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Self Sufficient Architecture

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Autonomous Architecture / Self Sufficient Architecture: …

Autonomous Architecture / Self Sufficient Architecture:

1. INTRODUCTION
2. CONCEPT OF SELF SUFFICIENT ARCHITECTURE
3. MODERN INNOVATION AND TECHNOLOGY USED
4. LITERATURE STUDY : EARTHSHIP BRIGHTON
5. LITERATURE STUDY : REFUGE DU GOÛTER
6. CHARACTERSITICS
7. ADVANTAGE AND DISADVANTAGE
8. CONCLUSION

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  • 1. SUBJECT : THESIS SEMINAR TOPIC : SELF SUFFICIENT ARCHITECTURE NAME : FAIRUZ ROLL NO : BARC/8008/10 SEMESTER VIII
  • 2. 1. INTRODUCTION 2. CONCEPT OF SELF SUFFICIENT ARCHITECTURE 3. MODERN INNOVATION AND TECHNOLOGY USED 4. LITERATURE STUDY : EARTHSHIP BRIGHTON 5. LITERATURE STUDY : REFUGE DU GOÛTER 6. CHARACTERSITICS 7. ADVANTAGE AND DISADVANTAGE 8. CONCLUSION SELF SUFFICIENT ARCHITECTURE : CONTENT
  • 3. DEFINITION :  Refers to study of design and construction of a building that can Operate Independently from infrastructural support services  Infrastructural Support Services includes electric power and gas grid, water systems, sewage treatment systems, storm drain, communication services etc  Also known as Autonomous Architecture OBJECTIVE OF SELF SUFFICIENT ARCHITECTURE:  To provide inhabitable space in certain area where Infrastructural Services Are Not Available  Create a sustainable & high quality living environment by making Use Of Locally Available Material.  Construct a 'House With No Bills'  Make use of Green Energy Technology to reduce environmental impacts  Reduce Dependence on fossil fuels and Lessens carbon dioxide emissions SELF SUFFICIENT ARCHITECTURE : INTRODUCTION
  • 4. SELF SUFFICIENT ARCHITECTURE : CONCEPT  Self Sufficient Architecture is referred to a Living Organism  Its Operates Independently without any infrastructure  Makes use of Locally Available Material And Resources found within an existing area  Living organism such as tree Interact And Interchange Resources within their environment  Functions Independently without any external source Living Organism : Tree Self Sufficient Architecture
  • 5. SELF SUFFICIENT ARCHITECTURE : CONCEPT Electricity Infrastructure Sewage Treatment System Water Supply System Gas Grid & Communication
  • 6. SELF SUFFICIENT ARCHITECTURE : CONCEPT Electricity Infrastructure Sewage Treatment System Water Supply System Gas Grid & Communication
  • 7. SELF SUFFICIENT ARCHITECTURE : TECHNIQUES ELECTRICITY :  Electricity is an expensive utility, the first step towards conservation is to design a house and lifestyle to reduce demand.  Electricity can be obtained by following techniques : 1. Solar Cell, Solar Roof and Solar Panels convert Solar Energy Directly Into Electricity by photovoltaic effect 2. Wind Turbines Or Wind Generator are used in those areas where wind is available. A wind turbine is a device that converts Kinetic Energy from the Wind Into Electrical Power. 3. Hydroelectricity is the term referring to Electricity generated by Hydropower - Production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water 4. During times of low demand, excess power can be Stored In Batteries for future use 1. Use Of Solar Cell & Solar Roof 2. Use Of Wind Power 3. Hydroelectricity
  • 8. SELF SUFFICIENT ARCHITECTURE : TECHNIQUES ELECTRICITY :  Many experts are still researching within the field to Produce Various Cells / Batteries which will Supply Electricity  Some of the Latest Batteries developed by experts are : 4. Regenerative Fuel cell 4. Experts are working to develop a “ Regenerative Fuel Cell / Reverse Fuel Cell ’’ A device that can Generate Hydrogen And Oxygen when power is available, and combine these efficiently when power is needed. 5. Earth batteries tap electric currents in the earth called Telluric Current. They can be installed anywhere in the ground. They provide only low voltages and current. 6. Microbial Fuel Cell is a device that allows generation of Electricity From Biomass In Anaerobic condition, bacteria placed next to electrode produce carbon dioxide, electrons, and hydrogen ions. These electrons are then transported to the electrode coated with the Bio Film Matrix, creating an anode generating current and creating electricity. 5. Earth Batteries 6. Microbial Fuel Cell
  • 9. SELF SUFFICIENT ARCHITECTURE : TECHNIQUES WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM :  Water is mainly used for cooking, drinking, washing and producing electricity  There are many methods available for collecting and conserving water. 1. In regions with Sufficient Rainfall, it is often more economical to design a building with Rain Water Harvesting System Rain water makes excellent soft wash water, but needs antibacterial treatment. If used for drinking, mineralization is necessary. 2. The classic solution with minimal life-style changes is Using A Well Or Locally Available Water Resource. 3. Solar Water stills are used in those areas where rain, piped, or well water is impractical, such as in Remote Homes It is a simple way of Distilling Water, using the heat of the Sun to drive evaporation from humid soil, and ambient air to cool a condenser film. 3. Solar Water Still1. Rain Water Harvesting System FILTER CAPTURE INFILITRATE 2. Use Of Water Resources
  • 10. SELF SUFFICIENT ARCHITECTURE : TECHNIQUES WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM :  Atmospheric Water Generators extract moisture from dry desert air and filter it to pure water  Water Vapor in the air is Condensed by cooling the air below its Dew Point 4. Reverse Osmosis 5. Atmospheric Water Generator  Reverse Osmosis can create unlimited amounts of pure water from polluted water, ocean water, sea water etc.  It is a water purification technology that uses a Semi Permeable Membrane when a external pressure is applied to overcome the Osmotic Pressure
  • 11. SELF SUFFICIENT ARCHITECTURE : TECHNIQUES SEWAGE TREATMENT SYSTEM :  The approaches below treat human excrement as a waste rather than a resource.  Sewage treatment system can be obtained by following techniques : 1. Micro Flush Toilets use the natural processes of Decomposition And Evaporation to recycle human waste into useful, odorless compost. The process is sanitary because Soil Bacteria Eat The Human Pathogens as well as most of the mass of the waste. 2. Waterless Urinals are dry urinals that Does Not Use Water for flushing but Uses Sealant Oil to seal the odor 3. Aquarium Flushing System consist beds of plants and aquaria, that Absorb Nutrients And Bacteria and convert grey water and sewage to clear water. This odor- and color-free reclaimed water can be used to flush toilets and water outside plants. 1. Micro Flush Toilet 2. Waterless Urinals 3. Aquarium Flushing System
  • 12. SELF SUFFICIENT ARCHITECTURE : TECHNIQUES SEWAGE TREATMENT SYSTEM : 4. Electric Incinerating Toilets Turn Excrement Into A Small Amount Of Ash. They are cool to the touch, have no water and no pipes, and require an air vent in a wall. They are used in remote areas where use of septic tanks is limited, usually to reduce nutrient loads in lakes. 5. NASA's Urine-To-Water distillation system. 6. Nasa's Bioreactor is an extremely advanced biological sewage system. It Can Turn Sewage Into Air And Water through microbial action. 4. Incinerating Toilet 5. Urine Water Distillation System
  • 13. SELF SUFFICIENT ARCHITECTURE : TECHNIQUES STORM DRAIN : Bio-Swale  Bio Swale/ Artificial swale refers to a Water Harvesting Ditch on contour  They are often designed to manage water Runoff, filter Pollutants, and increase rainwater Infiltration  Captures runoff by Spreading It Horizontally across the landscape, facilitating runoff infiltration into the soil  Trees and shrubs along the swale can provide Shade Which Decreases Water Evaporation.
  • 14. v SELF SUFFICIENT ARCHITECTURE : TECHNIQUES BUILDING MATERIALS :  Building material used in self sufficient building depends upon site to site  Some of the latest locally available building material used for construction are : 1. Bottle Wall is a wall made out of glass bottles and binding material. 1. Bottle Wall Construction 2. Tin Can Wall Construction 3. Tyre Wall Construction 3. Tyre Wall is a wall made out of earth filled tyre which is plastered once the stacking is done 2. Tin Can Wall is a wall constructed from tin cans, These cans are laid horizontally in a concrete matrix & then stacked vertically.
  • 15. SELF SUFFICIENT ARCHITECTURE : TECHNIQUES BUILDING MATERIALS : 4. Earth Bag Construction is a construction technique where buildings are constructed from Bag Full Of Earth 6. Turf House is a house where Turf is used against the building wall for external thermal mass Main reason to adopt this technology is to Reduce Heat Loss & Maintain A Steady Indoor Air Temperature. 5. Straw-Bale Construction is a building method that uses Bales Of Straw as structural elements or building insulation, or sometimes both. 4. Earth Bag Construction 5. Straw-Bale Construction 6. Turf House
  • 16. SELF SUFFICIENT ARCHITECTURE RESEARCH: EARTHSHIP BRIGHTON INTRODUCTION :  The Earthship Brighton was designed and built by the Low Carbon Trust  It was their first project aiming to create a Model Low Carbon House  It is a Self Sufficient Green Building located in Stanmer Park , England  Constructed using Waste And Recycled Materials Features :  Uses Passive Solar Principle to provide heat by a combination of Solar Gain, Thermal Mass & Super Insulation in the walls & ceiling.  Building is Orientated To Face South with lots of glazing to maximize the amount of solar gain. ( Angle of the front glass is 22°)  Receives maximum amount of sunlight During Winter Months but reflect away sunlight During Summer Months  Has Grey water Planters which are designed to Recycle Grey Water through a variety of natural processes, such as transpiration, evaporation, oxygenation and through the Rhizosphere
  • 17. SELF SUFFICIENT ARCHITECTURE RESEARCH: EARTHSHIP BRIGHTON SELF SUFFICIENT TECHNIQUES : Earthship Brighton uses energy that flows freely and abundantly from nature  CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE: Thick walls are made from rammed Car Tyres And Earth Behind the tyres and earth is the ‘Thermal Wrap’ It Separates The Mass from the earth which is sheltering the building  BUILDING MATERIAL : Uses a lot of Low Impact Materials such as reclaimed wood, stone etc Load Bearing Walls were made from rammed Car Tyres And Earth Non Load Bearing Walls were made from rammed Bottles & Cans  ELECTRICITY : Powered by Wind Turbines and Solar Panels  WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM : Earthship Brighton has No Mains Connection for water Water is obtained through Rain Water Harvesting System It can harvest around Fifty Thousand Liters (50m3) of water per year. Size Of The Storage Tanks used was much larger than the domestic tank  HEATING : The Thick Walls made of tyre & earth Acts As A Storage Heater & Solar Panels Are Used for heating
  • 18. SELF SUFFICIENT ARCHITECTURE RESEARCH : REFUGE DU GOÛTER INTRODUCTION :  Refuge Du Gouter is a French word which means “Taste Refuge”  It is a G+3 Self-Sufficient Shelter provided for climbers  Designed for the French Alpine Club by Thomas Buchi and Hervé Dessimoz from Group-H,  Located on one of the most popular routes of France used by climbers hoping to scale Mont Blanc  It Can Accommodate 120 People at 12,582 feet above sea level, thereby making it a Highest Building In France CONCEPT:  It is a “High Altitude Hotel’’ intended To Provide Food And Shelter to mountaineers, climbers and hikers  To Make Use Of Onsite Resources in order to achieve energy which is required to serve the building  To make use of Passive Solar And Active Solar Architecture Principles to achieve efficient heating and cooling  It took five years to plan and extra three years to build Refuge Du Gouter
  • 19. SELF SUFFICIENT ARCHITECTURE RESEARCH : REFUGE DU GOÛTER CROSSECTION ACCOMODATION ENTRANCE & KITCHEN RESTAURANT
  • 20. SELF SUFFICIENT ARCHITECTURE RESEARCH : REFUGE DU GOÛTER GROUND FLOOR PLAN PUBLIC AREA LOADING / UNLOADING KITCHEN FIRST FLOOR PLAN WASHROOM RESTAURANT PANTRY
  • 21. SELF SUFFICIENT ARCHITECTURE RESEARCH : REFUGE DU GOÛTER SECOND FLOOR THIRD FLOOR
  • 22. SELF SUFFICIENT ARCHITECTURE RESEARCH : REFUGE DU GOÛTER SELF SUFFICIENT TECHNIQUES : The Refuge du Goûter has certainly scaled the heights in terms of sustainability and design.  CONSTRUCTION : Naturally Fraught With Difficulties due to it extreme weather condition Construction could only take place between Spring And Autumn 100 construction workers were specially chosen  BUILDING MATERIAL : Built from locally sourced Pinewood It has Triple-glazed Windows and can resist winds of up to 300 Km/H  ELECTRICITY : Powered by Wind Turbines and 70 square meter of Solar Panels on its roof An Emergency Backup Generator that is fueled by rapeseed oil  WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM : Solar energy will also be used to Melt Snow Into Water This water is used for Cooking And Flushing Toilets. Consists of a tank which will Store 20,000 Liters Of Water Tank is Sufficient Enough for sixteen days if it does not snow..  HEATING : Solar Panels will generate heat to 120 mountain climbers
  • 23. For a building to fall under the category of “Self Sufficient Architecture”, the building should have following characteristics : SELF SUFFICIENT ARCHITECTURE : CHARACTERISITICS  It should Provide Shelter and Comfortable Living environment to the people  It should make use of Passive And Active Solar Architecture Principles to achieve efficient heating and cooling  Should have Access To Clean Water  Must have the ability to Generate And Store Electricity  Building should be designed in such a way it should be able to Dispose Its Waste By Itself  Should have Access To Communication Services such as internet , satellite TV etc  Should reduce its Dependence on fossil fuels and Lessens carbon dioxide emissions
  • 24. SELF SUFFICIENT ARCHITECTURE : ADVANTAGE & DISADVANTAGE ADVANTAGE DISADVANTAGE  Self Independent Does Not Rely On Impact Networks to serve the building  Are energy efficient in operation and thereby Reduces Environmental Impact  Makes Use Of Onsite Resources, thereby nothing on site gets wasted  They are Cost Effective since they make use of renewable energy and other renewable resources  Complete Independence is very hard or impossible to attain  Autonomous Shelter Lead To Sacrifices of one's lifestyle choice, personal behavior, and social expectations  Some people finds it easy to adjust while some finds it Inconvenient And Irritating  Must be Custom-built to suit the climate and location.  Non-standard construction, added expense, ongoing experimentation & maintenance leads to disadvantage of this design
  • 25. SELF SUFFICIENT ARCHITECTURE : CONCLUSION  Self Sufficient Architecture, for now is a Potential research field with plenty of implications in creating an eco friendly environment  Many experts are still researching within this field in order to achieve a perfectly Designed Self Sufficient Architecture.  Self sufficient architecture is not a concept merely introduced only To Satisfy The Basic Need Of People Living In Remote And Isolated Areas. It also Covers The Environmental Aspect of conserving energy by making use of advanced technology and onsite resources for a better living. Also led to the Development Of Self Sufficient City.