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Energy

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Dramatic changes in the Energy Market.

Dramatic changes in the Energy Market.

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  • 1. By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    When and Where do you think lies the milestone when the ever more affordable alternative energy sources will be more affordable than the ever more expensive fossil fuels.
    Wake up to be advised that such a day was folded into history while you were seeking profit elsewhere.
    Energy Rescue
    Allah does not punish you for a crime you have not committed.
    Stop torturing yourself in the dark.
    Stop burning your money.
    Spending Energy is Fun.
    Spend it!
    1
  • 2. Energy
    sources and economics
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    2
  • 3. Seminar Objectives
    Appreciate current state of the energy market in Pakistan.
    Identifying responsibilities of the consumer.
    Pointing to more cost effective sources of energy in the market.
    Identify upcoming technologies and opportunities.
    Discuss various energy sources separately.
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    3
  • 4. By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    4
  • 5. Prevalent Pattern
    86.2% from Fossil Fuels that are only to get more and more expensive
    Electric supply (grid) offering an ever decreasing uptime
    $6.7billion of foreign exchange being lost in importing oil – each year
    Strategic dependency on imported fuel and shipping lanes
    The psychological impact of knowing one is damaging the environment for his/her children
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    5
  • 6. By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    Global Fossil Fuel Cost
    Increase in six years
    6
  • 7. By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    7
  • 8. By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    8
  • 9. Consequences
    Decreasing Demand Growth Rate!!!
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    9
  • 10. Action
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    10
  • 11. Reaction
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    11
  • 12. Invitation
    Mr. Bostan
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    12
  • 13. By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    13
  • 14. By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    No.
    Something Better.
    Much, Much Better.
    14
  • 15. By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    15
  • 16. By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    16
  • 17. Appreciating your requirement
    1W=8.766kWh/yr.
    Your electricity bill lets you know how much money you pay for how many kWhs.
    Your demand fluctuates, you can calculate your maximum possible demand by summing the power rating on all appliances.
    Before arranging for your electricity, you want to eliminate pointless wastages such as loose connections and magnet attracting wiring.
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    17
  • 18. Typical Diurnal Variation in a Household’s Consumption
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    18
  • 19. In the cooler localities...
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    19
  • 20. Annual Variation
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    20
  • 21. Energy Sources Discussed
    Prevalent sources
    Solar
    Wind
    Ocean Current
    Ocean Thermal
    Geo Thermal
    Mist
    Artificial Rain
    Reduced Boiling Point
    Nuclear Energy
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    21
  • 22. Solar Options
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    22
  • 23. By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    23
  • 24. Geographical Availability
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    24
  • 25. By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    25
  • 26. Assembly Types
    Solar Panels
    Electricity generation anywhere under the sun
    Sunlight Intensification
    Detour the cost of the panels, if there is room for the heliostat
    Most cost effective means of heating
    Hybrid Installations – typically harnessing wind AND solar energy
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    26
  • 27. By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    27
  • 28. Solar 101
    At the smallest level, you would rather buy solar cells rather than panels. This substantially reduces cost and gives you options such as making flexible panels: upon your clothes.
    Instead of crying about there being no sunlight at night, consider how comfortable life would be if your mobile phone recharged automatically. Appreciate limitations, yet search for applications.
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    28
  • 29. By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    29
  • 30. Solar 102
    Solar water heaters are already quite economically available in Pakistan and elsewhere. Don’t try to compete with the economies of scale of mass production – just buy the complete product!
    If your choice of electricity for your premises is solar.
    Double and triple check the geographical distribution of solar energy.
    Hire an engineer for the acrylic Fresnel lens and heliostat rather than bringing in truck loads of panels.
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    30
  • 31. If this lens has to get large, it also has to be an un-oriented wind turbine!
    Steam at pressure pretty good at cooking!
    Steam / with any dust – driving any turbine
    DC electricity
    Liquid water / solution (at pressure)
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    31
  • 32. Solar 103
    Larger installations should be hybrid – harnessing Solar AND Wind/Mist.
    Automate tasks such as filling your rooftop water tank to happen when the sun is at work.
    The high temperatures that you can achieve at the focus of the lens mean that you can set up a cottage industry – for example extracting oxidized aluminum from soil.
    This is a global revolution. Even if you can’t save yourself, someone else will!
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    32
  • 33. By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    33
  • 34. Solar 104
    Let’s assume you consume 2000kWhs (ie units) of electricity a month, and you install a 2400W solar electricity supply on your roof.
    In Karachi you will save an average of 596 kWhs (units) on your electricity bill.
    Your solar electricity supply cost you Rs.48,000/- (plus human resource)
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    34
  • 35. Solar 105
    You saved Rs. 7748/ a month in your electricity bill: 16.14%/month.
    Ask your bank what it would have given you on Rs. 48,000/-
    Should all consumers reduce their demand by 29.8% ‐ the country will have excess electricity and no load shedding.
    Excess supply will force prices down
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    35
  • 36. WIND Options
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    36
  • 37. By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    37
  • 38. Geographical Availability
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    38
  • 39. By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    39
  • 40. By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    40
  • 41. Recent Improvements
    More wind at higher altitudes, modern wind turbines are kites rather than towers.
    An Aziz Hussein in Township Lahore developed turbine blades optimized for all wind speeds.
    A funnel type structure around the turbine can adjust the wind speed across the blades to give a consistent generation.
    NEPRA has taken over the “risk factor” of the wind energy industry.
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    41
  • 42. By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    42
  • 43. Wind Speed Control
    Ability to increase and decrease the radius of the funnel kind structure means ability to increase / decrease wind speed across the turbine!
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    43
  • 44. Shape Changing
    Turbines
    From Aziz Hussein
    Township Lahore
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    44
  • 45. By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    45
  • 46. By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    46
  • 47. Kites
    KiteGen has begun selling around 20MW onto the Italian grid.
    Dozens of other teams elsewhere reaching for the energy from the sky.
    Electricity has become more affordable.
    Electricity has become relatively more affordable.
    This is the essence of this address: advise all sleeping beauties of this stud that is yawning in their vicinity.
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    47
  • 48. By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    48
  • 49. By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    49
  • 50. The American attempt
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    50
  • 51. Pakistani kites are exclusively being developed as missile silos and for other military applications
    As we have better energy sources
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    51
  • 52. Ocean Current
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    52
  • 53. Geographical Distribution
    Kites, only heavier, tapping continuous or tidal currents.
    Even more affordable than wind energy.
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    53
  • 54. Ocean Thermal
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    54
  • 55. By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    55
  • 56. By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    56
  • 57. Interesting Aspects
    Carnot cycle between ocean surface and ocean bed.
    Cycles secondary product – distilled water, cooling / air conditioning.
    Most aggressive air conditioning technology known. Cool largest coastal city, while generating both electricity AND fresh water.
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    57
  • 58. By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    58
  • 59. Temperature Difference between surface and Ocean bed
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    59
  • 60. Geo Thermal
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    60
  • 61. By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    61
  • 62. Aspects
    Requires water (fresh, dirty, brackish, or sea) as raw material.
    Carnot cycle between earth’s surface and underlying hot crust.
    By-product steam/hot water/distilled water.
    Very cost effective and environment friendly source of energy and fresh water.
    The default climate control tool when you want to warm up a locality.
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    62
  • 63. By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    Are You Ready
    For The Max?
    63
  • 64. By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    64
  • 65. mist
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    65
  • 66. By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    66
  • 67. Introduction
    Achieve temperature difference by spraying mist in air.
    Run a Carnot cycle between this temperature difference.
    Hybridize with wind energy.
    Use directly to cool / pre-cool.
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    67
  • 68. Low Pressure Region
    Fans
    Turbines
    Mist
    Dynamo
    Mist Energy Schematic
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    68
  • 69. By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    69
  • 70. Suggested Prototype (for Karachi)
    5gpm / 150 psi mist / average net 14.475kW
    Carnot efficiency and Karachi average weather conditions (from BBC weather) used for calculations.
    Minimum generation 3.89kW at midnight to 0600 hrs in August.
    Maximum generation 30.4kW at 1200 hrs to 1800 hrs in December.
    Cooling: a consistent 712kW, or a 203 ton AC.
    Consumes water: 316g/s.
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    70
  • 71. By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    71
  • 72. By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    72
  • 73. Remaining Specifications
    Radius 4.76m. Length 15m.
    Estimated cost, Rs. 300,000/- (~Rs. 20/W or Rs.0.32/kWh) plus human resource
    Doesn’t get better than this…
    Energy Consuming Air Conditioners (203 ton) cost way more.
    Compare with our grid’s distribution cost of Rs 0.50/kWh
    Taps Mist AND Wind Energy.
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    73
  • 74. / wind hybrid
    Mist / Solar
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    74
  • 75. Minimizing storage in a grid free small enterprise
    Mist Turbine peak production comes with an approximately π/2 phase lag as compared to Solar.
    Distributing your investment in Solar/Wind and Mist/Wind you should need only 6 hours of storage.
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    75
  • 76. By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    76
  • 77. By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    77
  • 78. Artificial Rain
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    78
  • 79. By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    79
  • 80. Recent Developments
    A certain industrial process produces reduced silica: as a waste product, with a grain structure that leaves it as good as a flare: only that this burned silicon then flies up to bring down clouds!
    Rain can be started but not stopped: threat of floods, use will remain limited to hilly areas where there is no drainage issue.
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    80
  • 81. Artificial Rain
    Technology not economically advisable in the absence of over head clouds or in the presence of strong winds.
    Considered the strongest climate control technology: drop the clouds every sunset and you will cool down your locality, drop them only at dawn and you will heat up your vicinity. The more cloud cover you have, the more you control your climate.
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    81
  • 82. Reduced Boiling Point
    As a means of tapping evaporation
    82
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
  • 83. Concept
    Reduce the pressure above water, it will boil at a much lower temperature.
    The water vapor introduced by the boiling can leave the system via a filter: that only allows monatomic molecules to pass through.
    83
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
  • 84. Instead of utilizing the low temperature of the water, we can have the vapor passing across turbines, giving mechanical energy.
    Valve to fill water and remove air
    The pressure above this water is greatly reduced. It boils at a much reduced temperature: often lower than the ambient temperature
    Monatomic tensile membranes to let out the vapor. Argon in air (10mbar) leaks in from here.
    84
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
  • 85. 85
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
  • 86. 86
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
  • 87. 87
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
  • 88. 88
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
  • 89. By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    89
  • 90. 90
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
  • 91. 91
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
  • 92. Best Solution (Electricity / Air Conditioning) for the Apartment.
    For the entire year, can provide electricity to an apartment that may not harness solar or wind energy: nor has the space for a Mist Turbine. 18 hrs of storage will however be required.
    Does not eliminate but does reduce air conditioning requirements: 34C down to 27C.
    Unlike Mist Energy, does not inflict any too low temperatures in the winters. This superiority could prove decisive.
    92
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
  • 93. Air conditioning
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    93
  • 94. Air Conditioning as an Energy Source!
    Ambient Temperature changes diurnally.
    Insulation means that our buildings tend to maintain the average inside them.
    This means that every day we may run a Carnot cycle between the air in the room and outside: while improving conditions in the room!
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    94
  • 95. By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    95
  • 96. Air Conditioning as an Energy Source!
    In the winter, we can run such a cycle in the day, generating a small amount of electricity, and heating up our cold dwelling.
    In the summer, we can run such a cycle every night, generating a small amount of electricity, and beating the heat in our rooms.
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    96
  • 97. Air Conditioning as an Energy Source!
    A little mist turbine in the area will solve the problem of some nights also being too hot.
    The amount of energy from such an installation is going to be small, yet hybridization with other energy sources always results in the most cost effective air conditioning AND lower cost for one’s electricity.
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    97
  • 98. Breeder reactors
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    98
  • 99. By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    99
  • 100. By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    100
  • 101. When the Sun is Not Enough
    Enormous growth potential of this family of technologies needs to be appreciated.
    We cannot afford to suffice on fission based detonation.
    We cannot afford to trust the government that failed in Thar with such a task.
    The private technocrat will have to come forward, develop: and then deploy the design and technology.
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    101
  • 102. GOVERNMENT
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    102
  • 103. Government Level Recommendations
    Ocean bed water to air condition coastal cities: fresh water and electricity as by products.
    Geo Thermal Power Stations in permafrost areas: melt the glaciers and permafrost.
    Mist and Rain also as climate control tools: electricity as by product.
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    103
  • 104. Government Level Recommendations
    Hydroelectric dams controlling the floods and cashing in on the increased rains.
    Kites for military, law enforcement, and communication.
    Waste to Energy plants.
    Breeder Reactors in cooler areas.
    When and if even more energy is required: raise more kites.
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    104
  • 105. business
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    105
  • 106. To the Investor
    Intensified sunlight is a distinct form of energy, like heat and electricity, that is often best used directly.
    Pakistan can best generate around 1.5-2TW of Mist/Wind Energy. Solar will determine the price of electricity in our foreseeable future: 160TW capacity.
    Do not miss out on the cooling from OTEC and Mist or the heating from Solar and GeoThermal.
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    106
  • 107. citizen
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    107
  • 108. To the Citizen
    Ambient heat and dirty / saline water are not things to complain about.
    No one not consuming solar energy is in any position to complain about load shedding or the economy.
    China is consuming ~360GW and the USA ~30TW: you are consuming around 20GW: have to consume >160TW, you have a lot of work to do: stop checking out the girls!
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    108
  • 109. Know thy Enemy
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    109
  • 110. Know thy Enemy
    Pakistan maintains the ability to sterilize India while taking sustainable damage (Prithvi I is India’s only in service strategic delivery vehicle).
    Pakistan also maintains the ability to sterilize the United States, while being sterilized in response.
    The ease with which a government employee may be tipped in Pakistan remains the enemies weapon of choice.
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    110
  • 111. By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    111
  • 112. By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    Know thy Enemy
    • NADRA and our Police serve their objective of sabotaging our design and development projects.
    • 113. PEC / HEC serve to misguide you as to who is literate and who is not.
    • 114. AEDB / KESC / WAPDA try to convince you that every possible effort is being made.
    • 115. Yes I did just challenge all these entities, what are they going to do?
    112
  • 116. By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    Short Course on Keeping Pakistan from its Energy
    • Identify habitual scientists
    • 117. Steal their CNICs
    • 118. Tip NADRA into simply not listening when they ask for a copy
    • 119. Tip the police into going deaf when they complain
    • 120. Tip any lawyers they hire
    • 121. Send infantry in civil clothes to break up any prototypes: and beat up whomever tried to make them
    • 122. You find anyone guilty of prototyping, focus on his source of income and his habitat
    113
  • 123. By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    Short Course on Energizing Pakistan
    • Go to one of the Jihad fronts: learn how to survive in the face of hostility
    • 124. Prefer working on technologies that you know the developed world will be little interested in
    • 125. The enemy will isolate you: use it to give time to your mission
    • 126. The enemy will sabotage your resources: make your project even more economical
    • 127. Hold on to your ego, nothing else
    • 128. Because…
    114
  • 129. By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    115
  • 130. It is only YOU that needs electricity / energy / Pakistan.
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    116
  • 131. By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    117
  • 132. Don’t Worry About Me
    I am
    PAKISTAN
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    118
  • 133. By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    119
  • 134. To the Citizen
    Appreciate how many jobs and business opportunities are to show up: choose your stride in time.
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    120
  • 135. Dr. Faisal Tajir
    Coming Seminars on:
    Water: sources and economics
    Climate Control
    Space: how & why
    Anti Strategic Delivery Vehicles
    Highest IQ Level of all SAARC and all OIC
    Ph.D. Electronic Engineering
    Ph.D. Mechanical Engineering
    In excess of 300 inventions
    +92-313-2088531
    ftajir@gmail.com
    By Mr. Bostan and Dr. Faisal Tajir
    121