د فيصل الناصر - Health attitude of school teachers
Health attitudes ofHealth attitudes ofschool teachersschool teachersFaisal Abdul Latif Alnasir FPC, FRCGP, MICGP, PhDProfessor of Family MedicineChair; Department of Family and Community MedicineCollege of Medicine and Medical SciencesArabian Gulf University, Bahrain
HHealth attitudes of school teachers areealth attitudes of school teachers areusually a reflection of their background ofusually a reflection of their background ofhealth knowledge and perceptions.health knowledge and perceptions.Their perception of health, attitudes andTheir perception of health, attitudes andpractices, and their knowledge ofpractices, and their knowledge ofcommon health problems could becommon health problems could beessential factors in optimizing their rolesessential factors in optimizing their rolesas health educators in society.as health educators in society.
School teachers are major source of informationSchool teachers are major source of informationfor the students.for the students.McGovern & Barry, 2000McGovern & Barry, 2000
In Australia, teachers and clergy are "gate-In Australia, teachers and clergy are "gate-keepers" who might serve as a first line ofkeepers" who might serve as a first line ofassistance for distressed young peopleassistance for distressed young peopleLeane & Shute, 1998Leane & Shute, 1998
Educational health packages could be developedEducational health packages could be developedwith collaboration between teachers who havewith collaboration between teachers who havean understanding of the principles of curriculuman understanding of the principles of curriculumdesign and health professionals who are fullydesign and health professionals who are fullyaware of health problemsaware of health problemsHenry et al, 1994Henry et al, 1994
Formal health education teaching inFormal health education teaching inschools is lackingschools is lackingSusan et al. 1996Susan et al. 1996
ObjectivesObjectivesTo assess school teachers healthTo assess school teachers healthattitudes, perceptions and awarenessattitudes, perceptions and awarenessabout the common health problems inabout the common health problems inBahrain.Bahrain.
Methods:Methods:49 schools were selected by a stratified random49 schools were selected by a stratified randomsampling (out of 152).sampling (out of 152).1140 teachers responded (out of 1284).1140 teachers responded (out of 1284).The study tool was a four-item questionnaireThe study tool was a four-item questionnairethat was pre-tested for content validity and forthat was pre-tested for content validity and forrepeatability.repeatability.
Information collected related to;Information collected related to;• The schoolThe school• The teachers demographic characteristicsThe teachers demographic characteristics• The teachers’ health (illness) experience andThe teachers’ health (illness) experience andhealth attitudeshealth attitudes• The teachers’ knowledge about the fiveThe teachers’ knowledge about the fivecommonest health problems (commonest health problems (sickle cellsickle cellanemia, bronchial asthma, diabetesanemia, bronchial asthma, diabetesmellitus, hypertension and smokingmellitus, hypertension and smoking).).Data were analyzed using the SPSS program version 11.5 and a p value of <0.05 wasData were analyzed using the SPSS program version 11.5 and a p value of <0.05 wasconsidered significantconsidered significant
ResultsResponse rate was 88.8%.Duration of occupation: one to 35 years(mean of 12.3).
Demographic characteristicsDemographic characteristics::Sex 40% Male 60% FemaleAge 20 to 58 years mean of 32.7Teaching School 45% Primary 25% intermediate 30% secondaryEducationGraduate 81% 70% Males 81% Females
Teachers experiences with illness:Teachers experiences with illness:Suffered from recentillnesses (6 months)16%Sick family members 28%More Female teachers (34%vs. 23%) (P<0.000)Previous admissions tohospital13%More female teachers (72%vs. 28%) (p<0.000)Suffering from a chronicillness31 % More male (18% vs. 15%)
Teachers’ knowledge:Teachers’ knowledge:ProblemNo. ofrespondersNo. ofquestionsRange MeanStandardDeviationSickle Cell1053(92.4%)10 0-10 4.88 1.98Smoking1067(93.6%)8 0-8 5.28 1.852Asthma1029(90.3%)10 0-10 5.16 2.185Hypertension969(85%)10 0-I0 3 1.899DiabetesMellitus1064(93.3%)10 0-10 5.34 2.133The knowledge was average in areas related to bronchial asthma, diabetes mellitusand smoking and poor in the field of sickle cell anemia and hypertension
Perceptions of healthPerceptions of healthPerceptions of their own health 82% satisfactory More males (92%vs.89%)Perceptions of health services in theKingdom77% satisfactoryMore males (80% vs.70%) (P<0.000)More married (77% vs.66%) (P<0.01)
Perceptions of healthPerceptions of healthTeachers with no recent illnesses perceived their generalTeachers with no recent illnesses perceived their generalhealth to be satisfactoryhealth to be satisfactory(p<0.001)(p<0.001)Teachers who had satisfactory views about their generalTeachers who had satisfactory views about their generalhealth usually had a better or more satisfactory view abouthealth usually had a better or more satisfactory view aboutthe general health services in the countrythe general health services in the country(p<0.001)(p<0.001)Teachers with longer duration of occupation had satisfactoryTeachers with longer duration of occupation had satisfactoryviews about the health services in the Kingdomviews about the health services in the Kingdom(p<0.01)(p<0.01)Teachers who suffered from chronic and recent illnesses hadTeachers who suffered from chronic and recent illnesses hadsatisfactory views about their general healthsatisfactory views about their general health(p<0.01)(p<0.01)
Significant relationshipsSignificant relationships::Chronic illness and having a family member sufferingChronic illness and having a family member sufferingfrom an illnessfrom an illness(61% vs. 39%) (P<0.001)(61% vs. 39%) (P<0.001)Teachers suffering from chronic illness admitted moreTeachers suffering from chronic illness admitted morefrequently to hospitals than teachers without chronicfrequently to hospitals than teachers without chronicillnessillness(97% vs. 11%) (P<0.01)(97% vs. 11%) (P<0.01)More teachers with a longer duration of occupationMore teachers with a longer duration of occupationsuffered from chronic illnesses than teachers withsuffered from chronic illnesses than teachers withshorter durations of occupationshorter durations of occupation(P<0.02)(P<0.02)Chronic illness and having adequate knowledge of;Chronic illness and having adequate knowledge of;-Hypertension-Hypertension-Diabetes Mellitus-Diabetes Mellitus(p<0.05)(p<0.05)(p<0.02)(p<0.02)Teachers with no ill family member had satisfactoryTeachers with no ill family member had satisfactoryviews about their general health more than teachersviews about their general health more than teacherswith ill family memberswith ill family members(93% vs. 84%) (P<0.001)(93% vs. 84%) (P<0.001)Teachers with recent illnesses were more likely to haveTeachers with recent illnesses were more likely to haveill family membersill family members(42% vs. 23%) (p<0.001)(42% vs. 23%) (p<0.001)55% of those who had been admitted to hospital55% of those who had been admitted to hospitalsuffered from a recent illnesssuffered from a recent illness(p<0.001)(p<0.001)
Conclusion:Conclusion:-Health experiences of teachers were limited-Health experiences of teachers were limited-The overall knowledge of school teachers was:-The overall knowledge of school teachers was:•Average for sickle cell anemia, asthma andAverage for sickle cell anemia, asthma andDiabetes MellitusDiabetes Mellitus•Poor in the area of hypertensionPoor in the area of hypertension•Adequate knowledge of the negative healthAdequate knowledge of the negative healtheffects of smokingeffects of smoking
limiting the chances of teachers being alimiting the chances of teachers being agoodgood health model for their pupils, andhealth model for their pupils, andpupils will not be able to acquire and adoptpupils will not be able to acquire and adoptproper health attitudes or even gain goodproper health attitudes or even gain goodhealth knowledge.health knowledge.
Teachers not having enough knowledge of theTeachers not having enough knowledge of thesigns of health-damaging problems such assigns of health-damaging problems such assmoking and alcohol use will have difficulty insmoking and alcohol use will have difficulty inrecognizing students with those habits orrecognizing students with those habits orproviding health education in such areas.providing health education in such areas.Students are less likely to smoke in schoolStudents are less likely to smoke in schoolwith higher levels of teachers disciplinewith higher levels of teachers disciplineNovak & Clayton ,Novak & Clayton ,20012001
Recommendations:Recommendations:School teachers need continuous pre- andSchool teachers need continuous pre- andin-service health training. Although theyin-service health training. Although theymay not be given the prime responsibility ofmay not be given the prime responsibility ofhealth education, certainly they shouldhealth education, certainly they shouldshare it.share it.The teaching institution must also provideThe teaching institution must also provideopportunities for the teachers to maintainopportunities for the teachers to maintainadequate health knowledge and an optimaladequate health knowledge and an optimalhealth attitude.health attitude.