeucothoe Height: 13’ Light: swamps, woods, Region:M P C zig-zag twigs, reddish orracemosa thickets greenish; tends to sucker, Flowers: May-Jun, white, Moisture: M W States: DC DE MD forming thickets pinkish RHW, PLANTS WSJfetterbush, Soil pH: 4.5-6 NY PA VAsweetbells Fruit: brown, capsule Soil type: C L Fall color:Lindera benzoin Height: 6.5-16’ Light: woods, wooded Region:M P C all parts edible and CM NRCS, RHW, CM NRCS slopes, dunes, aromatic; herbal usesspicebush Flowers: Mar-May, yellow Moisture: M W floodplain forests States: DC DE MD Fruit: Sep-Oct, scarlet, Soil pH: 4.5-6.5 NY PA VA berry WV Soil type: L S Fall color: yellow high wildlife valueLyonia ligustrina Height: 6-12’ Light: open areas, Region:M P C berry-like capsules persist swamps, woods through wintermale-berry Flowers: May-Jul, white Moisture: M States: DC DE MD Fruit: Sep-Mar, brown, Soil pH: 4-6 NY PA VA capsule WV Soil type: C L S O Fall color: orange to red RHWLyonia mariana Height: 0.5-6.5’ Light: swamps, moist or Region: C interesting woody capsules dry woods persist through winterstagger-bush Flowers: May-Jun, white, Moisture: D M States: DC DE MD pale pink Fruit: Sep-Feb, brown, Soil pH: 4-6 VA RHW, CM NRCS capsule Soil type: S Fall color: redMorella Height: 8-12’ Light: dry or moist Region: C glossy dark green leaves,caroliniensis thickets, woods, leaves larger than M.(Myrica Flowers: Apr-Jun, Moisture: D M W bogs States: DE cerifera, plants fullerheterophylla) yellowish-green Fruit: Sep-Apr, bluish Soil pH: 4.5-7 VAsouthern or swamp white, berry Soil type: C L Sbayberry PLANTS Fall color: evergreenMorella cerifera Height: 6-15’ Light: tidal and nontidal Region: C fragrant; loses leaves north(Myrica cerifera) fresh and brackish and west of Ches. Bay, MD Flowers: Mar-Jun, Moisture: D M W marshes, swamps, States: DE MD north; may reach 30 feet; USFWS BES, PLANTS yellowish-green sandy dune swales, can be pruned as hedge;wax myrtle, Soil pH: 5.5-7 VA Fruit: Sep-Apr, bluish upland woods nitrogen fixer; toleratessouthern white, berry salinity to 10 pptbayberry Soil type: C L S Fall color: evergreen in southern areasMorella Height: 5-10’ Light: tidal and nontidal Region: C fragrant leaves; tends topensylvanica fresh and brackish sucker and form large(Myrica Flowers: Mar-Apr, Moisture: D M W marshes, swamps, States: DC DE MD colonies; waxy berriespensylvanica) yellowish-green sand flats, dunes persist through winter; Fruit: Sep-Apr, bluish Soil pH: 5.1-6.5 NY VA tolerates salinity to 20 pptnorthern white, berry Soil type: C L Sbayberry, CM NRCScandleberry Fall color: high wildlife valuePhotinia Height: 3-6’ Light: bogs, swamps, Region:M P C can be pruned as hedgemelanocarpa springs, dunes,(Aronia Flowers: Apr-May, white Moisture: D M W cliffs, fields, States: DE MDmelanocarpa) or pink-tinged clearings, wet or Fruit: Sep-Nov, black, Soil pH: 5.1-6.5 dry thickets, creek NY PA VA berryblack chokeberry S O banks, balds, rock WV USFWS BES Soil type: C L outcroppings Fall color: crimson red48
  • 51. Shrubs Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesPhotinia pyrifolia Height: 1.5-13’ Light: forested wetlands, Region:M P C tolerates infrequent flooding(Aronia arbutifolia) shrub bogs, upland by water with some salt; Flowers: Mar-May, white, Moisture: D M W forests, fields, States: DC DE MD can be pruned as hedge purple-tinged dunes USFWS BES, VT Fruit: Sep-Dec, red, Soil pH: 5.1-6.5 NY PA VAred chokeberry berry WV Soil type: C L S Fall color: orange to redPhysocarpus Height: 5-12’ Light: thickets, along Region:M P papery bark continuallyopulifolius streams in sand or molts in thin strips; very Flowers: May-Jul, white, Moisture: M W gravel bars, rocky States: DC drought tolerant; adaptable pink slopesninebark Soil pH: 6.1-8.5 NY PA VA Fruit: Jul-Mar, orange to red, capsule WV USFWS BES Soil type: C L Fall color:yellow to purplePrunus maritima Height: 1-8’ Light: ocean dunes, Region: C edible fruit, prized for jams roadsides, and jellies; salt tolerantbeach plum Flowers: Apr-May, white Moisture: D M hedgerows States: DE MD Fruit: Aug, blue-purple, Soil pH: 5.8-7.7 fleshy Soil type: L S CM NRCS Fall color: high wildlife valueRhododendron Height: 1-2.5’ Light: coastal, sandy soils Region: C flowers very fragrant;atlanticum colonial, arising from Flowers: Apr-May, white, Moisture: M States: DE MD spreading underground GM ARS, USFWS BESdwarf or coast purple-tinged stems; Fruit: brown, capsule Soil pH: 4.2-5.7 VAazalea Soil type: S Fall color:Rhododendron Height: 5-9’ Light: open oak Region:Mcalendulaceum woods, dry rocky Flowers: May-Jun, Moisture: D M woodlands, damp States: yellow, orange, red slopes, mountainflame azalea Fruit: Aug-Feb, brown, Soil pH: 5.1-6 streambanks, heath VA capsule balds WV Soil type: C L Fall color: yellow green RHWRhododendron Height: 3-10’ Light: woods Region: Ccanescens Flowers: Apr-May, white Moisture: M States: DC DE MDsweet azalea or pink PLANTS, PLANTS Fruit: brown, capsule Soil pH: 4.2-5.7 Soil type: S Fall color:Rhododendron Height: 15-20’ Light: mountain slopes, Region:M P needs space; may formmaximum woods, sheltered dense thicket Flowers: May-Aug, white, Moisture: M W coves, ravines, States: DC MDgreat laurel, pink streamsides RHW, USFWS BES Fruit: Sep-Nov, tan to Soil pH: 4.5-6 NY PA VArosebayrhododendron red, capsule WV Soil type: L Fall color: evergreenRhododendron Height: 3-10’ Light: woods, low swampy Region:M P C will tolerate thin soils overpericlymenoides areas, limestone bedrock; open, airy quality; Flowers: Apr-May, pink, Moisture: D M W cliffs States: DC DE MD susceptible to disease and purple, white insectspinxterbloom, pink Soil pH: 4.5-5.5 NY PA VA Fruit: Aug-Mar, brown,azalea, pinxter capsule WVflower Soil type: L Fall color: dull yellow RHW 49
  • 52. Shrubs Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesRhododendron Height: 2-8’ Light: rocky or rich woods Region:M may reach 15 feet tall, butprinophyllum rarely; flowers have clove- Flowers: May-Jun, pink Moisture: D M States: like scentrose, roseshell, Fruit: May-Sep Soil pH: PA VAmountain or earlyazalea Soil type: O WV PLANTS Fall color:Rhododendron Height: 6.5-10’ Light: wet floodplain Region:M P C attractive spreading, loose-viscosum woods, branched habit; demands Flowers: May-Aug, white, Moisture: M W streambanks, States: DC DE MD acid soil; susceptible to pink swamp edges, disease and insectsswamp azalea Fruit: Aug-Mar, brown, Soil pH: 4-6 hillside bogs, ditch NY VA capsule banks, clearings Soil type: C L S O Fall color: yellow, orange, RHW to purpleRhus aromatica Height: 6’ Light: limestone cliffs, Region:M P fuzzy edible berry clusters; open upland woods, aromatic leaves; shorterfragrant sumac Flowers: Mar-May, Moisture: D rocky bluffs, oak States: DC MD cultivars available; male greenish yellow barrens, foredunes, and female separate plants Fruit: Jul-Mar, dark wine Soil pH: 6.1-8.5 barren rock NY VA red, berry WV Soil type: L S RHW, RHW Fall color: red high wildlife valueRhus copallina Height: 20-35’ Light: thickets, fields, Region:M P C forms large colonies; winter open woods, food for wildlife Flowers: Jul-Sep, Moisture: D roadsides, States: DC DE MDshining, winged,flameleaf, or dwarf greenish yellow fencerows Fruit: Oct-Nov, red, berry Soil pH: 5.3-7.5 NY PA VA RHW, CM NRCSsumac Soil type: C L S WV Fall color: rich red high wildlife valueRhus glabra Height: 2-20’ Light: dry or moist Region:M P C fuzzy berry clusters; male open areas, and female may be onsweet or smooth Flowers: Jun-Jul, Moisture: D M shale barrens, States: DC DE MD separate plants; extremelysumac greenish fields, dry open drought resistant Fruit: Aug-Oct, red, berry Soil pH: 5.3-7.5 slopes, roadsides, NY PA VA L S fencerows WV Soil type: CM NRCS Fall color: red high wildlife valueRhus hirta Height: 35-50’ Light: fields, roadsides, Region:M P C spreads by lateral roots(R. typhina) forest edges to form colonies; female Flowers: Jun-Jul, yellow- Moisture: D M States: DC DE MD plants produce seed; winter green food for wildlifestaghorn sumac Fruit: Jul-Feb, red, berry Soil pH: 4.5-7.2 NY PA VA Soil type: C L S WV Fall color: orange-red high wildlife RHW valueRibes Height: 3-6’ Light: rocky upland woods Region:M P do not use near applerotundifolium orchards; may spread Flowers: May-Jul, Moisture: D States: DC MD cedar apple rust greenish purpleAppalachian or Soil pH: 6.1-8.5 NY VA Fruit: Jul-Aug, purple oreastern gooseberry greenish, berry WV USFWS BES Soil type: C L S Fall color: redRosa carolina Height: 0.5-3’ Light: dry fields, open Region:M P C edible fruit is a berry-like woods; rocky hip; thornspasture rose Flowers: May-Jun, pale Moisture: D M banks, shale States: DC DE MD pink barrens Fruit: Aug-Mar, red, berry Soil pH: 6.1-8.5 NY VA RHW, RS MNPS Soil type: C L S WV Fall color: yellowish to high wildlife orange value50
  • 53. Shrubs Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesRosa palustris Height: 8’ Light: fresh tidal and Region:M P C edible fruit is a berry-like nontidal marshes, hip; thorns; toleratesswamp rose Flowers: Jun-Aug, pink Moisture: M W forested wetlands, States: DC DE MD flooding to 3 inches shrub swamps, Fruit: Jul-Mar, red, berry Soil pH: 4-7 streambanks NY PA VA PLANTS WSJ Soil type: C L WV Fall color: high wildlife valueRubus Height: 3-9’ Light: roadsides, fence Region:M P prickly; juicy edible fruitallegheniensis rows, fields, used by people and wildlife Flowers: May-Jun, white Moisture: D M thickets, open States: DC DE MD woods, clearings USFWS BES, RHWAllegheny Soil pH: 4.5-7.5 NY PA VA Fruit: Jul-Sep, black,blackberry berry WV Soil type: C L Fall color: orange, red, high wildlife to purple valueRubus odoratus Height: 3-6’ Light: forest edges, rocky Region:M P feels sticky; fruit edible; ledges, rocky spreads by suckerspurple flowering Flowers: Jun-Sep, rose Moisture: M wooded slopes States: DC DE MDraspberry, fragrant purple Fruit: Jul-Sep, dull red, Soil pH: 5.1-6 NY PA VAthimbleberry berry PLANTS WSJ Soil type: C L S WV Fall color: pale yellow high wildlife valueSalix humilis Height: 6-12’ Light: dry thickets, Region:M P C typically spreads up to openings, boggy twice it’s height; flowers areprairie willow Flowers: Apr-May, Moisture: D M W swales; mountain States: DC DE catkins greenish yellow ridges, barrens, Fruit: May-Jun, brown, Soil pH: 6.1-7.5 meadows, PA VA capsule PLANTS 1997 Soil type: C L S O roadsides WV Fall color: dull yellow high wildlife valueSambucus nigra Height: 6-12’ Light: fresh tidal and Region:M P C berries eaten by 48 speciesssp. canadensis nontidal marshes, of birds(S. canadensis) Flowers: Jun-Jul, white Moisture: D M W swamps, wet States: DC DE MD meadows, moist RS MNPS, USFWScommon elderberry, Fruit: Aug-Sep, purple to Soil pH: 6.1-7.5 woods, fields NY PA VAAmerican elder black, berry WV Soil type: C L S O Fall color: yellow green high wildlife valueSambucus Height: 6-12’ Light: rich woods, dry Region:M important summer wildliferacemosa rocky woods, food; one of earliestvar. racemosa Flowers: May, white Moisture: D M along creeks, rock States: blooming shrubs; fragrant(S. pubens) crevices, sheltered Fruit: Jun-Jul, red, berry Soil pH: 6.1-8.5 coves, ravines PA VAred elderberry, Soil type: L WV RHW, RHWscarlet elder Fall color: yellow green high wildlife valueSpiraea alba Height: 3-6’ Light: bogs, woods, Region:M similar to S. alba but twigsvar. latifolia barrens, swamps more purplish or red(Spiraea latifolia) Flowers: Jun-Sep, white Moisture: M States: DC DE MD or pinkishbroad-leaved Fruit: Sep-Mar, brown, Soil pH: NY VAmeadow-sweet capsule Soil type: L S WV Fall color: yellow RHWSpiraea alba Height: 3-6’ Light: bogs, swamps, Region:M bark may be shaggy, meadows orange-brownnarrow-leaved Flowers: Jun-Sep, white Moisture: M States: DC DE MDmeadow-sweet Fruit: Sep-Mar, brown to Soil pH: 6.6-7.5 NY VA red brown, capsule WV Soil type: C L S O Fall color: yellow RHW 51
  • 54. Shrubs Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesSpiraea Height: 3-6’ Light: meadows, fields, Region:M P C cultivars available withtomentosa bogs, swamps, lake white or red flowers Flowers: Jul-Sep, pink Moisture: M W edges, marshes, States: DC DE MD to purple dunes, swalessteeplebush, Fruit: Sep-Mar, brown, Soil pH: 5.1-6 NY VAhardback spirea capsule WV Soil type: C L S O Fall color: yellow green RHWStaphylea trifolia Height: 3-15’ Light: rich woods, Region:M P fruit is 3-lobed, papery, floodplain woods, balloon-like capsule;American Flowers: May, greenish Moisture: M ravines, shores of States: DC MD branches green-whitebladdernut white lakes and ponds, striped Fruit: Aug-Dec, red- Soil pH: 6.1-8 rocky wooded PA VA brown, capsule streambanks, WV Soil type: L shaded dunes Fall color: yellow RHWVaccinium Height: 1-2’ Light: dry woods, barrens, Region:M P edible berries oftenangustifolium rock outcroppings harvested, makes a nice Flowers: May-Jun, white Moisture: D M States: DC MD ground layerlowbush blueberry or pink-tinged Fruit: Jul-Aug, blue to Soil pH: 4-6 NY PA VA black, berry WV Soil type: C L S Fall color: red high wildlife BES valueVaccinium Height: 6-12’ Light: forested wetlands, Region:M P C edible berries commonlycorymbosum shrub swamps, cultivated USFWS BES, USFWS BES Flowers: Apr-Jun, white Moisture: D M W bogs, dry to wet States: DC DE MD or pink-tinged woods, thickets,highbush blueberry Soil pH: 4-6.5 NY PA VA Fruit: Jul-Aug, blue to streambanks, rock black, berry outcroppings WV Soil type: L S O Fall color: yellow to red high wildlife valueVaccinium Height: 0.5-1’ Light: sphagnum bogs, Region:M C low mat form, can spreadmacrocarpon cool swampy areas indefinitely; edible Flowers: Jun-Jul, white Moisture: W States: DC DE MD cranberries to pinkcranberry NY PA Fruit: Sep-Nov, red, berry Soil pH: 4-6 Soil type: L S O WV Fall color: dark green to RHW purple to redVaccinium Height: 1.5-2’ Light: dry woods and Region:M P C sweet berriespallidum barrens(V. vacillans) Flowers: Apr-May, white, Moisture: D M States: DC DE MD reddish Fruit: Jul-Aug, blue, Soil pH: PA VAearly lowbush berry WVblueberry Soil type: L S Fall color: high wildlife RHW valueVaccinium Height: 6-12’ Light: dry woods, Region:M P C berries edible but sourstamineum openings, barrens; Flowers: Apr-Jun, white Moisture: D M uplands, floodplain States: DC DE MD or purple forests, clearings,deerberry Fruit: Sep-Oct, bluish Soil pH: 4-6.5 thickets, rock NY PA VA black, berry outcroppings WV Soil type: C L S Fall color: red high wildlife RHW valueViburnum Height: 3-6’ Light: floodplain forests, Region:M P C dry, edible berriesacerifolium dry wooded slopes, Flowers: Jun, creamy- Moisture: D M woods,rocky States: DC DE MDmaple-leaved white, pink slopes, rock Fruit: Aug-Dec, blue to Soil pH: 5.1-6 outcrops, wooded NY PA VAarrowwood black, berry ravines WV Soil type: C L RHW, RHW Fall color: orange, red, high wildlife purple value52
  • 55. Shrubs Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesViburnum Height: 10-15’ Light: swamps, wet Region:M P C stems very straight, nicedentatum woods, bogs, structure in winter(V. recognitum) Flowers: May-Jun, white Moisture: USFWS BES, RS MNPS D M W floodplain forests, States: DC DE MD streambanks, low, Fruit: Sep-Nov, blue to Soil pH: 5.1-6.5 wet acid-sand NY PA VAsouthern black, berryarrowwood Soil type: L S O habitats WV Fall color: reddish-purple high wildlife valueViburnum nudum Height: 6-12’ Light: swamps, bogs, Region:M P C handsome stature; multiplevar. cassinoides moist woods, fruit colors at once(V. cassinoides) Flowers: May-Jun, Moisture: D M W barrens States: MD creamy white Fruit: Aug-Sep, pink to Soil pH: 5.1-6.5 PAwitherod blue-black, berry USFWS BES Soil type: L O Fall color: orange-red to purpleViburnum nudum Height: 6.5-20’ Light: wet woods, rich Region:M P C edible fruit but very acidic; upland woods, shallow fibrous roots,naked witherod, Flowers: Jun-Jul, white Moisture: M W swamps, margins of States: DC DE MD transplants wellpossum-haw to cream vernal ponds, heath Fruit: Sep-Oct, red to Soil pH: 5.1-6 bogs VAviburnum blue, then black, berry Soil type: L S Fall color: red to purple high wildlife RHW valueViburnum Height: 12-24’ Light: woods, thickets, Region:M P C fruits edible, used forprunifolium fields, roadsides preserves Flowers: Apr-May, white Moisture: D M W States: DC DE MDblack haw Fruit: Jul-Nov, pink to Soil pH: 4.8-7.5 NY PA VA bluish-black, berry WV Soil type: C L Fall color: reddish purple high wildlife RHW value Rhus copallina Rosa palustris Itea virginicaSee also:In the Trees section: Castanea pumila Cornus alternifolia Juniperus virginiana Magnolia virginiana Malus (Pyrus) coronaria Quercus ilicifolia Salix sericea CM NRCS CM NRCS USFWS BES Vaccinium corymbosum in fall. Kalmia angustifolia Kalmia latifolia USFWS BES RHW RHW 53
  • 56. Trees Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesAcer negundo Height: 30-60’ Light: along rivers, Region:M P C brittle wood; thicket-forming Spread: 30-60’ streams, ponds,box elder, ash leaf Flowers: Apr-May, yellow- Moisture: M W and seasonally States: DC DE MDmaple, Manitoba green flooded areas USFWS BES, RHW Fruit: Jul-Sep, tan brown, Soil pH: 5.2-7 NY PA VAmaple winged L WV Soil type: C S Fall color: yellow, redAcer rubrum Height: 40-100’ Light: swamps, uplands, Region:M P C earliest spring bloomer; Spread: 30-75’ rocky hillsides, adaptablered, scarlet, Flowers: Mar-Apr, Moisture: M W dunes States: DC DE MDswamp, or soft (inconspicuous) USFWS BES, RHW Fruit: Apr-Jun, red-brown Soil pH: 5.4-7.1 NY PA VAmaple or yellow, winged WV Soil type: C L S Fall color:red, orange, yellowAcer saccharinum Height: 50-100’ Light: floodplains, Region:M P Spread: 75-100’ streamsides, riversilver, white, river, Flowers: Feb-Mar, Moisture: M W bottoms, pond and States: DC DE MDor soft maple greenish yellow lake edges Fruit: Apr-May, tan Soil pH: 5.2-7.1 NY PA VA brown, winged PLANTS DEH Soil type: C L S WV Fall color: yellowAcer saccharum Height: 60-100’ Light: upland woods, Region:M P fall color; maple syrup; Spread: 50-75’ mountain coves state tree of New York andsugar maple Flowers: Apr-May, yellow- Moisture: M and slopes States: DC DE West Virginia green Fruit:Sep-Oct, green, tan Soil pH: 4-7.3 NY PA VA at maturity, winged L WV Soil type: S USDA JE Fall color: yellow, orange, high wildlife red valueAcer spicatum Height: 20-35’ Light: cool rich woods, Region:M short-lived, strong acid Spread: 20-35’ moist rocky slopes preferencemountain maple Flowers: May-Jun, Moisture: M and flats, along States: MD yellow green small streams Fruit: Jul-Sep, red or Soil pH: 5.5-7 NY PA VA yellow, winged WV Soil type: L Fall color: orange to red high wildlife RHW valueAmelanchier Height: 15-25’ Light: wooded river Region:M used by 58 wildlife species;arborea Spread: banks, swamps, 35 bird species; important Flowers: Mar-May, white Moisture: D M rocky slopes States: DC DE MD early summer food; berriesdowny serviceberry, edible to people Fruit:red to dark purple, Soil pH: 5.5-7.5 NY PA VAshadbush fleshy L WV Soil type: S Fall color: yellow, red RHWAmelanchier Height: 35-50’ Light: swamps, low Region:M P Ccanadensis Spread: 35-50’ ground, woods, Flowers: Apr-May, white Moisture: M W thickets States: DC DE MDserviceberry, Soil pH: 5.6-7.5 NY VA Fruit:Jun-Jul, red toshadbush, purple, fleshy Lshadblow Soil type: C S CM NRCS Fall color: orange to redAsimina triloba Height: 20-35’ Light: river valleys, Region: C Spread: 20-35’ bottomlands, PLANTS JSP, USFWS BESpaw-paw Flowers: Apr-Jun, purple Moisture: M understory of States: DC DE MD woods Fruit:Aug-Sep, yellow, Soil pH: 5.2-7.2 PA VA berry WV Soil type: L S Fall color: yellow/ copper- red54
  • 57. Trees Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesBetula Height: 60-80’ Light: rich uplands, Region:M fall color; attractive winteralleghaniensis Spread: 35-50’ low swamps, texture and color; prefers Flowers: Apr-May, yellow Moisture: M W streamsides, States: MD cool, moist conditions,yellow birch green elevated floodplain common on calcareous Fruit: Jul-Oct, green to Soil pH: 4.6-8 terraces and knobs NY PA VA tan, cone/cone-like WV PLANTS RM Soil type: L S Fall color: golden yellow high wildlife valueBetula lenta Height: 50-75’ Light: steep rocky Region:M P excellent fall color; prefers Spread: 35-50’ land and lower moist sites, tolerates dry;sweet birch, black Flowers: Apr-May, yellow Moisture: D M States: DE MD colonizes open or disturbedbirch, cherry birch green areas USFWS BES, RHW Fruit: Aug-Nov, green to Soil pH: 4.8-6.8 NY PA VA tan, cone/cone-like L WV Soil type: S Fall color: golden yellow high wildlife valueBetula nigra Height: 50-75’ Light: along streams, Region:M P C attractive peeling bark; Spread: 35-50’ rivers, ponds and USFWS BES, USFWS BESriver birch, red Flowers: Apr-May, dark Moisture: M W swamps States: DC DE MDbirch, black birch brown Fruit: Jun-Aug, tan brown, Soil pH: 4-6 NY PA VA cone/cone-like WV Soil type: C L Fall color: yellow high wildlife valueCarpinus Height: 13-40’ Light: river margins, Region:M P slow growing and shortcaroliniana Spread: 35-50’ bottomlands, lived Flowers: Apr-May, red or Moisture: M swamps States: DC DE MDAmerican reddish-green Fruit: Jun-Oct, nut/nut- Soil pH: 4-7.4 NY PA VAhornbeam,musclewood, like WV USFWS BES Soil type: L Sironwood Fall color: orange, redCarya alba Height: 60-100’ Light: ridges, dry hills, Region:M P C good fall color(C. tomentosa) Spread: 35-50’ hillsides Flowers: May-Jun, light Moisture: D M States: DC DE MDmockernut hickory green Fruit: Sep-Oct, light Soil pH: 6.5-7.4 NY PA VA reddish brown, nut/nut- WV USDA NRCS like Soil type: L S Fall color: yellowCarya cordiformis Height: 60-100’ Light: rich bottomlands, Region:M P C Spread: 60-100’ swamps,bitternut or swamp Flowers: Apr-May, Moisture: M W frequently States: DC DE MDhickory, pignut yellow-green flooded areas, Fruit: Aug-Oct, yellowish Soil pH: 6.5-7.4 dry hillsides NY PA VA green, nut/nut-like WV Soil type: C L S PLANTS Fall color: yellowCarya glabra Height: 60-100’ Light: dry woods on Region:M P C Spread: 35-50’ hillsides and ridgespignut, sweet Flowers: Apr-May, Moisture: D M W States: DC DE MDpignut, or smooth yellow-green Fruit: Sep-Oct, dark Soil pH: 6.5-7.4 NY PA VAbark hickory brown, nut/nut-like L WV Soil type: CM NRCS Fall color: yellowCarya ovata Height: 70-100’ Light: dry upland slopes, Region:M P C attractive peeling bark Spread: 35-50’ lowlands, valleysshagbark, Flowers: May-Jun, Moisture: M States: DC DE MDscalybark, or yellow-green Fruit: Sep-Oct, dark Soil pH: 4-6.7 NY PA VAshellbark hickory or reddish brown, WV USDA NRCS nut/nut-like Soil type: L S Fall color: brown 55
  • 58. Trees Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesCastanea pumila Height: 12-20’ Light: rocky slopes, Region:M P C sweet, edible fruit Spread: 12-20’ steep rockychinquapin, Flowers: Jun, pale yellow Moisture: D land, rocky States: DC DE MDeastern or Allegany streambanks, Fruit: Sep-Oct, dark Soil pH: 4.5-7.5 sandy ridges, VAchinkapin brown, nut/nut-like L swamp edges, WV Soil type: S open woods Fall color: yellow or RHW purpleCeltis occidentalis Height: 40-100’ Light: drainage basins, Region:M P C butterfly larval host; Spread: 40-100’ floodplains, drought tolerant; toleratescommon hackberry, Flowers: Apr-May, yellow Moisture: D M W wooded slopes, States: DC DE MD occasional flooding;sugarberry, green, brown tint high rocky saplings can sprout in Fruit: Sep-Dec, purple Soil pH: 6-7.8 limestone bluffs NY PA VA deep shade, common onnettletree brown, berry bordering streams, WV limestone soils Soil type: C L S windbreaks Fall color: yellow UWI KK high wildlife valueCercis canadensis Height: 20-35’ Light: river bottoms and Region:M P C fixes nitrogen Spread: 20-35’ streambanks USFWS BES, USFWS BESeastern redbud Flowers: Apr-May, pink to Moisture: D M States: DC DE MD lavender Fruit: Jul-Dec, black, pod Soil pH: 4.5-7.5 PA VA Soil type: L S WV Fall color: golden yellowChamaecyparis Height: 75’ Light: freshwater Region: C PLANTS 1997, PLANTS GFRthyoides Spread: swamps, woods Flowers: Mar-Apr, Moisture: M W States: DE MDAtlantic white cedar greenish brown Fruit: bluish, cone/cone- Soil pH: 4.5-5.5 VA like Soil type: C L S Fall color: evergreenChionanthus Height: 20-35’ Light: moist Region:M P Cvirginicus Spread: 20-35’ streambanks, Flowers: May-Jun, white Moisture: D M ridges, hillsides in States: DC DE MD sandy to deep-rich Soil pH: 4.5-6.5 VA USFWS RS, RHWwhite fringetree Fruit: Sep-Oct, bluish soils black, berry WV Soil type: L S Fall color: yellowCornus alternifolia Height: 15-25’ Light: dry woods, forest Region:M used by 64 wildlife species; Spread: 15-35’ edges, rocky slopes 43 bird species; keep rootalternate-leaf or Flowers: May-Jun, Moisture: M States: DE MD zone moist and acidic;pagoda dogwood creamy white tolerates full sun; young Fruit: Jul-Aug, bluish Soil pH: 5.8-7.5 NY PA VA stems often purple black, berry L WV Soil type: CM NRCS Fall color: maroon high wildlife valueCornus florida Height: 20-50’ Light: woods, woodland Region:M P C fall migrant birds eat Spread: 20-50’ edges and berries; tolerates sun, bestflowering dogwood Flowers: Apr-May, white Moisture: D M openings, States: DC DE MD in moist, well-drained, mountain slopes, acidic soil with organic RHW, USFWS RM Fruit: Sep-Dec, red to Soil pH: 5-7 coves NY PA VA matter, VA state tree orange, berry WV Soil type: L Fall color: scarlet red high wildlife valueCrataegus Height: 20-35’ Light: thickets, open Region:M P Ccrus-galli Spread: 20-35’ areas, especially in Flowers: May-Jun, white Moisture: D M dry or rocky places, States: DC DE MD low rich slopescockspur hawthorn 4.5-7.2 NY PA VA Fruit: Aug-Jan, dull red or Soil pH: green, fleshy WV Soil type: C L S USDA JE Fall color: orange to red56
  • 59. Trees Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesCrataegus viridis Height: 20-35’ Light: lowlands and Region: C Spread: valleyssouthern thorn, Flowers: Apr, white Moisture: M W States: DE MDgreen hawthorn Fruit: bright red to orange, Soil pH: 6-7.3 NY VA fleshy Soil type: C L PLANTS Fall color: purple, scarletDiospyros Height: 50-75’ Light: open, disturbed Region:M P C edible fruits PLANTS 1997, PLANTS 1997virginiana Spread: 35-50’ areas, deciduous Flowers: Jun, greenish Moisture: D M woods States: DC DE MD yellow to creamcommon Fruit: Sep-Nov, orange Soil pH: 5-7 PA VApersimmon purple, berry Soil type: C L WV Fall color:yellow or purple high wildlife valueFagus grandifolia Height: 50-100’ Light: rich uplands and Region:M P C edible nuts; attractive bark; Spread: 50-75’ lowlands leaves may persist intoAmerican beech Flowers: Apr-May, Moisture: M States: DC DE MD winter CM NRCS, CM NRCS yellow-green Fruit: Sep-Nov, orange- Soil pH: 4.1-6.5 NY PA VA green, nut/nut-like WV Soil type: L S Fall color: yellow/ tan; high wildlife retains leaves till spring valueFraxinus Height: 50-100’ Light: upland slopes, Region:M P C fast growth; fall coloramericana Spread: 50-75’ valleys, coves, Flowers: Apr-May, deep Moisture: M bottomlands States: DC DE MD purple Fruit: Aug-Feb, tan brown, Soil pH: 5-7.5 NY PA VAwhite ash winged L WV Soil type: C S UWI KJS Fall color: yellow, maroonFraxinus Height: 50-75’ Light: tidal and nontidal Region:M P C tolerates drought; toleratespennsylvanica Spread: 35-50’ freshwater infrequent flooding and Flowers: Apr-May, purple Moisture: D M W forested wetlands; States: DC DE MD some salt; male and female seasonally to flowers on separate plantsgreen ash, red ash, Fruit: Aug-Dec, tan brown, Soil pH: 5-8 regularly flooded NY PA VAswamp ash winged or saturated Soil type: C L S WV Fall color: yellow to UWI KK orangeIlex opaca Height: 15-50’ Light: sandy woods Region:M P C birds eat berries; state tree Spread: 18-40’ of DelawareAmerican holly Flowers: May-Jun, white Moisture: M States: DC DE MD or cream Fruit: red, fleshy Soil pH: 4-7.5 VA USFWS BES Soil type: C L Fall color: evergreenJuglans nigra Height: 70-90’ Light: woods, slopes, Region:M P C may stunt growth of nearby Spread: 75-100’ streamsides planstblack walnut, Flowers: May-Jun, Moisture: M States: DC DE MDAmerican walnut yellow-green Fruit: Aug-Sep, yellow- Soil pH: 5.5-8 NY PA VA green, nut/nut-like PLANTS DEH Soil type: L WV Fall color: yellowJuniperus Height: 50-75’ Light: broad range of Region:M P C berries consumed by overvirginiana Spread: 35-50’ habitats 50 species of birds; berries Flowers: Mar-Apr, red Moisture: D M States: DC DE MD have culinary use purpleeastern red cedar Soil pH: 5-8 NY PA VA Fruit: Jul-Mar, pale RHW, CM NRCS green to dark blue, cone/cone-like Soil type: C L S WV Fall color: evergreen 57
  • 60. Trees Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesLiquidambar Height: 60-100’ Light: upland woods, Region:M P Cstyraciflua Spread: 50-75’ slopes, ravines, Flowers: Apr-May, Moisture: M W floodplains, States: DC DE MDsweet gum, red yellow-green streambanks Fruit: Jul-Jan, brown, Soil pH: 4.5-7 NY VAgum, sap gum capsule Soil type: C L S CM NRCS Fall color: yellow, redLiriodendron Height: 70-100’ Light: bottomland woods, Region:M P C fast growthtulipifera Spread: 35-50’ mountain coves, Flowers: Jun, greenish Moisture: M lower slopes States: DC DE MD yellowtulip tree, tulip Soil pH: 4.5-6.5 NY PA VA Fruit: Aug-Nov, brown,poplar, yellow winged L WVpoplar Soil type: S Fall color: yellow RHWMagnolia Height: 70-100’ Light: slopes, ravines, Region:Macuminata Spread: 35-50’ valleys, DFT DL, DFT HW, DFT HW Flowers: May-Jun, Moisture: M streamsides States: MD greenish-yellowcucumber magnolia Fruit: Sep-Nov, brown Soil pH: 5.2-7 NY VA cone w/ scarlet seed, L WV Soil type: C S pod Fall color: ashy brownMagnolia Height: 12-30’ Light: forested wetlands, Region: P C semi-evergreen; fragrantvirginiana Spread: 12-30’ seeps, stream and flowers; tolerates Flowers: May-Jul, white Moisture: M W pond edges, sandy States: DC DE MD occasional flooding, some to cream woods salt RHW, USFWS BESsweetbay magnolia Fruit: Sep-Oct, red, berry Soil pH: 5-6.5 VA Soil type: C L S Fall color: semi-evergreenMalus coronaria Height: 10-30’ Light: forest edges, rocky Region:M P C flowers fragrant;(Pyrus coronaria) Spread: 20-30’ streams, fields susceptible to insects and Flowers: Apr-May, pink Moisture: M States: DC DE MD diseases; plant at least 500sweet crabapple, to white feet from cedars; attracts Fruit: Sep-Oct, greenish, Soil pH: PA VA bees and wasps; fruit sour;American crabapple fleshy PLANTS WSJ Soil type: C L S WV Fall color: high wildlife valueMorus rubra Height: 35-60’ Light: floodplains, river Region:M P C fruit sweet Spread: 35-60’ valleys, hillsidesred mulberry, moral Flowers: May-Jun, Moisture: M States: DC DE MD greenish Fruit: Jun-Jul, red, berry Soil pH: 5-7 PA VA Soil type: C L S WV Fall color: yellow UWI KKNyssa sylvatica Height: 30-75’ Light: forested seasonal Region:M P C outstanding fall color Spread: 20-50’ wetlands, swampblack gum, Flowers: Apr-Jun, Moisture: D M W borders, upland States: DC DE MDsourgum, black or greenish white woods, dry slopes; Fruit: Sep-Oct, blue-black, Soil pH: 4.5-6 seasonally flooded NY PA VA CM NRCS, RHWswamp tupelo fleshy L or saturated WV Soil type: S Fall color: red high wildlife valueOstrya virginiana Height: 25-50’ Light: slopes and ridges Region:M P C leaves may persist into Spread: 20-35’ winter Flowers: May, red-brown Moisture: M States: DC DE MDeastern hop-hornbeam, Fruit: Jun-Oct, green Soil pH: 4.2-7.6 NY PA VAironwood turning brown, nut/nut- PLANTS WSJ Soil type: C L S WV like Fall color: yellow58
  • 61. Trees Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesPinus echinata Height: 100’ Light: dry mountain Region:M P C best used for naturalizing Spread: ridges, fields,shortleaf pine, Flowers: Moisture: D M floodplains States: DC DE MDshortstraw pine, Fruit: reddish brown, Soil pH: 4.6-6 VAsouthern yellowpine cone/cone-like Soil type: C L S WV BUG RFW Fall color: evergreenPinus rigida Height: 50-75’ Light: slopes and Region:M P C many birds feed on the Spread: 50-75’ ridges of seeds; provides winterpitch pine Flowers: May, red- purple Moisture: D mountains, river States: DC DE MD cover; old trees are fire valleys, and resistant due to thick bark Fruit: light brown, cone/ Soil pH: 3.5-5.1 swamps NY PA VA cone-like WV Soil type: L S CM NRCS Fall color:evergreen high wildlife valuePinus serotina Height: 50-60’ Light: swamps, pocosins, Region: C many birds feed on the Spread: bays, pond seeds; provides winterpond pine, marsh Flowers: Moisture: M W margins, flatwoods States: DE coverpine, pocosin pine Fruit: yellowish brown, Soil pH: 4.8-6.8 PA VA cone/cone-like Soil type: L S Fall color: evergreen high wildlife value VTPinus strobus Height: 75-100’ Light: variety of Region:M P many birds feed on the Spread: 50-75’ habitats; does seeds; provides winterwhite pine, Eastern Flowers: May-Jul, red to Moisture: D M best on moist, States: DC MD coverwhite pine purplish well drained, Fruit: Aug-Oct, green to Soil pH: 4-6.5 sandy loam soils NY PA VA light brown, cone/cone- of ridges WV USDA NRCS like Soil type: L Fall color: evergreen high wildlife valuePinus taeda Height: 70-90’ Light: floodplains fields, Region: C many birds feed on the Spread: slopes seeds; provides winterloblolly, old field, or Flowers: Moisture: D M W States: DE MD coverNorth Carolina pine Fruit: yellowish, cone/ Soil pH: 4.5-7 VA cone-like USFWS BES Soil type: C L S Fall color: evergreen high wildlife valuePinus virginiana Height: 50-80’ Light: well drained sites; Region:M P C many birds feed on the Spread: often a pioneer seeds; provides winterVirginia pine, scrub Flowers: Moisture: D M species States: DC DE MD coverpine, Jersey pine Fruit: reddish brown, Soil pH: 4.5-7.5 PA VA cone/cone-like WV USDA NRCS Soil type: C L S Fall color: evergreen high wildlife valuePlatanus Height: 75-100’ Light: river bottoms, lake Region:M P C leafs out late spring; showyoccidentalis Spread: 75-100’ shores bark; leaves may persist PLANTS LA, USDA NRCS Flowers: Apr-Jun, yellow- Moisture: M W States: DC DE MD into winterAmerican green Fruit: Aug-Dec, brown, Soil pH: 4.9-6.5 NY PA VAsycamore,American planetree achene (dry, flat seed) WV Soil type: L S Fall color: yellowPopulus deltoides Height: 75-100’ Light: along waterways Region: P best used for naturalizing; Spread: 50-100’ grows fast but short livedeastern or southern Flowers: Mar-Apr, red Moisture: M W States: DC DE MDcottonwood, Fruit: May-Jul, yellow- Soil pH: 5.2-7.3 NY VACarolina poplar green, capsule WV Soil type: C L S Fall color: yellow UWI JK high wildlife value 59
  • 62. Trees Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesPopulus Height: 80’ Light: swamps and Region: Pheterophylla Spread: bottomlands Flowers: Mar Moisture: W States: DE MDswamp cottonwood, Soil pH: 4.6-5.9 VA VT, PLANTS 1997swamp poplar, Fruit: Apr-May, , capsuleblack cottonwood, Soil type: C Ldowny poplar Fall color: yellowPrunus americana Height: 20-35’ Light: woods, pastures, Region:M P edible fruit, used for making Spread: 20-35’ fencerows, pies and jelliesAmerican wild plum Flowers: Apr-May, white Moisture: D M streamsides States: DC DE MD Fruit: Aug-Sep, orange to Soil pH: 5-7 NY PA VA red, fleshy WV Soil type: L S Fall color: pale yellow high wildlife RHW valuePrunus Height: 20-35’ Light: woods Region:Mpensylvanica Spread: 20-35’ Flowers: May, white Moisture: D States: MDpin cherry, fire 4.3-6.6 NY PA VA Fruit: Jul-Sep, bright red, Soil pH:cherry fleshy WV Soil type: C L S Fall color: yellow high wildlife RHW valuePrunus serotina Height: 40-75’ Light: forests, fence Region:M P C birds eat fruit Spread: 20-35’ rows, fields, forestblack or wild cherry, Flowers: May-Jun, white Moisture: D M edges States: DC DEblack chokecherry Fruit: Aug-Sep, black, Soil pH: 5-7.5 NY VA CM NRCS, RHW fleshy WV Soil type: L Fall color: yellow/ red high wildlife valuePrunus virginiana Height: 25-50’ Light: open moist sites; Region:M fast growing, short lived; Spread: 20-35’ pioneer species fruit sometimes used forchoke cherry Flowers: May-Jun, white Moisture: M after fires States: DC DE MD making jelly Fruit: Aug-Sep, red, Soil pH: 5.2-8.4 NY PA VA black, or yellow, fleshy WV Soil type: C L S Fall color: dark red-purple RHWQuercus alba Height: 75-100’ Light: dry to moist Region:M P C acorns food for wildlife; Spread: 75-100’ woods majestic; MD state tree;white oak, stave Flowers: Mar-May, Moisture: D M States: DC DE MD leaves may persist intooak yellow-green winter Fruit: Sep-Oct, brown, Soil pH: 4.5-6.8 NY PA VA nut/nut-like WV Soil type: L S CM NRCS Fall color: red high wildlife valueQuercus bicolor Height: 60-100’ Light: bottomlands, Region:M P C acorns food for wildlife Spread: 50-75’ swamp andswamp white oak, Flowers: May, yellow- Moisture: W stream edges States: DC DE MD PLANTS RM89, OSUswamp oak green Fruit: Sep-Oct, tan Soil pH: 4.3-6.5 NY PA VA brown, nut/nut-like WV Soil type: C L S Fall color: red/brown high wildlife valueQuercus coccinea Height: 40-75’ Light: dry uplands and Region:M P C acorns food for wildlife Spread: 50-75’ slopesscarlet oak, red Flowers: May-Jun, Moisture: D M States: DC DE MDoak, black oak yellow-green Fruit: Sep-Oct, reddish Soil pH: 4.5-6.9 NY PA VA brown, nut/nut-like WV Soil type: L S CM NRCS Fall color: scarlet high wildlife value60
  • 63. Trees Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesQuercus falcata Height: 70-80’ Light: uplands Region: C acorns food for wildlife Spread:southern or swamp Flowers: Apr-May Moisture: D M States: DC DE MDred oak, Spanish Fruit: Oct, orange Soil pH: 4.8-7 VAoak brown, nut/nut-like L Soil type: C S DFT HW Fall color: brownQuercus ilicifolia Height: 12-20’ Light: barrens, balds, Region:M P leaves may persist into Spread: 12-20’ woods, dunes, winterbear oak, scrub oak Flowers: May-Jun, Moisture: D fields States: yellow-green or reddish Fruit: Sep-Jan, light Soil pH: 4-7.5 PA VA brown, nut/nut-like WV Soil type: C L S CM NRCS Fall color: yellow, scarlet high wildlife red to purplish valueQuercus Height: 35-50’ Light: woods, ridges, Region: P C acorns food for wildlife,marilandica Spread: 35-50’ slopes, sandy leaves may persist into Flowers: Apr-Jun, Moisture: D flatwoods States: DC DE MD winter yellow-greenblackjack oak, Fruit: Sep-Oct, tan brown, Soil pH: 4.6-5.6 VAJack oak nut/nut-like Soil type: L S WV CM NRCS Fall color: yellow/brown high wildlife valueQuercus Height: 50-80’ Light: bottomlands, Region:M P C acorns food for wildlifemichauxii Spread: 75-100’ ravine slopes,(Q. montana) Flowers: May, yellow- Moisture: M W flatwoods over States: DE MD green limestone Fruit: Sep-Oct, tan brown, Soil pH: 4.5-6.5 NY VAswamp chestnut PLANTS 1995oak, basket oak, nut/nut-like L WV Soil type:cow oak Fall color: red/ brown high wildlife valueQuercus Height: 35-50’ Light: rich, woods, Region:M P Cmuehlenbergii Spread: 35-50’ uplands, outcrops, Flowers: May-Jun, Moisture: D M dry bluffs, slopes States: DC MDChinquapin or yellow-greenchinkapin oak, Fruit: Sep-Oct, light Soil pH: 6.5-8 NY VAyellow oak, brown, nut/nut-likechestnut oak Soil type: L WV UWI KJS Fall color: yellow-brown high wildlife valueQuercus nigra Height: 50-80’ Light: upland woods, Region: C acorns food for wildlife Spread: bottomlands,water oak Flowers: Apr-May Moisture: M W hammocks, fields States: DC DE MD Fruit: Oct, black, nut/nut- Soil pH: 4.8-5.8 VA like Soil type: C L PLANTS LA Fall color: green persists lateQuercus palustris Height: 50-80’ Light: bottomlands or Region:M P C popular shade tree; fall Spread: 50-75’ upland flats color; acorns food forpin oak, swamp Flowers: Apr-May, Moisture: M W States: DC DE MD wildlife; leaves may persistoak, Spanish oak yellow-green into winter Fruit: Sep-Oct, light Soil pH: 4.5-6.5 NY PA VA PLANTS RM91 brown, nut/nut-like L WV Soil type: C Fall color: red high wildlife valueQuercus phellos Height: 80-100’ Light: bottomlands, low Region: P C acorns food for wildlife Spread: flatwoods, uplandwillow oak, pin oak, Flowers: Feb-May Moisture: M W fields States: DC DE MDpeach oak Fruit: light yellow or Soil pH: 4.5-5.5 VA greenish brown, WV USFWS BES Soil type: C L nut/nut-like Fall color: red 61
  • 64. Trees Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesQuercus prinus Height: 40-80’ Light: rocky ridges and Region:M P C acorns food for wildlife;(Q. montana) Spread: slopes fall color Flowers: May-Jun, Moisture: D States: DC DE MD yellowishchestnut oak, rock Fruit: Sep-Oct, Soil pH: 4.5-7 NY PA VAoak PLANTS 1997 brown, nut/nut-like L WV Soil type: S Fall color: yellow/orange high wildlife valueQuercus rubra Height: 90’ Light: slopes, coves, and Region:M P C acorns food for wildlife; Spread: drier ridges hardy and long-lived; fallnorthern red oak Flowers: Apr-May Moisture: D M States: DC DE MD color Fruit: scales reddish- Soil pH: 4.3-6.5 NY PA VA brown, nut/nut-like WV Soil type: C L UWI KJS Fall color: red or yellow high wildlife valueQuercus stellata Height: 35-50’ Light: upland dry Region:M P C acorns food Spread: 35-50’ ridges to moistpost oak, iron oak Flowers: Apr-Jun, yellow- Moisture: D M flatwoods States: DC DE MD green Fruit: Sep-Oct, light Soil pH: 4.8-7 VA brown to almost black, WV Soil type: C L S nut/nut-like CM NRCS high wildlife Fall color: brown valueQuercus velutina Height: 75-100’ Light: dry upland ridges Region:M P C acorns food for wildlife; Spread: 75-100’ and slopes, leaves may persist intoblack oak, yellow Flowers: Apr-May, Moisture: D M flatwoods States: DC DE MD winterbark oak, quercitron yellow-green Fruit: Sep-Oct, light red- Soil pH: 4.5-6 NY PA VAoak brown, nut/nut-like L WV Soil type: C S BUG DJM Fall color: red/brown high wildlife value fresh tidalSalix nigra Height: 35-50’ Light: Region:M P C streambank stabilizer; marshes and Spread: 20-35’ swamps, forested spreads by suckers;black willow, Flowers: Mar-Apr, yellow Moisture: M W wetlands, States: DC DE MD preferred food of ruffedswamp willow green floodplains, grouse and pine grosbeak; Fruit: Apr-May, green Soil pH: 6-8 NY PA VA tolerates flooding; tolerates wet meadows; yellow, cone/cone-like seasonally to WV salinity to 0.5 ppt Soil type: C L S CM NRCS Fall color: yellow green regularly flooded or saturated high wildlife valueSalix sericea Height: 12’ Light: marshes, ditches, Region:M P Spread: low woodssilky willow Flowers: Jun-Jul Moisture: M W States: DC DE MD Fruit: Soil pH: 5.2-7 NY PA VA Soil type: C L S WV CM NRCS Fall color: yellow high wildlife valueSassafras albidum Height: 35-50’ Light: moist, open woods Region:M P C edible and medicinal uses; Spread: 35-50’ provides spring and fallsassafras Flowers: Apr, yellow- Moisture: D M States: DC DE MD color green USFWS BES, RHW Fruit: Sep-Oct, dark blue, Soil pH: 4.5-7.2 NY PA VA fleshy L WV Soil type: S Fall color: yellow, orange, high wildlife purple valueSorbus americana Height: 30-40’ Light: areas from Region:M slow-growing, short-lived;(Pyrus americana) Spread: borders of not drought or heat tolerant; Flowers:May-Jul, white Moisture: M swamps to States: MD plant at least 500 feet fromAmerican mountain rocky hillsides; cedars Fruit: Aug-Dec, orange, Soil pH: 5.3-6.8 openings, VAash fleshy L uplands along WV Soil type: C S RHW, RHW forest edges, Fall color: orange, purple roadsides high wildlife value62
  • 65. Trees Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesTaxodium Height: 50-100’ Light: rivers, lake and Region: C deciduous coniferdistichum Spread: 20-35’ pond margins, USFWS BES, USFWS BES Flowers: Mar-Apr, deep Moisture: W swamps, coastal States: DE MD purple marshes, pocosins,bald cypress, Fruit: Oct-Dec, brown, Soil pH: 4.5-6 river bottoms VAcypress, swamp cone/cone-likecypress Soil type: C L S Fall color: purple to brownThuja occidentalis Height: 50-75’ Light: calcareous areas Region:M prefers wet calcareous Spread: 35-50’ areas USFWS BES, USFWS BESarborvitae, northern Flowers: May, red brown Moisture: M W States:white cedar Fruit: Aug-Dec, reddish- Soil pH: 5.2-7 NY VA brown, cone/cone-like Soil type: C L S Fall color: evergreenTilia americana Height: 70-100’ Light: woods, slopes Region:M fragrant flowers; important PLANTS DEH, PLANTS DEH Spread: 50-75’ pollen source for honeyAmerican Flowers: Jun-Jul, yellow Moisture: M States: DC DE MDbasswood, linden Fruit: Sep-Oct, tan brown, Soil pH: 4.5-7.5 NY PA VA winged WV Soil type: L S Fall color: yellow or brownTsuga canadensis Height: 75-100’ Light: cool valleys Region:M P susceptible to wooly Spread: 35-50’ adelgid and red spider mite;eastern hemlock Flowers: May-Jun, tan Moisture: M States: DE MD also T. caroliniana for VA brown Fruit: Sep-Jan, light Soil pH: 4.2-5.7 NY PA VA brown, cone/cone-like WV USDA NRCS Soil type: L S Fall color: evergreen high wildlife valueUlmus americana Height: 75-100’ Light: river bottoms, Region:M P C Dutch elm disease caused Spread: 75-100’ swamps, disturbed decline; distinctive vaseAmerican elm, Flowers: Mar-Apr, red Moisture: M W fields, road sides, States: DC DE MD shape; favorite nesting sitewhite elm, soft elm brown cutover forests of Baltimore oriole Fruit: May, tan brown, Soil pH: 5.5-8 NY PA VA winged WV USDA NRCS Soil type: C L S Fall color: bright yellow high wildlife valueUlmus rubra Height: 70’ Light: moist slopes and Region: P Spread: bottomlands, drierslippery elm, red Flowers: Mar-May Moisture: D M sites on calcareous States: DC DE MDelm, soft elm soils Fruit: winged Soil pH: 5.5-7 NY PA VA Soil type: C L S WV UWI DWW Fall color: yellow high wildlife value Ilex opacaSee also:In the Shrubs section: Hamamelis virginiana Morella (Myrica) cerifera A diverse forest offers food and cover throughout all seasons. Rhododendron maximum Cornus florida Rhus copallina, hirta (typhina) Viburnum prunifolium USFWS BES USFWS RM CM NRCS 63
  • 66. Vines Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesAristolochia Spread: Light: rich woods, Region:M occasionally escapes frommacrophylla streambanks cultivation; host for pipevine(A. durior) Flowers: May-Jun, Moisture: M States: swallowtail butterfly yellowish to purplishpipevine, Soil pH: 6.1-8.5 VADutchman’s pipe Fruit: green to brown, pod Soil type: L O WV Fall color: yellow green RHWBignonia Spread: 20-35’ Light: swampy forests, Region: C spreads across ground andcapreolata calcareous river climbs any structure it meets Flowers: May-Jun, orange Moisture: D M W banks, cliffs, dry open States: MD (control by cutting); semi- with red woods, bogs, fence evergreencrossvine Soil pH: 6.1-8.5 VA Fruit: Aug-Oct, brown, pod rows, rock outcrops USFWS BES Soil type: C L S Fall color: semi-evergreen; reddish-purpleCampsis radicans Spread: 20-35’ Light: moist woods, fence Region:M P C thick, twisted, aged woody rows, roadside vines; leaves/flowers may Flowers: Jul-Sep, orange Moisture: D M thickets, floodplain States: DC DE MD cause dermatitis (skin forests, rocky irritation)trumpet vine, Soil pH: 6.1-7.5 PA VA Fruit: Aug-Mar, brown, pod hillsides, open woods,trumpet creeper streambanks, fields USFWS BES Soil type: C L S Fall color: yellow greenCelastrus Spread: 6-20’ Light: roadsides, forest Region:M P C distinguished from nonnativescandens edges, fence rows, invasive Oriental bittersweet Flowers: May-Jun, greenish Moisture: D M pastures, hedges, States: DC DE MD by flowers/fruits in clusters PLANTS TGB, UWI DK bluffs, rocky slopes, at ends of twigsAmerican Soil pH: 6.1-7.5 NY PA VA Fruit:Sep-Dec, orange and dunes, sandy oakbittersweet woods red, capsule Soil type: C L S WV Fall color: yellowClematis viorna Spread: Light: rich wooded banks, Region: P feathery seeds thickets Flowers: May-Aug, purple Moisture: D M States: DC DE MDleather flower, Soil pH: VAvasevine Fruit: Aug-Nov, dark brown, achene (dry, flat Soil type: WV seed) RHW Fall color:Clematis Spread: 6-12’ Light: fencerows, riverbanks, Region:M P C fragrant flowers; featheryvirginiana thickets, woods edge, seeds; young plants can be Flowers: Jul-Sep, white Moisture: D M roadside swales, States: DC DE MD transplanted; yellow, green swamps, overhanging or purplish fall colorvirgin’s bower Soil pH: 6.1-8.5 NY PA VA Fruit: Aug-Nov, brown, cliffs USFWS BES achene (dry, flat seed) Soil type: C L S O WV Fall color:yellow, green or purplishLonicera Spread: 6-12’ Light: thickets, fence rows, Region:M P C flowers intermittently untilsempervirens open woods, dry stony frost; flowers/fruits present Flowers: Apr-Oct, coral to Moisture: D M woods, forest edges, States: DC DE MD together; transplants well; red with yellow cliffs may have aphids - hose RHW, USFWS BEStrumpet or coral Soil pH: 6.1-7.5 NY VA off, snip new growth andhoneysuckle Fruit: Aug-Mar, red, berry Soil type: C L S damaged buds; semi- Fall color: semi-evergreen evergreenMikania scandens Spread: Light: swamps, thickets Region:M P C vines herbaceous, not woody Flowers: Jun-Oct, pink or Moisture: M W States: DC DE MD whitishclimbing hempvine Soil pH: 5.7-7.5 NY VA Fruit: blue Soil type: C L Fall color: RHW64
  • 67. Vines Characteristics Conditions Habitat Native to Wildlife NotesParthenocissus Spread: 25-35’ Light: fence rows, forest Region:M P C bank stabilizer; control byquinquefolia edges, open woods, trimming; fruits eaten by Flowers: Jun-Aug, greenish Moisture: D M W ravines, bluffs, cliffs States: DC DE MD variety of wildlife; purple to white crimson fall color RHW, USFWS BESVirginia creeper Soil pH: 5.1-7.5 NY PA VA Fruit:Sep-Feb, bluish black, berry Soil type: C L S WV Fall color:purple to high wildlife crimson valuePassiflora Spread: Light: fields, rocky slopes, Region: C herbaceous vine; largeincarnata thin woods, roadsides, fleshy berry edible; fragrant Flowers: Jun-Sep, purple Moisture: D M fencerows, thickets States: MD and whitepassionflower, Soil pH: VAMaypops Fruit:Sep-Oct, yellow, fleshy Soil type: C L S Fall color: RHWSmilax herbacea Spread: Light: thickets, woods, Region:M P C herbaceous, climbing floodplains vine, not prickly; flower Flowers: Apr-Jun, greenish- Moisture: M States: DC DE MD malodorous; male and yellow female plants separatesmooth carrion Soil pH: NYflower Fruit:Jul-Nov, blue-black, Soil type: C L S WV RHW, RHW berry Fall color:Wisteria Spread: Light: forest and forested Region: Cfrutescens swamp edges, Flowers: Apr-Aug, lilac Moisture: M W streambanks, thickets States: DEAtlantic wisteria, Soil pH: 4-7 VAAmerican wisteria Fruit: brown, pod SMSU, SMSU Soil type: C L S Fall color: Lonicera sempervirens may bloom year-round. Characteristic pipe-shaped flower of Aristolochia macrophylla.See also:In the Herbaceous Plants section: Clitoria mariana RHW Bignonia capreolata in bloom adorns a porch. Parthenocissus quinquefolia used as a groundcover. USFWS BES USFWS BES USFWS BES 65
  • 68. Plants With a Purpose This section includes lists of plant combinations that can be used to mimic the natural communities of plants found in wetlands, meadows, forests, etc. They can be used to create, restore or enhance existing habitat for wildlife. Also included are plants that can be used in solving problems such as stabilizing soils, or for specific landscaping uses. No matter what the purpose, it is imperative that species are chosen to suit planting site conditions and the physiographic location of the site. None of these lists are complete – there are additional suitable plants in this guide (and even more native species not included in this publication) that would suit these purposes. This document is intended to give project planners guidance in choosing appropriate plants for various projects, and additional learning is encouraged. For the most ecologically “correct” habitat restoration projects, consultation with professionals is recommended, as there are other factors to consider that are not addressed here.Plants For Coastal DunesNote: the shrubs and trees listed would occur Herbaceous Plants Treeson the inner or secondary dunes and/or on Baptisia tinctoria Acer rubruminterdunal swales. Liatris pilosa v. pilosa (graminifolia) Amelanchier arborea Nuttallanthus canadensis (Linaria canadensis) Diospyros virginianaGrasses and Grasslike Plants Opuntia humifusa (compressa) Juniperus virginianaAmmophila breviligulata Oenothera biennis Pinus rigidaPanicum amarum (and var. amarulum) Solidago sempervirens Prunus pensylvanica, serotinaSpartina patens Yucca filamentosa (flaccida)Panicum virgatum Vines Shrubs Celastrus scandens Baccharis halimifolia Parthenocissus quinquefolia Morella (Myrica) cerifera, pensylvanica Prunus maritima Rhus copallina Rosa carolinaPlants For Saltwater or Brackish Water MarshesPlants in this list can be used for marsh Grasses and Grasslike Plants Herbaceous Plantsplantings or to stabilize tidal fresh, brackish Ammophila breviligulata * Agalinus purpureaor saltwater shorelines based on salinity and Distichlis spicata * Limonium carolinianumwetness tolerances. Check the salinity and Juncus canadensis Solidago sempervirens *moisture requirements given in this publication Juncus roemerianus *for each plant, so they will be planted in the Panicum amarum (and var. amarulum) * Herbaceous Emergentsappropriate conditions. Those species for use Panicum virgatum Hibiscus moscheutos (palustris)in salinity greater than 15 ppt are marked (*). Schoenoplectus pungens v. pungens (Scirpus Iris prismatica, versicolor, virginica pungens, americanus) Kosteletzkya virginica Schoenoplectus (Scirpus) validus Peltandra virginica Spartina alterniflora * Pontederia cordata Spartina cynosuroides Spartina patens * Shrubs Spartina pectinata Baccharis halimifolia * Iva frutescens * Note: Although grasslike, Distichlis, Juncus, Morella (Myrica) cerifera *, pensylvanica * Schoenoplectus, and Spartina species information can be found in the Herbaceous Emergents section of the guide.66
  • 69. Plants for Freshwater Wetlands and Other Wet SitesThe following plants may be used to create or Saxifraga pensylvanica Salix humilisenhance freshwater marshes or swamps or to Scutellaria integrifolia Sambucus nigra ssp. canadensis (S.stabilize and enhance streambanks, riverbanks Sisyrinchium atlanticum canadensis)or pond edges. Spiranthes cernua Spiraea alba v. latifolia (latifolia), tomentosa Stachys tenuifolia (hispida) Vaccinium corymbosum, macrocarponRemember to match the plants’ growth Symphyotrichum (Aster) novae-angliae, novi- Viburnum dentatum (recognitum), nudum,requirements with the site conditions. Wetness belgii nudum v. cassinoides (cassinoides),tolerated by these plants is provided in this Symplocarpus foetidus prunifoliumguide in terms of frequency and duration of soil Thalictrum pubescens (polygamum)saturation or inundation (flooding), and depth Veratrum viride Treesof standing water. Verbena hastata Acer negundo, rubrum, saccharinum Vernonia noveboracensis Amelanchier canadensisFerns Veronicastrum virginicum (Veronica virginica) Betula alleghaniensis, nigraAthyrium filix-femina Viola conspersa, cucullata, striata Carpinus carolinianaDryopteris carthusiana (spinulosa), cristata, Carya cordiformis, glabra intermedia Herbaceous Emergents Celtis occidentalisOnoclea sensibilis Dulichium arundinaceum Chamaecyparis thyoidesOsmunda cinnamomea, regalis Hibiscus moscheutos (palustris) Crataegus viridisPteridium aquilinum Iris prismatica, versicolor, virginica Fraxinus pennsylvanicaThelypteris noveboracensis, palustris Juncus effusus Liquidambar styracifluaWoodwardia areolata, virginica Justicia americana Magnolia virginiana Nuphar lutea (advena) Nyssa sylvaticaGrasses and Grasslike Plants Nymphaea odorata Pinus serotina, strobus, taedaAgrostis perennans Orontium aquaticum Platanus occidentalisAndropogon gerardii, glomeratus, virginicus Peltandra virginica Populus deltoides, heterophyllaCalamagrostis canadensis Pontederia cordata Quercus bicolor, michauxii (montana), nigra,Carex crinita var. crinita, lurida, stricta, Sagittaria latifolia palustris, phellos vulpinoidea Saururus cernuus Salix nigra, sericeaDichanthelium clandestinum Schoenoplectus (Scirpus) validus Taxodium distichumElymus riparius Scirpus atrovirens, cyperinus Thuja occidentalisFestuca rubra Sparganium americanum Tsuga canadensisLeersia oryzoides Spartina pectinata Ulmus americanaPanicum virgatum Zizania aquaticaSaccharum giganteum (Erianthus giganteus) VinesTripsacum dactyloides Shrubs Bignonia capreolata Alnus serrulata Mikania scandensHerbaceous Plants Cephalanthus occidentalis Parthenocissus quinquefoliaArisaema triphyllum Clethra alnifolia Wisteria frutescensAsclepias incarnata Cornus amomumCaltha palustris Gaylussacia baccata, frondosaChelone glabra Hypericum densiflorumConoclinium (Eupatorium) coelestinum Ilex verticillataDoellingeria umbellata var. umbellata (Aster Itea virginica umbellatus) Kalmia angustifolia, latifoliaEupatorium dubium, perfoliatum Leucothoe racemosaGentiana clausa Lindera benzoinHelianthus angustifolius Lyonia ligustrinaHeracleum maximum (lanatum) Morella (Myrica ) caroliniensis (heterophylla),Impatiens capensis (biflora) cerifera, pensylvanicaLobelia cardinalis, siphilitica Photinia (Aronia) melanocarpa, pyrifoliaMertensia virginica (arbutifolia)Mimulus ringens Physocarpus opulifoliusMonarda didyma Rhododendron maximum, periclymenoides,Packera aurea (Senecio aureus) viscosumPhlox maculata Rosa palustrisRudbeckia laciniata Rubus allegheniensis 67
  • 70. Plants Appropriate for Bogs or Bog GardensFernsAthyrium filix-femina Herbaceous Emergents TreesOnoclea sensibilis Dulichium arundinaceum Acer rubrumOsmunda cinnamomea Juncus effusus Chamaecyparis thyoidesThelypteris noveboracensis , palustris Orontium aquaticum Nyssa sylvaticaWoodwardia areolata Sagittaria latifolia Scirpus atrovirens, cyperinus VinesGrasses and Grasslike Plants Sparganium americanum Bignonia capreolataCalamagrostis canadensisCarex stricta ShrubsLeersia oryzoides Clethra alnifolia Gaultheria procumbensHerbaceous Plants Hypericum densiflorumArisaema triphyllum Kalmia angustifoliaCaltha palustris Morella caroliniensis (Myrica heterophylla)Chelone glabra Photinia (Aronia) melanocarpa, pyrifoliaDoellingeria umbellata var. umbellate (Aster (arbutifolia) umbellatus) Rhododendron viscosumEupatorium dubium, perfoliatum Salix humilisGentiana clausa Spiraea alba, alba v. latifolia (latifolia)Saxifraga pensylvanica Spiraea tomentosaScutellaria integrifolia Vaccinium corymbosum, macrocarponSpiranthes cernua Viburnum dentatum (recognitum), nudum,Symplocarpus foetidus nudum v. cassinoides (cassinoides)Veratrum virideViola cucullataPlants for Dry MeadowsGrasses and Grasslike PlantsAndropogon gerardii Lespedeza capitataDanthonia spicata Liatris spicata, squarrosa ShrubsElymus canadensis, riparius, virginicus Lupinus perennis Note: Listed are a few of the shorter shrubsSchizachyrium scoparium (Andropogon Monarda bradburiana (fistulosa), punctata that may appear in or at the edges of scoparius) Nuttallanthus (Linaria)canadensis meadows. Using shrubs in a planting that isSorghastrum nutans Oenothera biennis, fruticosa, perennis to remain as a meadow is not recommended,Tridens flavus Penstemon digitalis as they provide perching spots for birds, Pycnanthemum incanum whose droppings will seed in unwanted plants,Herbaceous Plants Rudbeckia fulgida, hirta, triloba including trees. If the meadow is to be allowedAgeratina altissima v. altissima (Eupatorium Solidago canadensis, canadensis v. scabra to succeed eventually to forest, then adding rugosum) (altissima), juncea, nemoralis, speciosa shrubs is one prescribed method.Antennaria neglecta Symphyotrichum (Aster) cordifolius, ericoidesAsclepias syriaca, tuberosa var. ericoides, laeve var. laeve (laevis), Ceanothus americanusChamaecrista (Cassia) fasciculata novae-angliae Comptonia peregrinaConoclinum (Eupatorium) coelestinum Rhus glabraCoreopsis tripteris, verticillata Rosa carolinaDesmodium paniculatum Rubus allegheniensisDodecatheon meadiaErigeron pulchellusEupatorium hyssopifolium, purpureumHeliopsis helianthoidesIonactis (Aster) linariifolius68
  • 71. Plants for Wet MeadowsFerns Herbaceous Emergents Eupatorium fistulosum, maculatum, perfoliatum Iris prismatica, versicolor, virginicaOnoclea sensibilis Helenium autumnale Juncus effususOsmunda cinnamomea Impatiens capensis (I. biflora) Scirpus atrovirens, cyperinusThelypteris palustris Lilium canadense, superbum Spartina pectinata Lobelia cardinalis, siphiliticaGrasses and Grasslike Plants Mimulus ringens ShrubsAndropogon gerardii, virginicus Packera aurea (Senecio aureus) Note: Listed are a few of the shorter shrubsCalamagrostis canadensis Phlox maculata that may appear in or at the edges ofCarex glaucodea, stricta Rudbeckia laciniata meadows. Using shrubs in a planting that isElymus riparius Sabatia angularis to remain as a meadow is not recommended,Leersia oryzoides Scutellaria integrifolia as they provide perching spots for birds,Panicum virgatum Silphium perfoliatum whose droppings will seed in unwanted plants,Tripsacum dactyloides Sisyrinchium atlanticum including trees. If the meadow is to be allowed Solidago rugosa to succeed eventually to forest, then addingHerbaceous Plants Spiranthes cernua shrubs is one prescribed method.Agalinis purpurea Stachys tenuifolia (hispida)Asclepias incarnata Symphyotrichum (Aster) novi-belgii Cephalanthus occidentalisCaltha palustris Thalictrum pubescens (polygamum) Ilex verticillataDoellingeria umbellata var. umbellata (Aster Verbena hastata Rhododendron viscosum umbellatus) Viola conspersa Rosa palustrisGentiana clausa Viola striata Spiraea tomentosaPlants for Forest or Woodland PlantingsForests contain a diversity of plant types of developing the ground layer, and for morearranged in vertical layers, from the tallest comprehensive forest community information.(canopy or overstory) trees, through theunderstory of shorter trees and shrubs, to the Forest Types, Basic Structure Understory shrubsforest floor or ground layer of low shrubs and Comptonia peregrinaherbaceous plants. Forest types are classified Oak-Mixed Forest (Coastal Plain) Gaylussacia frondosaby the dominant trees present (e.g., oak- Canopy trees for well-drained sites Ilex glabrahickory-pine forest). Plant species occurring Carya cordiformis, tomentosa Kalmia angustifolia, latifoliatogether in these different forest types are a Quercus alba, falcata, marilandica, phellos, Morella (Myrica) cerifera, pensylvanicafunction of the climate, altitude, geology and prinus, stellata, velutina Vaccinium pallidum (vacillans), stamineumphysiographic location, soil type, moisture, Pinus species, occasional intermixed withsunlight, and other conditions. So many Viburnum dentatum (recognitum), prunifolium the abovecombinations of plants occur in these differentforests that space limitations prevent listing Canopy trees for moist sitesthem all. Instead, the following represent Pine Forest (Coastal Plain) Acer rubrumplants found in a few of the more common Overstory trees Fagus grandifoliaforest types in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Pinus taeda, virginiana, rigida (occasional) Quercus bicolor, michauxii, nigra, palustris,These lists provide the basis for a viable forest phellosor woodland project. Common ferns, grasses Understory trees Liquidambar styracifluaand herbaceous plants for the ground layer are Ilex opaca Liriodendron tulipiferalisted separately, as they may occur in many Sassafras albidum Nyssa sylvaticaof the forest types in various combinations.Remember to match the plants’ growth Understory shrubs Understory trees Clethra alnifoliarequirements with the site conditions. Asimina triloba Morella (Myrica) cerifera, pensylvanica Cercis canadensis Rhus copallinaFor new projects at open sites, it may take Cornus floridayears for young trees to provide adequate Ilex opacashade. Consult other restoration resources Magnolia virginianaand/or professionals for alternative methods 69
  • 72. Understory trees and shrubs Woodland Floor or Ground Layer Plants Amelanchier species These plants can also be used for gardens inOak-Hickory Forest (Piedmont and Mountain, Carpinus caroliniana or adjacent to wooded areas. Refer to specific occasional on Coastal Plain) Hamamelis virginiana habitat and growing conditions to match plants Dominant overstory trees Lindera benzoin in appropriate groupings. Carya cordiformis, ovata Quercus alba, prinus, rubra, velutina Viburnum acerifolium, dentatum (recognitum) Ferns All species included in this guide occur in Other trees woodlands. Amelanchier arborea, canadensis Carya alba, glabra, tomentosa Hemlock-White Pine Forest (Mountain) Dominant overstory trees Grasses and Grasslike Plants Celtis occidentalis Acer saccharum Agrostis perennans Cercis canadensis Betula alleghaniensis (lutea) Andropogon gerardii Cornus florida Fagus grandifolia Carex crinita var. crinita, glaucodea, lurida, Crataegus viridis Pinus strobus pensylvanica, vulpinoidea Fraxinus Americana Tilia americana Chasmanthium latifolium Juglans nigra Tsuga canadensis Danthonia spicata Prunus serotina also Picea rubens (red spruce, not included Dichanthelium clandestinum, commutatum Quercus coccinea, falcata, lyrata, in this guide, but native in the Bay Elymus hystrix (Hystrix patula) marilandica, watershed in mountain region) Festuca rubra muhlenbergii, stellata Panicum virgatum Sassafras albidum Tilia americana Other trees Saccharum giganteum (Erianthus giganteus) Acer rubrum Schizachyrium scoparium (Andropogon Ulmus Americana Betula lenta scoparius) Liriodendron tulipifera Sorghastrum nutans Additional trees for more moist sites Quercus rubra, velutina Tridens flavus Acer rubrum Tripsacum dactyloides Liquidambar styraciflua Liriodendron tulipifera Shrubs Hamamelis virginiana Herbaceous Plants Ulmus americana Rhododendron maximum Actaea pachypoda Viburnum acerifolium Ageratina altissima v. altissima (Eupatorium Shrubs rugosum) Kalmia latifolia Aquilegia canadensis Vaccinium angustifolium, corymbosum, pallidum (vacillans), stamineum Mixed Mesophytic Forest (Mountain) Aralia nudicaulis, racemosa These forests are relicts of ancient mesic Arisaema triphyllum Viburnum acerifolium (moist) broadleaf deciduous forests. They can Aruncus dioicus be very diverse. Asarum canadenseRed Oak - Mixed Hardwood Forest Dominant overstory trees Campanulastrum americanum (Campanula Acer saccharum americana)(Piedmont) Betula lenta Cardamine concatenata (Dentaria laciniata) Dominant overstory trees Carya ovata Caulophyllum thalictroides Acer rubrum Carpinus caroliniana Chelone glabra Carya ovata, tomentosa Fagus grandifolia Chimaphila maculata Betula alleghaniensis (lutea), lenta Fraxinus americana Chrysogonum virginianum Fraxinus americana Juglans nigra Cimicifuga racemosa Fagus grandifolia Liriodendron tulipifera Claytonia virginica Liriodendron tulipifera Magnolia acuminata Delphinium tricorne Quercus alba, rubra, velutina Prunus serotina Dicentra canadensis, cucullaria, eximia Pinus strobus* Quercus rubra Erythronium americanum Tsuga canadensis* Tilia americana Eurybia divaricata (Aster divaricatus) Geranium maculatum* These would be in the Hemlock-White Pine-Red Oak-Mixed Hardwood Forest (Piedmont Understory trees and shrubs Helenium autumnale Cercis canadensis Helianthus divaricatusand Mountain regions). Hamamelis virginiana Heliopsis helianthoides Hydrangea arborescens Hepatica nobilis var. acuta (acutiloba), var. Lindera benzoin obtusa (americana) Rhododendron maximum Heracleum maximum (lanatum) Staphylea trifolia Heuchera americana, villosa (continued)70
  • 73. Hydrophyllum virginianum Penstemon laevigatus Tradescantia virginianaImpatiens capensis (biflora) Phlox carolina, divaricata, stolonifera Trillium erectum, grandiflorum, sessile,Ionactis (Aster) linariifolius Podophyllum peltatum undulatumJeffersonia diphylla Polemonium reptans Uvularia grandiflora, perfoliata, sessilifoliaLiatris scariosa Polygonatum biflorum, pubescens Veratrum virideLilium canadense, philadelphicum Sanguinaria canadensis Viola conspersa, hastata, pubescensMaianthemum canadense, racemosum Saxifraga pensylvanica, virginiensis (pennsylvanica), sororia (papilionacea), striata (Smilacina racemosa) Scutellaria integrifolia Zizia aureaMedeola virginiana Sedum ternatumMelanthium virginicum Silene caroliniana, stellata, virginica VinesMertensia virginica Solidago caesia, flexicaulis, rugosa Any of the vines included in this guide mayMitchella repens Stachys tenuifolia (hispida) be found in woodlands, occupying variousMitella diphylla Stellaria pubera vegetative layers, from the ground up.Monarda didyma Thalictrum dioicum, pubescens (polygamum),Osmorhiza longistylis thalictroides (Anemonella t.)Oxalis violacea Tiarella cordifoliaPackera aurea (Senecio aureus)Solutions for SlopesSlopes of any kind are prone to erosion from rain, runoff; wave action, stream or river currents, and foot or lawnmower traffic. Plants with deep,spreading root systems help prevent erosion by holding soil in place. Some plants that are particularly well suited to and recommended for holding orstabilizing soils on a dry upland slope or hillsides such as a sloping yard or road embankment are listed below.However, any plant suited to the site’s sun, soil, and moisture conditions that could be planted on a flat surface could be planted on a slope, as longas the slope is accessible. Plants that naturally occur on slopes or hillsides can be found by searching the “habitat” notes provided with each plant inthis guide.For plants to use on a tidal shoreline, see the list of saltmarsh or freshwater marsh plants. For plants to use on a stream, pond or riverbank, see thelist of freshwater marsh plants.Plants That Provide Stabilization on Dry, Sunny Slopes or HillsidesGrasses & Grasslike Plants Hypericum densiflorum Castanea pumilaAmmophila breviligulata Kalmia latifolia Celtis occidentalisAndropogon gerardii Morella pensylvanica Chionanthus virginicusDichanthelium clandestinum Physocarpus opulifolius Cornus alternifolia, floridaElymus canadensis Rhus aromatica Crataegus crus-galliPanicum virgatum Rhus copallina Fraxinus americanaPanicum amarum Rhus glabra Juglans nigraSchizachyrium scoparium Rosa carolina Liquidambar styraciflua Rubus allegheniensis Liriodendron tulipiferaHerbaceous Plants Vaccinium angustifolium Magnolia acuminataAny of the herbaceous plants that thrive in a Viburnum acerifolium Morus rubrasunny, dry site tend to be deep-rooted and Nyssa sylvaticawould provide good slope stabilization. See Ostrya virginianathe dry meadow plants list on for additional Trees Pinus rigida, taedachoices. The following are some of the tree species that Quercus coccinea may occur on slopes. However, for stabilization Quercus marilandica, michauxii, muehlenbergii,Baptisia tinctoria purposes, practitioners recommend planting prinus, rubra, velutinaLespedeza capitata herbaceous plants and shrubs, as trees will Sorbus (Pyrus) americanaChamaecrista (Cassia) fasciculata appear in time through succession. Ulmus rubraShrubs Acer rubrum, saccharum, spicatum VinesComptonia peregrina Amelanchier arborea Campsis radicansCeanothus americanus Betula lenta Celastrus scandensClethra alnifolia Carya alba (tomentosa), cordiformis, glabra, Passiflora incarnataCornus racemosa ovata Parthenocissus quinquefoliaGaylussacia baccata, frondosa 71
  • 74. Evergreens TreesFerns Silene caroliniana Chamaecyparis thyoidesAsplenium platyneuron Solidago sempervirens Ilex opacaDryopteris carthusiana (spinulosa), cristata, Yucca filamentosa (flaccida) Juniperus virginiana intermedia, marginalis Magnolia virginianaPolystichum acrostichoides Shrubs Pinus any species in this guide Gaultheria procumbens Thuja occidentalisHerbaceous Plants Ilex glabra Tsuga canadensisAsarum canadense Kalmia angustifolia, latifoliaGoodyera pubescens Morella (Myrica) caroliniensis (heterophylla), VinesHeuchera americana cerifera Bignonia capreolataMitchella repens Rhododendron maximum Lonicera sempervirensPhlox carolina, stolonifera, subulata Vaccinium macrocarponSedum ternatumPlants to use as GroundcoversFerns Erigeron pulchellus Silene carolinianaAny species in this guide Eurybia divaricata (Aster divaricatus) Tiarella cordifolia Geranium maculatum Uvularia sessilifoliaGrasses and Grasslike Plants Hepatica nobilis var. acuta (acutiloba), nobilis Viola conspersa, cucullata, hastata, pedataCarex glaucodea, pensylvanica var. obtusa (americana)Danthonia spicata Heuchera americana, villosa ShrubsFestuca rubra Hylotelephium (Sedum) telephioides Gaultheria procumbens Maianthemum canadense Vaccinium angustifolium, macrocarponHerbaceous Plants Mitchella repens Vaccinium pallidum (vacillans)Aquilegia canadensis Opuntia humifusa (compressa)Asarum canadense Oxalis violacea VinesChimaphila maculata Phlox carolina, stolonifera, subulata Bignonia capreolataChrysogonum virginianum Podophyllum peltatum Campsis radicansChrysopsis mariana Polemonium reptans Celastrus scandensCoreopsis verticillata Sedum ternatum Parthenocissus quinquefoliaPlants for Spring and Fall ColorA search through this guide will reveal literally hundreds of plants of all types that will flower or fruitin spring or fall, providing a wide variety of choices to color a native landscaping project and tooffer a diversity of food for wildlife. Remember to consider trees, shrubs and vines when choosingplants for their flower color; and to include fruit color in the palette. The fall color of many plants,particularly grasses, trees, shrubs and vines adds interest to the landscape. A landscape plannedfor seasonal color, throughout all seasons of the year, can also provide year-round food, coverand nesting structure for wildlife.72
  • 75. Deer Resistant PlantsGardeners challenged by browsing deer often look for a definitive list of plants that deer will leavealone. Unfortunately, deer are not quite that predictable. In areas where high populations of deerhave over-browsed the woodland understory, they are likely to eat any plant they can find tosurvive. Gardeners and habitat restorationists are strongly encouraged to use other appropriatebarriers to exclude deer, in consultation with a local wildlife agency. Plants marked with anasterisk (*) may be browsed occasionally.The list below was compiled from Bowman’s Hill Wildflower Preserve and Deer Proofing Your Yard(Hart), see references.Grasses and Grasslike Plants ShrubsAndropogon gerardii Aralia spinosa VinesPanicum virgatum Clethra alnifolia Celastrus scandens Cornus amomum Clematis virginiana *Herbaceous Plants Hamamelis virginiana Lonicera sempervirensActaea pachypoda Hypericum densiflorum Wisteria frutescens *Allium cernuum Ilex glabra, laevigata, verticillataAquilegia canadensis Kalmia latifoliaArisaema triphyllum Leucothoe racemosaAruncus dioicus Lindera benzoinAsarum canadense * Morella (Myrica) cerifera, pensylvanicaAsclepias tuberose Ribes rotundifoliumBaptisia australis Spiraea alba, alba v. latifolia (latifolia),Campanulastrum americanum (Campanula tomentosa americana) Viburnum acerifolium, dentatum (recognitum),Coreopsis tripteris prunifoliumDicentra eximiaGeranium maculatum TreesHelenium autumnale Acer negundo, rubrumHibiscus moscheutos (H. palustris) Amelanchier canadensisJeffersonia diphylla Betula nigraLobelia cardinalis *, siphilitica * Carpinus carolinianaLupinus perennis Cercis canadensisMonarda didyma Cornus alternifoliaPhlox divaricata, stolonifera Cornus florida *Podophyllum peltatum * Diospyros virginianaPolemonium reptans Fagus grandifoliaRudbeckia fulgida, hirta Fraxinus americana, pennsylvanicaSolidago species Ilex opacaSymphyotrichum (Aster) novae-angliae Juniperus virginianaVeronicastrum virginicum (Veronica virginica) Magnolia acuminata, virginiana Nyssa sylvaticaHerbaceous Emergents Pinus — any species in this guideIris prismatica, versicolor, virginica Quercus — any species in this guide Sambucus racemosa v. racemosa (S. pubens) 73
  • 76. Photographic Credits All photographs in this publication were used with permission of the photographers. Most images are copyrighted by the photographers and/or the sources listed below, and may not be used for commercial purposes without prior written permission of the copyright holders. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is grateful for the generosity and cooperation of these photographers. Each photograph is marked with an abbreviated form for the corresponding photographer, due to space limitations. Those abbreviations are listed here in alphabetical order, followed by the full credit information.The Bugwood Network and Forestry Images Image PLANTS USDA-NRCS. 2003. The PLANTS Database, UCONN Mark Brand, UConn Plant Database,Archive and Database Systems, The University of plants.usda.gov/plants. National Plant Data University of Connecticut. www.hort.uconn.Georgia-Warnell School of Forest Resources and College Center. Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA. edu/plants/about.htmlof Agricultural and Environmental Sciences-Department of PLANTS Database images that were used inEntomology. www.bugwood.org this guide were contributed by the following: USDA NRCS U.S. Department of Agriculture, NaturalBUG DJM David J. Moorhead PLANTS 1995 U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service, NationalBUG RFW Robert F. Wittwer Resources Conservation Service. 1995 Plant Materials Center, Beltsville, MD. www. Midwestern Wetlands Flora. plantmaterials.nrcs.usda.gov/mdpmcBZ Bob Zuberbuhler, www.westernpawildflowers. PLANTS 1997 U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural USDA JE John Englert com Resources Conservation Service. 1997 USDA JK Jennifer Kujawski Northeastern Wetlands Flora. USDA MG Martin van der GrintenCAB Carole Ann Barth, Heal Earth Gardens, Silver PLANTS DEH Herman, D.E. et.al. 1996 North Dakota Spring, Maryland. Tree Handbook. USDA NRCS. ND State USFWS U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Soil Conservation Committee. NDSU Chesapeake Bay Field Office, Annapolis,CM NRCS Christopher F. Miller, Regional Plant Materials Extension and Western Area Power MD 21401. www.fws.gov/r5cbfo Specialist, U.S. Department of Administration. Bismark, ND. USFWS BES Britt Slattery Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation PLANTS DL Douglas Ladd. U.S. Department of USFWS RL Randy Loftus Service, Somerset, New Jersey. Agriculture Soil Conservation Service. 1989 USFWS RM Rich Mason Midwest Wetland Flora: Field Office USFWS RS Rich StarrDigital Flora of Texas Vascular Plant Image Library. Illustrated Guide to Plant Species. Midwestwww.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/galfolks.htm, or National Technical Center, Lincoln, NE. University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin State Herbarium,www.texasflora.org PLANTS GAM Gary A. Monroe Madison, WI 53706-1381. www.botany.wisc.edu/herbariumDFT DL David Lemke, The State University-San PLANTS GFR George F. Russell UWI AH Andrew Hipp, University of Wisconsin- Marcos, Department of Biology Herbarium. PLANTS JA Jennifer Anderson Madison.DFT HW Hugh Wilson, TAMU Herbarium, Texas A&M PLANTS JS Jim Stasz UWI DK Darrin Kimbler, University of Wisconsin- University. PLANTS JSP J.S. Peterson Madison. PLANTS LA Larry Allain UWI DWW Dennis W. Woodland, Andrews University.GM ARS George McLellan, Species Study Group PLANTS RM89 Robert H. Mohlenbrock. U.S. Department UWI EJJ Emmet J. Judziewicz University of Wisconsin- of the Middle Atlantic Chapter, American of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. Stevens Point and Madison. Rhododendron Society. tjhsst.edu/~dhyatt/ 1989 Midwest Wetland Flora: Field Office UWI JK John Kohout, donated to Wisconsin azaleas/atlanticum.html Illustrated Guide to Plant Species. Midwest Department of Natural Resources. National Technical Center, Lincoln, NE. UWI JRS James R. Sime, Middleton, Wisconsin.MOBOT Missouri Botanical Garden. www.mobot.org/ PLANTS RM91 Robert H. Mohlenbrock. U.S. Department UWI JS Janice Stiefel, Bailey’s Harbor, Wisconsin. gardeninghelp/plantfinder/service.shtml. Digital of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. UWI KJS Kenneth J. Sytsma, University of Wisconsin- images in this database were contributed by 1991 Southern Wetland Flora: Field Office Madison. Martha Hill, Glenn Kopp and Alan Stentz. Guide to Plant Species. South National UWI KK Kitty Kohout, donated to Wisconsin Technical Center, Fort Worth, TX. Department of Natural Resources.MP Dan Tanaglia, Missouriplants. www. PLANTS RM95 Robert H. Mohlenbrock. U.S. Department UWI MC Michael Clayton, University of Wisconsin- missouriplants.com of Agriculture,Natural Resources Madison. Conservation Service. 1995 Northeast UWI MRB Merel R. Black, University of Wisconsin-NYNHP Stephen M. Young, New York Natural Heritage Wetland Flora: Field Guide to Plant Madison. Program. www.dec.state.ny.us/website/dfwmr/ Species. Northeast Technical Center, UWI RRK Robert R. Kowal, University of Wisconsin- heritage Chester, PA. Madison. PLANTS TGB Thomas G. Barnes UWI RWF Robert W. Freckmann, University ofOSU Scott Biggs, Ohio State University. PLANTS WSJ William S. Justice Wisconsin-Stevens Point. http://PlantFacts.osu.edu UWI TK Tim Kessenich, Wisconsin Department of RHW R. Harrison Wiegand, Maryland Department Natural Resources. of Natural Resources, Wildlife and Heritage Service. www.dnr.state.md.us VT Virginia Tech (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University), College of Natural RS MNPS Rod Simmons, Maryland Native Plant Society. Resources, Forest Biology and Dendrology www.mdflora.org Educational Sites. www.cnr.vt.edu/dendro/ wwwmain.html SMSU Paul Redfearn, Ozarks Regional Herbarium, Southwest Missouri State University. biology.smsu.edu/Herbarium74
  • 77. ReferencesBowman’s Hill Wildflower Preserve. Deer Tolerant/Resistant Native Plants (information sheet).New Hope, PA. 2002.Brown, Russel G. and Melvin L. Brown. Herbaceous Plants of Maryland. Port City Press,Baltimore, MD. 1984.Brown, Russel G. and Melvin L. Brown. Woody Plants of Maryland. Port City Press, Baltimore,MD. 1972.Burrell, C. Colston. A Gardener’s Encyclopedia of Wildflowers: An Organic Guide to Choosing andGrowing over 150 Beautiful Wildflowers. Rodale Press, Inc., Emmaus, PA. 1997.Dirr, Michael A. Manual of Woody Landscape Plants. Fifth Edition. Stipes Publishing LLC,Champaign, IL. 1998.Elias, Thomas S. The Complete Trees of North America. Gramercy Publishing Company, NewYork, NY. 1987.Flora of North America Editorial Committee. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Volume 2:Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. Oxford University Press, New York, NY. 1993.Fernald, Merritt L. Gray’s Manual of Botany. Eighth Edition. D. Van Nostrand Company, New York,NY. 1970.Fike, Jean. Terrestrial and Palustrine Plant Communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Bureauof Forestry, Harrisburg, PA, The Nature Conservancy, Middletown, PA and Western PennsylvaniaConservancy, Pittsburgh, PA. 1999.Gleason, Henry A. and Arthur Cronquist. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United Statesand Adjacent Canada. Willard Grant Press, Boston, MA 1963.Harlow, William M., Ellwood S. Harrar, James W. Hardin, and Fred M. White. Textbook ofDendrology Eighth Edition. McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, NY. 1996.Hart, Rhonda Massingham. Deer-Proofing Your Yard & Garden. Storey Books, Pownal, VT. 1997.Hightshoe, Gary L. Native Trees, Shrubs, and Vines for Urban and Rural America. Van NostrandReinhold, New York, NY. 1988.Johnson, Lorraine. 100 Easy-To-Grow Native Plants For American Gardens in Temperate Zones.Firefly Books Ltd., Buffalo, NY. 1999.Jones, Samuel B. Jr. and Arlen E. Luchsinger. Plant Systematics. Second Edition. McGraw-HillBook Company, New York, NY. 1986.Kricher, John C. The Peterson Field Guide Series. A Field Guide to Eastern Forests: NorthAmerica. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA. 1988.Little, Elbert L. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Trees: Eastern Region. AlfredA. Knopf, Inc., New York, NY. 1980.Luttenberg, Danielle, Deborah Lev and Michael Feller. Native Species Planting Guide for NewYork City and Vicinity. City of New York Parks and Recreation, New York, NY. 1993.Magee, Dennis W. Freshwater Wetlands: A Guide to Common Indicator Plants of the Northeast.University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst, MA. 1981. 75
  • 78. Martin, Alexander C. and A. L. Nelson. American Wildlife and Plants: A Guide to Wildlife Food.Dover Publications, Minneola, NY. 1985.Newcomb, Lawrence. Newcomb’s Wildflower Guide. Little, Brown and Company, Boston, MA.1977.Niering, William A. The Audubon Society Nature Guides: Wetlands. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., NewYork, NY. 1985.Phillips, Ellen and C. Colston Burrell. Rodale’s Illustrated Encyclopedia of Perennials. RodalePress, Inc., Emmaus, PA. 1993.Redington, Charles B., Ph.D. Plants in Wetlands. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque,IA. 1994.Reed, Clyde F. The Ferns and Fern Allies of Maryland and Delaware including District ofColumbia. The Science Press, Lancaster, PA. 1953.Rhoads, Ann F. and Timothy A. Block. The Plants of Pennsylvania: An Illustrated Manual.University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, PA. 2000.Still, Steven M. Manual of Herbaceous Ornamental Plants. Fourth Edition. Stipes PublishingCompany, Champaign, IL. 1994.Swearingen, J., K. Reshetiloff, B. Slattery, and S. Zwicker. 2002. Plant Invaders of Mid-AtlanticNatural Areas. National Park Service and U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, 82 pp.Thurnhorst, Gwendolyn A. Wetland Planting Guide for the Northeastern United States.Environmental Concern, Inc., St. Michaels, MD. 1993.Tiner, Ralph W. A Field Guide to Coastal Wetland Plants of the Northeastern United States.University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst, MA. 1987.Tiner, Ralph W. Field Guide to Nontidal Wetland Identification. Maryland Department of NaturalResources, Annapolis, MD and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Newton Corner, MA. 1988.Tyning, Thomas F. A Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles. Stokes Nature Guides. Little, Brown andCompany, Boston, MA. 1990.Water and Ecosystems Team. Roadside Use of Native Plants. Federal Highway Administration.Washington D.C. 1999.76
  • 79. Internet ReferencesAmerican Forests (www.americanforest.org/resources/bigtrees/register.php).Bowman’s Hill Wildflower Preserve (www.bhwp.org).Brooklyn Botanic Garden (www.bbg.org).Connecticut Botanical Society (www.ct-botanical-society.org).Harvard University Herbaria (www.huh.harvard.edu).Horticopia (www.horticopia.com).Horticopia Plant Information (www.hortpix.com).Kentucky Native Plant Society (www.knps.org).Missouri Botanical Garden (www.mobot.org).NatureServe (www.natureserve.org).Nearctica (www.nearctica.com/nathist/nathist.htm).Ohio State University (ohioline.osu.edu).Plant America (www.plantamerica.com).Plant File (www.plantfile.com).Plants For a Future (www.pfaf.org).Saw Mill River Audubon, Pruyn Sanctuary Butterfly and Hummingbird Garden 2001 Plant List(www.sawmillriveraudubon.org/downloads/GardenList.doc).South Carolina Forestry Commission (www.state.sc.us/forest/tidtsim.htm).Sustainable Urban Landscape Information Series (www.sustland.umn.edu).Toadshade (www.toadshade.com).USDA Silvics of North America (www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm) Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, tech. coords. Silvics of North America: 1.Conifers; 2. Hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654. U.S. Department of Agriculture, ForestService, Washington, DC. 1990.USDA, NRCS. 2001 The PLANTS Database, version 3.1 (plants.usda.gov/plants). National PlantData Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.University of Minnesota, Sustainable Urban Landscape Information Series(www.sustland.umn.edu).University of Wisconsin Botanical Garden (www.botany.wisc.edu/Garden).Washington State Department of Ecology(www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wq/plants/native/brasenia.html).The Xerces Society (www.xerces.org). 77
  • 80. CatalogsAdkins Arboretum. Fall 2001 Native Plant Sale: Plant Sale List. Ridgely, MD(www.adkinsarboretum.org).Bluemount Nuseries, Inc. Catalog 2001. Monkton, MD (www.bluemount.com).Carroll Gardens. America’s Selection of Rare and Unusual Plants 1997. Westminster, MD(www.carrollgardens.com).Environmental Concern. 2001 Nursery Catalog. St. Michaels, MD (www.wetland.org).Environmental Concern, Inc. 1996 Nursey Catalog. St. Michaels, MD. 1996 (www.wetland.org).Ernst Conservation Seeds. Wholesale Price List – Spring/Summer 2003. Meadville, PA(www.ersntseed.com).Ernst Conservation Seeds. Wholesale 2002 Catalog and Information Guide. Meadville, PA(www.ersntseed.com).Ernst Conservation Seeds. 1999 Information Guide. Meadville, PA (www.ersntseed.com).Lower Marlboro Nursery. Spring 1999. Dunkirk, MD (www.lowermarlboronursery.com).Maryland Natives Nursery, Inc. 2002 Catalog. Baltimore, MD(www.marylandnativesnursery.com).North Creek Nurseries, Inc. 2001 Wholesale Catalog. Landenberg, PA(www.northcreeknurseries.com).North Creek Nurseries, Inc. 1999 Wholesale Starters. Landenberg, PA(www.northcreeknurseries.com).Octoraro Native Plant Nursery. 2002 Wholesale Nursery Catalog. Kirkwood, PA(www.octoraro.com).Talmage Farm. Native Plants Naturally 2000 Wholesale Catalog. Riverhead, NY(www.talmagefarm.com).Virginia Natives. 2001 Catalog. Hume, VA. (www.vnps.org).Wild Earth Native Plant Nursery. 1999 Catalog. Freehold, NJ.78
  • 81. Index Celastrus scandens ...................................... 64 Geranium maculatum ................................... 24 Mitella diphylla .............................................. 29 Celtis occidentalis ......................................... 56 Gillenia trifoliata (see Porteranthus trifoliatus) Monarda bradburiana .................................. 29Latin name Cephalanthus occidentalis............................ 45 Goodyera pubescens ................................... 24 Monarda didyma ........................................... 29Acer negundo ............................................... 54 Cercis canadensis ........................................ 56 Hamamelis virginiana ................................... 46 Monarda fistulos (see M. bradburiana)Acer rubrum .................................................. 54 Chamaecrista fasciculata ............................ 21 Helenium autumnale..................................... 24 Monarda punctata......................................... 29Acer saccharinum ......................................... 54 Chamaecyparis thyoides .............................. 56 Helianthus angustifolius................................ 25 Morella caroliniensis .................................... 48Acer saccharum............................................ 54 Chamerion angustifolium Helianthus decapetalus ................................ 25 Morella cerifera ............................................. 48Acer spicatum ............................................... 54 spp angustifolium .................................... 21 Helianthus divaricatus .................................. 25 Morella pensylvanica ................................... 48Actaea pachypoda ........................................ 18 Chasmanthium latifolium .............................. 15 Heliopsis helianthoides ................................. 25 Morus rubra .................................................. 58Adiantum pedatum ........................................11 Chelone glabra ............................................. 21 Hepatica acutiloba Myrica (see Morella)Agalinis purpurea.......................................... 18 Chimaphila maculata .................................... 21 (see H. nobilis var. acuta) Nuphar lutea ................................................ 42Ageratina altissima v. altissima .................... 18 Chionanthus virginicus ................................. 56 Hepatica americana Nuttallanthus canadensis ............................ 29Agrostis perennans....................................... 14 Chrysogonum virginianum ............................ 21 (see H. nobilis var. obtusa Nymphaea odorata ....................................... 42Allium cernuum ............................................. 18 Chrysopsis mariana ...................................... 21 Hepatica nobilis var. acuta............................ 25 Nyssa sylvatica ............................................. 58Alnus serrulata.............................................. 45 Cimicifuga racemosa .................................... 21 Hepatica nobilis var. obtusa ......................... 25 Oenothera biennis ........................................ 29Amelanchier arborea .................................... 54 Claytonia virginica ........................................ 21 Heracleum maximum ................................... 25 Oenothera fruticosa ...................................... 30Amelanchier canadensis .............................. 54 Clematis viorna ............................................. 64 Heuchera americana .................................... 25 Oenothera perennis ...................................... 30Ammophila breviligulata ............................... 14 Clematis virginiana ....................................... 64 Heuchera villosa ........................................... 26 Onoclea sensibilis......................................... 12Andropogon gerardii ..................................... 14 Clethra alnifolia ............................................. 45 Hibiscus moscheutos ................................... 41 Opuntia humifusa ........................................ 30Andropogon glomeratus .............................. 14 Clitoria mariana ............................................ 22 Houstonia caerulea....................................... 26 Orontium aquaticum ..................................... 42Andropogon scoparius (see Schizachyrium) Comptonia peregrina .................................... 45 Hydrangea arborescens ............................... 46 Osmorhiza longistylis.................................... 30Andropogon virginicus .................................. 14 Conoclinium coelestinum ............................. 22 Hydrophyllum virginianum ............................ 26 Osmunda cinnamomea ................................ 12Anemone canadensis ................................... 18 Coreopsis tripteris......................................... 22 Hylotelephium telephioides .......................... 26 Osmunda claytoniana ................................... 12Anemone virginiana ...................................... 18 Coreopsis verticillata .................................... 22 Hypericum densiflorum ................................. 47 Osmunda regalis .......................................... 12Anemonella thalictroides (see Thalictrum Cornus alternifolia......................................... 56 Hystrix patula (see Elymus hystrix) Ostrya virginiana........................................... 58 thalictroides) Cornus amomum .......................................... 46 Ilex glabra ..................................................... 47 Oxalis violacea ............................................. 30Antennaria neglecta...................................... 18 Cornus florida ............................................... 56 Ilex laevigata................................................. 47 Packera aurea .............................................. 30Aquilegia canadensis.................................... 18 Cornus racemosa ......................................... 46 Ilex opaca ..................................................... 57 Panicum amarum ......................................... 16Aralia nudicaulis ........................................... 19 Corylus americana........................................ 46 Ilex verticillata ............................................... 47 Panicum virgatum ......................................... 16Aralia racemosa............................................ 19 Crataegus crus-galli...................................... 56 Impatiens capensis ...................................... 26 Parthenocissus quinquefolila ........................ 65Aralia spinosa ............................................... 45 Crataegus viridis ........................................... 57 Ionactis linariifolius ...................................... 26 Passiflora incarnata ...................................... 65Arisaema triphyllum ...................................... 19 Danthonia spicata ......................................... 15 Iris prismatica ............................................... 41 Peltandra virginica ........................................ 42Aristolochia durior (see A. macrophylla) Delphinium tricorne....................................... 22 Iris versicolor ................................................ 41 Penstemon digitalis ...................................... 30Aristolochia macrophylla .............................. 64 Dennstaedtia punctilobula .............................11 Iris virginica................................................... 41 Penstemon laevigatus .................................. 30Aronia (see Photinia) Dentaria laciniata (see Cardamine Itea virginica ................................................. 47 Phlox carolina ............................................... 31Aruncus dioicus ............................................ 19 concatenata) Iva frutescens ............................................... 47 Phlox divaricata ............................................ 31Asarum canadense....................................... 19 Desmodium paniculatum .............................. 22 Jeffersonia diphylla ....................................... 26 Phlox maculate ............................................. 31Asclepias incarnata ...................................... 19 Dicentra canadensis ..................................... 22 Juglans nigra ................................................ 57 Phlox paniculata ........................................... 31Asclepias syriaca .......................................... 19 Dicentra cucullaria ........................................ 22 Juncus canadensis ....................................... 41 Phlox stolonifera ........................................... 31Asclepias tuberosa ....................................... 19 Dicentra eximia ............................................. 23 Juncus effuses.............................................. 41 Phlox subulata .............................................. 31Asimina triloba .............................................. 54 Dichanthelium clandestinum......................... 15 Juncus roemerianus ..................................... 42 Photinia melanocarpa .................................. 48Asplenium platyneuron ..................................11 Dichanthelium commutatum ......................... 15 Juniperus virginiana...................................... 57 Photinia pyrifolia .......................................... 49Aster (see Doellingeria, Eurybia, Ionactis, Diospyros virginiana ..................................... 57 Justicia americana ........................................ 42 Physocarpus opulifolius ................................ 49 Symphyotrichum) Distichlis spicata ........................................... 41 Kalmia angustifolia ....................................... 47 Physostegia virginiana.................................. 31Athyrium filix-femina ......................................11 Dodecatheon meadia ................................... 23 Kalmia latifolia .............................................. 47 Pinus echinata .............................................. 59Baccharis halimifolia ..................................... 45 Doellingeria umbellata var. umbellata.......... 23 Kosteletzkya virginica ................................... 42 Pinus rigida ................................................... 59Baptisia australis .......................................... 20 Dryopteris carthusiana ..................................11 Leersia oryzoides ......................................... 16 Pinus serotina ............................................... 59Baptisia tinctoria ........................................... 20 Dryopteris cristata..........................................11 Lespedeza capitata ...................................... 26 Pinus strobes ................................................ 59Betula alleghaniensis.................................... 55 Dryopteris intermedia ....................................11 Leucothoe racemosa .................................... 48 Pinus taeda................................................... 59Betula lenta................................................... 55 Dryopteris marginalis .................................... 12 Liatris pilosa v. pilosa ................................... 27 Pinus virginiana ............................................ 59Betula nigra .................................................. 55 Dulichium arundinaceum .............................. 41 Liatris scariosa.............................................. 27 Platanus occidentalis .................................... 59Bidens cernua............................................... 20 Elymus canadensis....................................... 16 Liatris spicata................................................ 27 Podophyllum peltatum .................................. 31Bignonia capreolata ...................................... 64 Elymus hystrix .............................................. 16 Liatris squarrosa ........................................... 27 Polemonium reptans..................................... 32Boltonia asteroides ....................................... 20 Elymus riparius ............................................. 16 Lilium canadense.......................................... 27 Polygonatum biflorum ................................... 32Botrychium virginianum .................................11 Elymus virginicus .......................................... 16 Lilium philadelphicum ................................... 27 Polygonatum pubescens .............................. 32Calamagrostis canadensis ........................... 14 Epilobium angustifolium Lilium superbum ........................................... 27 Polystichum acrostichoides .......................... 12Callicarpa americana .................................... 45 (see Chamerion) Limonium carolinianum................................. 27 Pontederia cordata ....................................... 42Caltha palustris ............................................. 20 Erianthus giganteus (see Saccharum Linaria canadensis (see Nuttallanthus Populus deltoides ......................................... 59Campanula americana (see Campanulastrum giganteum) canadensis) Populus heterophylla .................................... 60 americanum) Erigeron pulchellus ....................................... 23 Lindera benzoin ............................................ 48 Porteranthus trifoliatus.................................. 32Campanulastrum americanum .................... 20 Erythronium americanum ............................. 23 Liquidambar styraciflua................................. 58 Prunus americana ........................................ 60Campsis radicans ......................................... 64 Eupatorium coelestinum Liriodendron tulipifera ................................... 58 Prunus maritima ........................................... 49Cardamine concatenata .............................. 20 (see Conoclinium coelestinum) Lobelia cardinalis .......................................... 28 Prunus pensylvanica .................................... 60Carex crinita var. crinita ................................ 14 Eupatorium dubium ...................................... 23 Lobelia siphilitica .......................................... 28 Prunus serotina ............................................ 60Carex glaucodea .......................................... 14 Eupatorium fistulosum .................................. 23 Lonicera sempervirens ................................. 64 Prunus virginiana .......................................... 60Carex lurida .................................................. 15 Eupatorium hyssopifolium ............................ 23 Lupinus perennis .......................................... 28 Pteridium aquilinum ...................................... 12Carex pensylvanica ...................................... 15 Eupatorium maculatum................................. 24 Lyonia ligustrina ............................................ 48 Pycnanthemum incanum .............................. 32Carex stricta ................................................. 15 Eupatorium perfoliatum ................................ 24 Lyonia mariana ............................................. 48 Pycnanthemum tenuifolium .......................... 32Carex vulpinoidea ......................................... 15 Eupatorium purpureum ................................. 24 Magnolia acuminata ..................................... 58 Pyrus americana (see Sorbus americana)Carpinus caroliniana ..................................... 55 Eupatorium rugosum Magnolia virginiana....................................... 58 Pyrus coronaria (see Malus coronaria)Carya alba ................................................... 55 (see Ageratina altissima v. altissima) Maianthemum canadense ............................ 28 Quercus alba ................................................ 60Carya cordiformis ......................................... 55 Eurybia divaricata ........................................ 24 Maianthemum racemosum Quercus bicolor ............................................ 60Carya glabra ................................................. 55 Fagus grandifolia .......................................... 57 ssp.racemosum ...................................... 28 Quercus coccinea ......................................... 60Carya ovata .................................................. 55 Festuca rubra ............................................... 16 Malus coronaria ........................................... 58 Quercus falcata ............................................ 61Cassia fasciculata (see Chamaecrista Fraxinus americana ...................................... 57 Medeola virginiana ....................................... 28 Quercus ilicifolia ........................................... 61 fasciculate) Fraxinus pennsylvanica ................................ 57 Melanthium virginicum .................................. 28 Quercus marilandica..................................... 61Cassia marilandica (see Senna) Gaultheria procumbens ................................ 46 Mertensia virginica........................................ 28 Quercus michauxii ....................................... 61Castanea pumila........................................... 56 Gaylussacia baccata .................................... 46 Mikania scandens ......................................... 64 Quercus montana (see Quercus michauxii andCaulophyllum thalictroides............................ 20 Gaylussacia frondosa ................................... 46 Mimulus ringens ........................................... 29 prinus)Ceanothus americanus................................. 45 Gentiana clausa............................................ 24 Mitchella repens ........................................... 29 Quercus muehlenbergii ................................ 61 79
  • 82. Quercus nigra ............................................... 61 Solidago nemoralis ....................................... 35 Viola striata ................................................... 40 blueberry,Quercus palustris.......................................... 61 Solidago odora ............................................. 36 Wisteria frutescens ....................................... 65 early lowbush .......................................... 52Quercus phellos............................................ 61 Solidago rugosa............................................ 36 Woodwardia areolata.................................... 13 highbush ................................................. 52Quercus prinus ............................................ 62 Solidago sempervirens ................................. 36 Woodwardia virginica ................................... 13 lowbush .................................................. 52Quercus rubra............................................... 62 Solidago speciosa ........................................ 36 Yucca filamentosa (flaccida) ......................... 40 bluestem,Quercus stellata............................................ 62 Sorbus americana ........................................ 62 Zizania aquatica ........................................... 44 big .......................................................... 14Quercus velutina........................................... 62 Sorghastrum nutans ..................................... 17 Zizia aurea .................................................... 40 bushy ...................................................... 14Rhexia virginica ............................................ 32 Sparganium americanum ............................. 43 little ......................................................... 17Rhododendron atlanticum ............................ 49 Spartina alterniflora ...................................... 43 Common Name bluet .............................................................. 26Rhododendron calendulaceum..................... 49 Spartina cynosuroides .................................. 44 boltonia, star ................................................ 20Rhododendron canescens............................ 49 Spartina patens ............................................ 44 Adam’s needle .............................................. 40 boneset, common ........................................ 24Rhododendron maximum ............................. 49 Spartina pectinata......................................... 44 alder, smooth ............................................... 45 Bowman’s root .............................................. 32Rhododendron periclymenoides ................... 49 Spiraea alba ................................................. 51 alumroot........................................................ 25 bulrush,Rhododendron prinophyllum ........................ 50 Spiraea alba v. latifolia ................................. 51 anemone, black ....................................................... 43Rhododendron viscosum .............................. 50 Spiraea latifolia round-leaved ........................................... 18 great ........................................................ 43Rhus aromatica ............................................ 50 (see Spirea alba v. latifolia) rue .......................................................... 37 woolgrass ................................................ 43Rhus copallina .............................................. 50 Spiraea tomentosa ....................................... 52 arrow arum ................................................... 42 bunchflower, Virginia .................................... 28Rhus glabra .................................................. 50 Spiranthes cernua ........................................ 36 arrowwood, bur-reed, American ...................................... 43Rhus hirta (typhina) ...................................... 50 Stachys tenuifolia (hispida) .......................... 36 maple-leaved ........................................... 52 butterfly pea, Maryland ................................. 22Ribes rotundifolium ....................................... 50 Staphylea trifolia ........................................... 52 southern ................................................. 53 butterflyweed ................................................ 19Rosa carolina................................................ 50 Stellaria pubera ............................................ 36 ash, buttonbush .................................................... 45Rosa palustris ............................................... 51 Symphyotrichum cordifolium ....................... 36 American mountain ................................ 62 cactus, prickly-pear, eastern ......................... 30Rubus allegheniensis ................................... 51 Symphyotrichum ericoides var. ericoides .... 37 green ...................................................... 57 Canada mayflower........................................ 28Rubus odoratus ............................................ 51 Symphyotrichum laeve var. laeve ................ 37 white ........................................................ 57 cardinal flower .............................................. 28Rudbeckia fulgida ......................................... 32 Symphyotrichum novae-angliae .................. 37 aster, cedar,Rudbeckia hirta............................................. 33 Symphyotrichum novi-belgii flat-top white ............................................ 23 Atlantic white ........................................... 56Rudbeckia laciniata ...................................... 33 var. novi-belgii ........................................ 37 golden .................................................... 21 eastern red ............................................. 57Rudbeckia triloba .......................................... 33 Symplocarpus foetidus ................................. 37 heart-leaved ........................................... 36 northern white ........................................ 63Ruellia caroliniensis ...................................... 33 Taxodium distichum ...................................... 63 heath ....................................................... 37 cherry,Sabatia angularis .......................................... 33 Thalictrum dioicum ....................................... 39 New England ........................................... 37 black ........................................................ 60Saccharum giganteum ................................. 17 Thalictrum pubescens ................................. 37 New York ................................................. 37 choke ...................................................... 60Sagittaria latifolia .......................................... 43 Thalictrum thalictroides ................................ 37 smooth blue ............................................ 37 pin .......................................................... 60Salix humilis.................................................. 51 Thelypteris noveboracensis .......................... 12 stiff-leaf .................................................... 26 chickweed, star ............................................ 36Salix nigra ..................................................... 62 Thelypteris palustris...................................... 13 white wood ............................................. 24 chinquapin ................................................... 56Salix sericea ................................................. 62 Thuja occidentalis ......................................... 63 autumn bentgrass ......................................... 14 chokeberry,Salvia lyrata .................................................. 33 Tiarella cordifolia .......................................... 38 azalea, black ........................................................ 48Sambucus canadensis (see Sambucus nigra Tilia americana ............................................. 63 dwarf ...................................................... 49 red .......................................................... 49 ssp. canadensis) Tradescantia virginiana ................................ 38 flame ...................................................... 49 climbing hempvine ........................................ 64Sambucus nigra ssp. canadensis ................. 51 Tridens flavus ............................................... 17 pinxterbloom ............................................ 49 clover, round-head bush ............................... 26Sambucus pubens (see Sambucus racemosa Trillium erectum ............................................ 38 rose ........................................................ 50 columbine, eastern ...................................... 18 v. racemosa) Trillium grandiflorum ..................................... 38 swamp .................................................... 50 coneflower,Sambucus racemosa v. racemosa .............. 51 Trillium sessile .............................................. 38 sweet ...................................................... 49 early ........................................................ 32Sanguinaria canadensis ............................... 33 Trillium undulatum ........................................ 38 basswood, American .................................... 63 tall ........................................................... 33Sassafras albidum ........................................ 62 Tripsacum dactyloides .................................. 17 bayberry, three-lobed .............................................. 33Saururus cernuus ......................................... 43 Tsuga canadensis ......................................... 63 northern ................................................... 48 cordgrass,Saxifraga pensylvanica................................. 33 Ulmus americana.......................................... 63 southern ................................................. 48 big ........................................................... 44Saxifraga virginiensis.................................... 34 Ulmus rubra .................................................. 63 beardtongue ................................................. 30 freshwater .............................................. 44Schizachyrium scoparium ............................ 17 Uvularia grandiflora ...................................... 38 smooth .................................................... 30 salt marsh ................................................ 43Schoenoplectus pungens v. pungens .......... 43 Uvularia perfoliata......................................... 38 beautyberry, American .................................. 45 coreopsis,Schoenoplectus validus ............................... 43 Uvularia sessilifolia ....................................... 39 beebalm ....................................................... 29 tall ............................................................ 22Scirpus atrovirens ......................................... 43 Vaccinium angustifolium ............................... 52 spotted .................................................... 29 threadleaf ............................................... 22Scirpus cyperinus ......................................... 43 Vaccinium corymbosum ................................ 52 beech, American ........................................... 57 cottonwood,Scirpus pungens (see Schoenoplectus Vaccinium macrocarpon ............................... 52 beggar-ticks, nodding ................................... 20 eastern ................................................... 59 pungens v. pungens) Vaccinium pallidum (vacillans) ...................... 52 bellflower, American ..................................... 20 swamp ..................................................... 60Scirpus validus Vaccinium stamineum ................................... 52 bellwort, cow parsnip .................................................. 25 (see Schoenoplectus validus) Veratrum viride ............................................. 39 large-flowered ......................................... 38 crabapple, sweet .......................................... 58Scutellaria integrifolia ................................... 34 Verbena hastata ........................................... 39 perfoliate ................................................. 38 cranberry ...................................................... 52Sedum telephoides (see Hylotelephium Verbesina alternifolia .................................... 39 bergamot, wild .............................................. 29 creeper, Virginia............................................ 65 telephoides) Vernonia noveboracensis ............................. 39 birch, crossvine ...................................................... 64Sedum ternatum ........................................... 34 Vernonia virginicum river ......................................................... 55 Culver’s root ................................................. 39Senecio aureus (see Packera aurea) (see Veronicastrum) sweet ...................................................... 55 cup plant ....................................................... 34Senna marilandica ....................................... 34 Veronicastrum virginicum ............................. 39 yellow ..................................................... 55 cutgrass, rice ................................................ 16Silene caroliniana ......................................... 34 Viburnum acerifolium .................................... 52 bittersweet, American ................................... 64 cypress, bald ............................................... 63Silene stellata ............................................... 34 Viburnum cassinoides (SeeViburnum nudum v. blackberry, Allegheny.................................... 51 dangleberry................................................... 46Silene virginica ............................................. 34 cassinoides) black-eyed Susan ......................................... 33 deerberry ...................................................... 52Silphium perfoliatum ..................................... 34 Viburnum dentatum ..................................... 53 bladdernut, American.................................... 52 deer-tongue .................................................. 15Sisyrinchium angustifolium .......................... 34 Viburnum nudum .......................................... 53 blazing star ................................................... 27 Devil’s walking stick ...................................... 45Sisyrinchium atlanticum ................................ 34 Viburnum nudum v. cassinoides .................. 53 eastern .................................................... 27 dogwood,Sisyrinchium graminoides (see Sisyrinchium Viburnum prunifolium.................................... 53 grass-leaf ............................................... 27 alternate-leaf ........................................... 56 angustifolium) Viburnum recognitum plains ...................................................... 27 flowering ................................................. 56Smilacina racemosa (see Maianthemum (see Viburnum dentatum) bleeding heart, wild....................................... 23 red-panicled ........................................... 46 racemosum ssp. racemosum) Viola conspersa ............................................ 39 bloodroot....................................................... 33 silky ......................................................... 46Smilax herbacea ........................................... 65 Viola cucullata .............................................. 39 bluebells, Virginia ......................................... 28 doll’s eyes ..................................................... 18Solidago altissima (see S. canadensis v. Viola hastate ................................................. 40 blue cohosh ................................................. 20 duck potato ................................................... 43 scabra) Viola papilionacea (see Viola sororia) blue flag, ....................................................... 41 dunegrass .................................................... 14Solidago caesia ............................................ 35 Viola pedata.................................................. 40 slender ................................................... 41 Dutchman’s breeches ................................... 22Solidago canadensis .................................... 35 Viola pennsylvanica Virginia ................................................... 41 dwarf larkspur ............................................... 22Solidago canadensis v. scabra .................... 35 (see Viola pubescens var. pubescens blue vervain ................................................. 39 elder,Solidago flexicaulis ....................................... 35 Viola pubescens var. pubescens .................. 40 box .......................................................... 54Solidago juncea ............................................ 35 Viola sororia ................................................. 40 marsh ...................................................... 4780
  • 83. elderberry, hickory, needlerush, black ......................................... 42 sedge, common .................................................. 51 bitternut ................................................... 55 New Jersey tea ............................................. 45 blue wood ................................................ 14 red ........................................................... 51 mockernut ............................................... 55 ninebark ........................................................ 49 broom ...................................................... 14elm, pignut ..................................................... 55 oak, fox .......................................................... 15 American ................................................ 63 shagbark ................................................ 55 bear ........................................................ 61 long hair ................................................. 14 slippery ................................................... 63 high-tide bush ............................................... 45 black, ...................................................... 62 Pennsylvania .......................................... 15false foxglove, purple.................................... 18 holly, blackjack ................................................ 61 sallow ..................................................... 15fern, American ................................................ 57 chestnut .................................................. 62 three-sided ............................................. 41 bracken ................................................... 12 inkberry ................................................... 47 Chinquapin ............................................. 61 tussock ................................................... 15 Christmas ................................................ 12 winterberry .............................................. 47 northern red ............................................ 62 senna, Maryland wild ................................... 34 cinnamon ................................................. 12 winterberry, smooth ................................. 47 pin ........................................................... 61 serviceberry, ................................................ 54 crested wood ...........................................11 honeysuckle, trumpet .................................. 64 post ......................................................... 62 downy ...................................................... 54 evergreen wood .......................................11 hornbeam, scarlet ..................................................... 60 shooting star ................................................. 23 hay-scented .............................................11 American ................................................. 55 southern red ............................................ 61 skullcap, rough ............................................. 34 interrupted .............................................. 12 eastern hop ............................................. 58 swamp chestnut ..................................... 61 skunk cabbage ............................................. 37 marginal shield ........................................ 12 huckleberry, black ......................................... 46 swamp white ........................................... 60 smooth carrion flower ................................... 65 marsh ..................................................... 13 hydrangea, wild ............................................ 46 water ...................................................... 61 snakeroot, netted chain ............................................. 13 hyssop-leaved thoroughwort ....................... 23 white ....................................................... 60 black, ...................................................... 21 New York ................................................ 12 Indian cucumber ........................................... 28 willow ....................................................... 61 white ....................................................... 18 northern lady ............................................11 Indiangrass ................................................... 17 oats, wild....................................................... 15 sneezeweed, yellow .................................... 24 northern maidenhair .................................11 indigo, obedient plant ............................................... 31 Solomon’s seal, ............................................ 32 rattlesnake ...............................................11 wild blue .................................................. 20 onion, nodding .............................................. 18 dwarf ...................................................... 32 royal ....................................................... 12 wild yellow ............................................... 20 panicgrass, variable...................................... 15 false ......................................................... 28 sensitive ................................................. 12 iris (see blue flag) partridge pea ................................................ 21 spatterdock ................................................... 42 sweet ....................................................... 45 ironweed, New York ...................................... 39 partridgeberry ............................................... 29 spicebush ..................................................... 48 toothed .....................................................11 Jack-in-the-pulpit .......................................... 19 passionflower................................................ 65 spiderwort, Virginia ....................................... 38 Virginia chain ........................................... 13 Jacob’s ladder .............................................. 32 paw-paw ....................................................... 54 spikenard ...................................................... 19fescue, red .................................................... 16 jewelweed ..................................................... 26 persimmon, common .................................... 57 spleenwort, ebony .........................................11fetterbush...................................................... 48 Joe-Pye weed, ............................................. 23 petunia, Carolina wild ................................... 33 spring beauty ................................................ 21field pussytoes .............................................. 18 green-stemmed ...................................... 24 phlox, squirrel corn .................................................. 22fire pink ......................................................... 34 spotted ................................................... 24 creeping ................................................. 31 St. John’s wort, dense .................................. 47fireweed ........................................................ 21 trumpet weed .......................................... 23 meadow ................................................... 31 stagger-bush................................................. 48foamflower ................................................... 38 ladies’ tresses, nodding ................................ 36 moss ........................................................ 31 starry campion .............................................. 34fringetree, white ............................................ 56 laurel, summer ................................................... 31 steeplebush .................................................. 52gentian, closed ............................................ 24 great ........................................................ 49 thick-leaved ............................................ 31 stonecrop,geranium, wild ............................................. 24 mountain ................................................. 47 woodland ................................................ 31 Allegheny ................................................ 26ginger, wild.................................................... 19 sheep ...................................................... 47 pickerelweed................................................. 42 mountain ................................................ 34goat’s-beard.................................................. 19 leather flower ................................................ 64 pine, sumac,golden club ................................................... 42 lily, loblolly ..................................................... 59 fragrant ................................................... 50golden ragwort .............................................. 30 Canada .................................................... 27 pitch ........................................................ 59 shining .................................................... 50golden-alexanders ........................................ 40 fragrant water .......................................... 42 pond ....................................................... 59 staghorn .................................................. 33goldenrod, straw ........................................................ 39 shortleaf ................................................. 59 sweet ....................................................... 50 bluestem ................................................. 35 trout ......................................................... 23 Virginia .................................................... 59 sundrops, ...................................................... 30 broad leaf ................................................ 35 Turk’s cap ................................................ 27 white ........................................................ 59 narrow-leaved ......................................... 30 Canada ................................................... 35 wood ....................................................... 27 pipevine ........................................................ 64 sunflower, early ....................................................... 35 lizard’s tail ..................................................... 43 plantain, oxeye ....................................................... 25 gray ......................................................... 35 lobelia, great blue ......................................... 28 downy rattlesnake ................................... 24 swamp .................................................... 25 seaside ................................................... 36 lupine ............................................................ 28 robin’s ..................................................... 23 ten-petaled .............................................. 25 showy ...................................................... 36 lyre-leaf sage ................................................ 33 plum, woodland ................................................. 25 sweet ...................................................... 36 magnolia, American wild .......................................... 60 sweet cicely .................................................. 30 tall ........................................................... 35 cucumber ............................................... 58 beach ...................................................... 49 sweet pepperbush ........................................ 45 wrinkle-leaf ............................................. 36 sweetbay ................................................. 58 plumegrass, giant ......................................... 17 switchgrass ................................................... 16gooseberry, Appalachian .............................. 50 male-berry .................................................... 48 poplar, tulip .................................................. 58 sycamore, American ..................................... 59grass, mallow, primrose, common evening .......................... 29 tassel-white................................................... 47 bitter or coastal panic .............................. 16 rose ......................................................... 41 raspberry, purple flowering ........................... 51 thimbleweed ................................................. 18 blue-eyed ................................................ 34 seashore ................................................ 42 redbud, eastern ............................................ 56 three-square, common ................................. 43 bottlebrush .............................................. 16 maple, redtop ........................................................... 17 tick-trefoil, panicled ...................................... 22 coastal blue-eyed .................................... 34 mountain ................................................. 54 reedgrass, bluejoint ...................................... 14 toadflax, blue ............................................... 29 gama ...................................................... 17 red .......................................................... 54 rice, wild........................................................ 44 toadshade ..................................................... 38 poverty ................................................... 15 silver ........................................................ 54 rose, toothwort ....................................................... 20 salt ........................................................... 41 sugar ....................................................... 54 pasture .................................................... 50 trillium,green-and-gold ............................................. 21 marigold, marsh ............................................ 20 swamp ..................................................... 51 painted .................................................... 38gum, Mayapple ...................................................... 31 rose pink ....................................................... 33 purple ...................................................... 38 black ....................................................... 58 meadow-beauty, Virginia .............................. 32 rush, white ........................................................ 38 sweet ....................................................... 58 meadow rue, Canada .................................................... 41 trumpet vine .................................................. 64hackberry, common ...................................... 56 early ........................................................ 37 soft .......................................................... 41 turtlehead, white ........................................... 21haw, black ..................................................... 53 tall ........................................................... 37 rye, twinleaf ......................................................... 26hawthorn, meadow-sweet, Canada wild ............................................ 16 violet, cockspur .................................................. 56 broad-leaved .......................................... 51 riverbank wild .......................................... 16 American dog .......................................... 39 green ....................................................... 57 narrow-leaved ........................................ 51 Virginia wild ............................................ 16 bird’s foot ................................................. 40hazelnut, American ...................................... 46 milkweed, salt meadow hay........................................... 44 common blue ........................................... 40hedge nettle .................................................. 36 common .................................................. 19 sarsaparilla, wild ........................................... 19 halberdleaf yellow .................................. 40hellebore, green false .................................. 39 swamp .................................................... 19 sassafras ...................................................... 62 marsh blue .............................................. 39hemlock, eastern .......................................... 63 mint, saxifrage, striped cream ......................................... 40hepatica, hoary mountain ....................................... 32 early ........................................................ 34 yellow ..................................................... 40 round-lobed ............................................. 25 narrow-leaved mountain ......................... 32 eastern swamp ........................................ 33 virgin’s bower................................................ 64 sharp-lobed ............................................ 25 mistflower ..................................................... 22 sea lavender ................................................. 27 walnut, black ................................................ 57heuchera, hairy ............................................. 26 miterwort, twoleaf ......................................... 29 waterleaf, Virginia ......................................... 26 monkeyflower .............................................. 29 wax myrtle .................................................... 48 mulberry, red................................................. 58 wild pink ........................................................ 34 81
  • 84. willow, American water ....................................... 42 black ....................................................... 62 prairie ..................................................... 51 silky ........................................................ 62wingstem, yellow ironweed ........................... 39wintergreen, .................................................. 46 striped ..................................................... 21wisteria, Atlantic ............................................ 65witch hazel .................................................... 46witherod, ....................................................... 53 naked ...................................................... 53wood sorrel, violet......................................... 3082
  • 85. U.S. Fish & Wildlife ServiceChesapeake Bay Field Office177 Admiral Cochrane Dr.Annapolis, MD 21401410/573 4500www.fws.gov/r5cbfoAdkins ArboretumP.O. Box 100Ridgely, MD 21660410/634 2847www.adkinsarboretum.orgBaltimore County Department ofEnvironmental Protection andResource Management401 Bosley Ave., Ste. 416Towson, MD 21204410/887 4488www.baltimorecountyonline.infoChesapeake Bay Trust60 West Street, Ste. 200-AAnnapolis, MD 21401410/974 2941www.chesapeakebaytrust.orgIrvine Nature Center8400 Greenspring AvenueStevenson, MD 21153410/484 2413www.explorenature.orgMaryland Native Plant SocietyP.O. Box 4877Silver Spring, MD 20914301/809 0139www.mdflora.orgmnps@toad.netNational Fish and WildlifeFoudation1120 Connecticut Ave. NW, Ste. 900Washington, DC 20036202/857 0166www.nfwf.orgThe Nature ConservancyMaryland/DC Chapter5410 Grosvenor Ln., Ste. 100Bethesda, MD 20814301/897 8570www.nature.orgUSDA NRCSCape May Plant Materials Center1536 Rt. 9 NorthCape May Court House, NJ 08210609/465 5901plant-materials.nrcs.usda.gov

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