LIGHTING DESIGN OF PARKING LOTFAIRUZBARCH/8008/10
Parking Lot Lighting Design : A parking lot is also known as car lot It is a cleared area that is intendedfor parking vehicles.Purpose of lighting : Parking lot lighting is vital for trafficsafety It increases security for both propertyowners, parked vehicles and people. To reduce vandalism and theft. People feel more comfortable walkingthrough well-lit areas. To enable driver/pedestrian to detect anobject in the dark areas in the field ofview
Types Of Lamp Used In Parking Lot :I. Metal Halide : Light is produced by electric dischargethrough gaseous mercury. Consists of metal compound such ashalide added to the arc tube to improvecolor and luminous efficacy . Produce good quality white light. More efficient but life is shorterDrawbacks : color shift : The color of the lightproduced by each lamp varies slightly,which leads to a cluttered effect lumen depreciation, but not as extremeas mercury vapor lamp.
II. High Pressure Sodium: Developed in the early 1970s Provide amber color More energy efficient. No problem with color shift Last for long periods of time.Drawbacks : Lumen depreciation is a problem butnot as severe The lamps begin to "cycle," whichmeans they turn themselves off andcome back on a minute later.Types Of Lamp Used In Parking Lot :
III. Fluorescent Lamp: Is a gas discharge source that containsmercury vapor at low pressure, withsmall amount of inert gas at starting. More efficient and required lessmaintenance. Used in downtown areas and parkinglots. Good for any place requiring a lot oflight over a large area.Drawbacks : They become dimmer in cold weather. Expensive than other bulbs. The lighting given off can be harsherand less natural in appearanceTypes Of Lamp Used In Parking Lot :
Fixture Used In Parking Lot : Light pole is the most commonlighting fixture used in parking lot. Light poles are divided into 3 parts:Base, Pole and Luminaries Mounting Height : is measured fromthe finished grade or surface and itincludes the total height of theluminaries, pole, and any base or othersupporting structure required to mountthe light. Parking lot luminaries shall be mountedat heights no greater than 33-feet or10 meters above grade The diameter of the pole should be 2feet or 60 cm with cylindrical concretebase set at 8.0 ft. below and 2.5 ft.above grade.
Luminaries Used In Parking Lot :1. Cobra Head Luminaires : Most extensively used in the City. Consists of a horizontally mounted lamp, a reflector, and a lens Lamps of 250 watts or greater often are used in parking facilities These units can be mounted in single, twin, or quad The cobra head luminaries is also offered with a flat lens as well as a clearshallow lens to replace the refractor lens as shown in Figure Cobra head luminaries with flat lenses typically cause less glare
2. Arm Mount Luminaries : Consists of horizontally or vertically mounted lamp, a reflector, and a lens Smaller arm mount luminaries , low-wattage units (150 watts or less) can bemounted as low as 10 feet (3.0 meters) Larger units (250 watts or greater) are mounted at typical parking lot poleheights of 20 to 40 feet (6.1 to 12.2 meters). It has a short, horizontal mounting arm, and its luminaries can be arrangedin single, twin, or quad configurations. Vertical Light Lamp luminaries is usually available with a convex glasslens,Luminaries Used In Parking Lot :
3. Post - top Luminaries : Consists of horizontally or vertically mounted lamp, a reflector, and a lens Smaller arm mount luminaries , low-wattage units (150 watts or less) can bemounted as low as 10 feet (3.0 meters) Larger units (250 watts or greater) are mounted at typical parking lot poleheights of 20 to 40 feet (6.1 to 12.2 meters). Often used in single configuration since they are mounted on a yokeconfiguration at the top of a pole.Luminaries Used In Parking Lot :
The major steps of the design process areoutlined as follows:• Area Determination – To know howmuch amount of light is required for thatparticular area of parking lot.• Selection of Illumination Level –Determination is based upon theclassifications area of parking lot• System Characterization - Detailedcalculations using selected light sourcetypes and sizes and luminaries mountingheight and spacing locations areemployed in order to determine theaverage intensity of horizontalillumination.Design Process :
INTRODUCTION Roads are the arteries of the city. Road lighting should meet theneeds of pedestrians and vehiclenight-time activities. It shall be designed to1) control glare,2) minimize light trespass ontoadjacent properties,3) minimize direct upward lightemission,4) promote effective safety andsecurity,5) provide for safe operation of motorvehicles,6) and enhance safety for all modesof travel.
TYPES OF LAMPS USED: The main types used since the 1940s are :1) Incandescent :- the first and least efficient light sources.- was a popular option for street lighting until the1950s.2) Fluorescent:- gained popularity in the 1950s.- more efficient and required less maintenance.- primarily used in downtown areas and parking lots.- good for any place requiring a lot of light over a largearea.3) Low Pressure Sodium :- most efficient light source used in street lighting.- produce a monochromatic orange-yellow light whichare long and skinny.- Drawbacks :o everything around it looks either orange-yellow, blackor shades in between.o it uses more wattage ,as it ages, but the light outputfrom the lamp stays fairly constant over its life.
4) High Intensity Discharge:- require an external ballast to operate.- take 1 to 5 minutes to reach full brightness.- if there is a dip in electricity, these lamps will shutoff.- must cool sufficiently to restrike, which takes from 1to 10 minutes.- Three types :i) Mercury Vapor- cast a blue-green light but advances in technologyhave helped in casting white light..- This is done by coating the outer glass globe of thelamp with phosphors.- the fixtures were smaller, and lasted much longer.- The lamps could also operate in extreme cold.- Drawbacks :o Lumen depreciation : is a drop in light output of thelamp over time.
ii) Metal Halide- same as a mercury lamp, but with other metallicelements added.- good quality white light.- found in parking lots and inside commercial and industrialbuildings.- more efficient but life is shorter.- Drawbacks :o color shift : The color of the light produced by each lampvaries slightly, which leads to a cluttered effecto lumen depreciation, but not as extreme as MV.iii) High Pressure Sodium :- developed in the early 1970s- are more energy efficient.- give off an amber color- no problem with color shift, and last for long periods oftime.- Drawbacks :o Lumen depreciation is a problem but not as severe asthe depreciation seen with Mercury.o The lamps begin to "cycle," which means they turnthemselves off and come back on a minute later. Thisproblem has been addressed with the recent introductionof non-cycling HPS lamps.
Overview of the highest efficient lamps on themarket : LED (light emitting diode) : The inherent directionality of LEDemitters make them an ideal choice forroadway lighting. LED luminaires direct more light onsurfaces where it is most needed. smart controls and LEDs makesdimming easy, this allows for control ofthe light patterns on the ground and thenear total elimination of wasted light. The quality of the light produced andtheir long lifespan is another advantage. LED outdoor lighting also reducescosts, enhances public safety, minimizeslight pollution and makes public spacesfriendlier at night.LEDs LampsconsumptionStandardHPS LampsconsumptionLumenEfficiencyObtained48W 75W 3,30060W 125W 4,40080W 150W 6,600100W 175W 7,600125W 200W 9,400140W 250W 10,600180W 320W 13,800
TYPES OF LUMINARES USED1) COBRA HEADFIXTURE- attached to an armwhich is mounted tothe pole.- These fixtures are themost extensively usedin the City.2) CARRILLO STREETFIXTURE- It’s a historic fixture style3) DOME STYLEFIXTURE- incorporates opticalelements to direct lightdown and has a flat-glass lens thatminimizes glare.4) CHAPALA STREETFIXTURE- A historic style fixturethat exists on ChapalaStreet from MontecitoStreet to Victoria Street5) STATE STREETFIXTURE- A historic fixture style5) TEARDROP LIGHTFIXTURE- A fixture style that isprimarily used atintersections.- generally in thedowntown area.
DESIGN PROCESS :The major steps of the design process areoutlined as follows:• Existing Conditions - Determinationof roadway facility and land use areaclassifications.• Selection of Illumination Level -determined based upon the classificationsof roadway facility and area type.• System Characterization - Detailedcalculations using selected light sourcetypes and sizes and luminaries mountingheight and spacing locations areemployed in order to determine theaverage intensity of horizontal illumination.
LUMINARE POSITION FOR TYPICALJUNCTION AND ROUND ABOUTS1) T- JUNCTIONS :LEGENDS A,B,C AND D SHOWSTHE LUMINAIRE
LIGHTING DESIGN OF PARK &PLAYGROUNDSNEHA . ARVINDBARCH/8010/10
IntroductionGood lighting makes public places andpaths visible and inviting at night. Italso encourages their use and assistsin natural surveillance.Open spaces includesparks, recreational facilities andpicnic areas. It is not envisaged thatthat the entirety of a park would belit but rather discrete elements.Thelighting and extent of lighting ofthese facilities shall be determinedon an individual basis, based on theproposed use of the park orplayground.
Park-DESIGN GUIDELINES1. All exterior lighting shall have horizontal shields toreduce vertical light above the fixture.2. Lighting for the parks should be a maximum of0.25 foot-candles Due to geographic difficulties orareas that require higher lighting levels forsecurity, a maximum output of 0.5 foot-candles oflight at ground level at property line may beutilized, during the hours of darkness.3. All types of exterior doors shall be illuminatedduring the hours of darkness with a minimummaintained 1 foot-candle of light at ground level4. Recessed areas of buildings or fences, which arecapable of human concealment, shall beilluminated with a minimum maintained 0.25 foot-candles of light at ground level during the hours ofdarkness.5. Lighted bike and multi-use trails should beilluminated with a minimum maintained 0.25 foot-candles of light at ground level during the hours ofdarkness.
6. Walkways accessing buildings and parkingareas shall be illuminated with a minimummaintained 1 foot-candle and maximum 8foot-candles of light on the driving or walkingsurface during the hours of operation Afterhours illumination may be reduced 50%.Therefore, lighting of these areas shall bedesigned utilizing two circuits or more,alternating power to fixtures.7. Luminaires utilized shall have vandal resistantlight fixtures, if accessible, and be not lessthan 8 feet in height from ground level. Aluminaire not less than 42 inches may beutilized to illuminate a walkway if adjacentlandscaping is of a variety which does notmature higher than two feet, and it does notinterfere with the required light distributionfor a distance of sixteen (16) feet along thewalkway.8. The types of lamps and luminairs used aresame as those used in the lighting design ofroads.
PlaygroundsKey Terms1. Quantity of light required (illuminance)This is the amount of light (measured in lux)that is required for the sport to be played.The faster the sport and the smaller theplaying object, the higher the lighting levelrequired. Normally several different settingsor ‘switching modes’ are recommended sothat the lighting system can be usedefficiently at all levels, from ‘training mode’(non-televised) right through to‘internationalTV’ mode (televised).
2. Average maintained vertical illuminance(Ev)Vertical illuminanceThis is the quantity of light on a vertical planeand should be calculated for unrestrictedcamera positions.Camera illuminanceThis is the quantity of light that shines in thedirection of a fixed camera position.Calculations should be carried out usingthe actual angles perpendicular to thecamera positions.The side of a playerforms the reference for a televisioncamera.The camera illuminance shouldideally also be considered for the ball inflight, as this reading will differ from thecamera illuminance at ground level. Fordiving, the camera illuminance should beconsidered from the diving point to thesurface of the water. It may be importantto provideTV shots of the spectators.Thecontrast ratio between the participantsand the spectators should therefore beconsidered
3. Illuminance uniformityThere are two measurements that arenormally taken:Minimum/Average: This is the ratio ofthe lowest to the average level ofilluminance.Minimum/Maximum:This is the ratio ofthe minimum to the maximum levelof illuminance.An adequate level of uniformity isrequired to create balanced lightingconditions so that people’s eyes andthe television cameras do notcontinually have to adapt to adifferent light level.
4. Uniformity gradientAs a television camera pans over a match ortournament,the differences in illuminancelevels will affect the image quality. It istherefore not only the uniformity that needsto be considered, but also the gradient ofchange between the calculation points.TheUG is expressed as a ratio of the illuminanceat a single point to the 8 adjacent gridpoints.5. Colour renderingColour rendering is the ability of a light source toreproduce surface colours accurately. Acolour rendering index (Ra) is used todescribe the performance of a lamp.
6. Glare‘Glare’ is a controversial issue.There aremathematical formulae for calculating glare,but whether or not people will experience glarein a sporting situation is something that is verysubjective.Factors which influence glare Viewing angles. It is essential to considerwhich sports are going to be played and toanticipate what the key viewing angles will be.Luminaires should be arranged in such a wayas to take account of these viewing angles. Luminaire light control. If the luminaire hasthe facility to control the light produced by thelamp this can play a significant part indetermining the amount of glare.This is one ofthe reasons why it can be a false economysimply to opt for the cheapest lightingsolution. Maximum tilt angle of luminaire. The aimingangle of a luminaire must be limited to controlglare. The intensity of the source in relation to theinstallation height.This should be adapted tosuit the relevant situation.
7. Emergency (continuity) television lighting and hot restrikeA sports arena should ideally have a backup power source in case the principal powersupply fails. If high-intensity discharge lamps are to be used, the lightinginstallation should incorporate an ‘emergencyTV’ switching mode with ‘hotrestrike’ luminaires.A hot restrike system enables a high-intensity discharge lamp to be re-lit straight awayin the event of a temporary power failure, instead of having to wait for up to 15minutes before the lamp can restart.This is not only essential for television coverage, because the loss of images for up to 15minutes is unacceptable, but also for the participants and spectators because thelack of lighting will totally disrupt play.
Design process1. Project definitionThe short and long-term objectives for the sports arena should be clearly defined, takinginto account the potential use of the arena for other events.2. Lighting studyOnce the objectives have been defined, a lighting study needs to be carried out.Thelighting study will define the necessary quantities, types and positioning of theluminaires in order to achieve the set objectives.3. Questions for indoor and outdoor venuesa) What fixtures are there that might obstruct the output of light (e.g. structural beamsand stands)?b) At what height are the fixing positions?c) What sports will be played here?d) Is there an emergency (continuity) electrical supply?e) What other events will the sports venue be used for?f) What different electrical circuits are planned?g) What power supply is going to be installed?h) What natural light enters the arena and where does it fall at times when sports arebeing played?i) Will there beTV coverage?
4. Lamp selectionThe principal factors for lamp selection are: luminous output, lamp life, energyconsumption, colour rendering and colour temperature (appearance). It is importantto find the right balance between these factors in order to create a successful lightinginstallation.c) FluorescentAdvantages:• Low energy consumption• Long lamp life• Good colour rendering• Cool to the touchDisadvantages:• Not suitable if there is to beTVcoverage.• Bulky source, so difficult tocontrol and focus light.• Only possible if lighting ispositioned lower than 8-10 metres.• Only used for indoor venues.a) Sodium dischargeAdvantages:• Long lamp life• High efficacy (efficiency)• Cheap to replaceDisadvantages:• Low colour rendering so not suitable forTVcoverage.• Risk of poor focusing due to large size ofsource.b) Metal halide high-intensity dischargeAdvantages:• Suitable forTV coverage• Very good colour rendering• Excellent focusing possible due to small sizeof sourceDisadvantages:• Shorter lamp life• More expensive source
5. Luminaire selectionA preliminary decision must be made about the lighting design approach. Essentiallythere are two possible approaches:Direct lightingThis is the most common approach because the system is likely to be very efficient. Ifthere is to beTV coverage, this is the only option because adequate verticalilluminance is required.Indirect lightingIn some indoor installations, such as swimming pools, this can be a useful solutionbecause the users will not be able to see the light source. However, the approachrelies heavily on the reflective properties of the ceiling, the positioning and the lightoutput ratio of the luminaires chosen and the planned cleaning cycle.TV coverage isnot possible with this solution.Only luminaires for direct lighting can be used.6. Arrangement of luminairesThe luminaires should be arranged in a manner that is appropriate for the type of sportsto be played.The appropriate horizontal and vertical illuminance level (if there is tobe television coverage) needs to be determined in conjunction with the necessaryuniformity and glare control.For example, for football luminaires should not be positioned behind the goal area.When players are serving in tennis, they do not want luminaires at the far end of thecourt to be in their line of vision when they hit the ball.In larger, multi-purpose halls with fluorescent or discharge lighting it is usual to arrangethe lighting in rows between the courts, thus reducing the risk of glare in the players’field of vision.
7. InstallationIt is important that the luminaires areinstalled as indicated in the lightingstudy, and that sufficient space isallowed for the necessarymovement and for the luminaires tobe aimed in the correct direction.The aiming point could easily be atthe other end of the sportsarea.There must be access to theluminaires for commissioning andmaintenance/cleaning andsufficient space must be allowed toaccommodate the width of thebeam.Types of mounting :1. Headframe mounting2. Catwalk mounting